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Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Lionel Sebbag, Shin Ae Park, Philip H Kass, David J Maggs, Mayssa Attar, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab(™) osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). ANIMALS STUDIED: Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. PROCEDURES: Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Jianjun Gu, Jiajie Zhai, Guiqing Liao, Jiaqi Chen
PURPOSE: To describe the results of Boston keratoprosthesis implantation in a patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome following autologous submandibular gland transplantation. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: We report the case of a man diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Autologous submandibular gland transplantation was performed in the right eye in 2008 to ameliorate tear film deficiency. Due to the improvement in the microenvironment of the ocular surface, Boston keratoprosthesis implantation was performed in the right eye in 2011...
October 11, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
T G Coursey, F Bian, M Zaheer, S C Pflugfelder, E A Volpe, C S de Paiva
In both humans and animal models, the development of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and non-SS keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) increases with age. Here, we investigated the ocular surface and lacrimal gland (LG) phenotype of NOD.B10.H2(b) mice at 7-14, 45-50, and 96-100 weeks. Aged mice develop increased corneal permeability, CD4(+) T-cell infiltration, and conjunctival goblet cell loss. Aged mice have LG atrophy with increased lymphocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokine levels. An increase in the frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) was observed with age in the cervical lymph node (CLN), spleen, and LG...
October 5, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Simona Destefanis, Daniela Giretto, Maria Cristina Muscolo, Alessandro Di Cerbo, Gianandrea Guidetti, Sergio Canello, Angela Giovazzino, Sara Centenaro, Giuseppe Terrazzano
BACKGROUND: Canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (cKCS) is an inflammatory eye condition related to a deficiency in the tear aqueous fraction. Etiopathogenesis of such disease is substantially multifactorial, combining the individual genetic background with environmental factors that contribute to the process of immunological tolerance disruption and, as a consequence, to the emergence of autoimmunity disease. In this occurrence, it is of relevance the role of the physiological immune-dysregulation that results in immune-mediated processes at the basis of cKCS...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Sohail Akhter, Mohammed Anwar, Mohammad Ahsan Siddiqui, Iqbal Ahmad, Javed Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Aseem Bhatnagar, Farhan Jalees Ahmad
Topical ocular conditions such as cornea transplant rejection and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (so called dry eye disease) require therapeutic concentration of immunosuppressant onto the ocular surface for prolonged period. Based on this rational, we optimized cyclosporine A (Cy-A) loaded polymeric mucoadhesive nanoemulsion (Cy-A-mN) with higher Cy-A payload, improved ocular retention, corneal and conjunctival bioavailability. The concentrations of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant needed for the stable nanoemulsion were screened followed by phase behavior study of the formulations components by the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams...
August 28, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Parul Chawla Gupta, Jagat Ram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Cornea
Frédéric Chiambaretta, Serge Doan, Marc Labetoulle, Nicolas Rocher, Lamia El Fekih, Riadh Messaoud, Moncef Khairallah, Christophe Baudouin
PURPOSE: This study compared the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA)-trehalose, a new eyedrop containing trehalose (a natural bioprotectant) and HA, to an established formulation containing only HA. METHODS: This was a phase III, randomized, active-controlled, investigator-masked, multicenter study in France and Tunisia. In all, 105 adult patients (≥18 years) with moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED) received either HA-trehalose (n = 52) or HA (n = 53) 3-6 times per day for 84 days...
July 20, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Simona Di Pietro, Valentina Rita Francesca Bosco, Chiara Crinò, Francesco Francaviglia, Elisabetta Giudice
AIM: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination...
June 2016: Veterinary World
Eric C Ledbetter, Patrick L McDonough, Kay Kim
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, in vivo confocal microscopic, histopathologic, and microbiologic features of canine and feline cases of infectious crystalline keratopathy (ICK). ANIMALS STUDIED: Six dogs and two cats with naturally acquired ICK. PROCEDURES: Medical records of dogs and cats with a clinical diagnosis of ICK were reviewed. Signalment, medical history, clinical findings, and diagnostic evaluations were retrieved, including corneal cytology, histopathology, in vivo confocal microscopy, and microbiology results...
June 29, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Zahraa Al-Saedi, Allison Zimmerman, Rinda Devi Bachu, Surajit Dey, Zahoor Shah, Reginald Baugh, Sai H S Boddu
Dry eye disease (DED) is a tear film disorder resulting in hyperosmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. DED is also referred to as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and dry eye syndrome. DED represents a significant public health issue, particularly in older adults, and needs more research and attention. Despite the urgent need for safe and effective pharmacotherapies, there is currently only one approved medication, Restasis®, to tackle DED. In this review article, we present an overview of DED, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and risk factors of DED...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Luisa Thederan, Susanne Steinmetz, Sabine Kampmann, Anna-Maria Koob-Matthes, Franz Grehn, Thomas Klink
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons often have eye diseases causing either reversible or irreversible visual loss. The prevalence of such problems among retirement home residents is unknown. METHODS: 203 residents of retirement homes in and around Würzburg, Germany, were examined. Clinical histories were taken, including information on prior ophthalmological care, and ophthalmological examinations were performed, including visual acuity, slit-lamp examination of the anterior segment of the eye, fundoscopy (with optical coherence tomography), and measurement of the intraocular pressure...
May 6, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
T N Safonova, O V Gladkova, V I Boev
UNLABELLED: Laser confocal tomography of the cornea enables studying ultrathin sections of corneal layers, which provides additional reliable information on tissue changes in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). AIM: To assess the significance of laser confocal tomography of the cornea in the diagnosis and monitoring of KCS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 38 eyes of 30 patients with severe KCS. The patients were divided into two groups...
March 2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Xinyuan Zhang, Lin Zhao, Shijing Deng, Xuguang Sun, Ningli Wang
There has been substantial progress in our understanding of the ocular surface system/lacrimal function unit in the past 15 years. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly referred to as dry eye syndrome (DES), is the most frequently encountered condition and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been identified as one of the leading causes of DES. Poor glycemic control affects both the anterior and the posterior segments of the eye and increasing prevalence of diabetes-associated DES (DMDES) has been reported in recent years...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Thomas Lutz, Anette Lampert, Georg F Hoffmann, Markus Ries
BACKGROUND: Rare rheumatologic diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with high morbidity. As a whole group, rare rheumatologic diseases afflict millions of people demanding for effective therapies. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of the US Orphan Drug Act on the development of anti-rheumatic orphan drugs. METHODS: Analysis of the FDA database for orphan drug designations. RESULTS: In the last three decades, out of 77 orphan drug designations, 14 orphan drug approvals were granted by the FDA for the treatment of rare rheumatologic disorders, i...
2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Carmen LuminiŢa Mocanu, Sanda Jurja, Andreea Gabriela Deca, Florica Bîrjovanu, Andrei Olaru, Denissa Greta Popa, Alin Ştefan Ştefănescu-Dima, Maria Rodica Mănescu
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca represents a progressive deterioration of ocular surface produced by a deficient secretion of lachrymal film (quantitative disorder) or excessive tear evaporation (qualitative disorder). The cytological analysis of conjunctival impression in 42 patients with dry eye syndrome established a strong correlation between the clinical grade of severity of disease and the grade of squamous metaplasia, including goblet cell loss. The cellular anomalies were represented by modifications of keratinization, epithelial cells' anisocytosis, anisochromia, the nuclear condensation and the cytoplasmic vacuolization...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
X-J Liu, M Li, J-Z Su, Z Wang, Z Xie, G-Y Yu
Poor secretion of transplanted submandibular glands (SMGs) during the latent period may cause duct obstruction and affects the surgical outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and systemic side effects of carbachol on transplanted SMG secretion. Twenty-seven patients who underwent SMG transplantation for severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca were treated with subcutaneous injections of 0.2mg/2ml carbachol at 10 days, 1 month, and/or 3 months after surgery. The effect on secretion was evaluated by Schirmer test and technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) scintigraphy...
October 2016: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Terry G Coursey, Johanna Tukler Henriksson, Flavia L Barbosa, Cintia S de Paiva, Stephen C Pflugfelder
Goblet cells (GCs) are specialized secretory cells that produce mucins and a variety of other proteins. Significant conjunctival GC loss occurs in both experimental dry eye models and patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca due to the induction of interferon (IFN)-γ. With the use of a primary murine culture model, we found that GCs are highly sensitive to IFN-γ with significantly reduced proliferation and altered structure with low concentrations. GC cultures treated with IFN-γ have increased gene expression of Muc2 and Muc5AC but do not express these mucin glycoproteins...
June 2016: American Journal of Pathology
G Barsotti, T Vezzosi
A 6-year-old, intact, male English cocker spaniel was referred for treatment of chronic conjunctivitis and unilateral keratitis. The dog was diagnosed with bilateral immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treated with topical cyclosporine 0·2% ointment and sodium hyaluronate eye drops and improved considerably. After 2 months, pulmonic stenosis was diagnosed, and the dog commenced treatment with oral atenolol; the ophthalmological disease worsened dramatically within a few days. The ophthalmic signs rapidly improved after discontinuation of atenolol, and there was bilateral complete remission after 3 weeks...
July 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Andrew M Hoffman, Steven W Dow
Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports...
July 2016: Stem Cells
Didrika S van de Wouw, Ivanka J E van der Meulen, Johannes M J van Vliet, Ruth Lapid-Gortzak, Carla P Nieuwendaal, Thomas J T P van den Berg
PURPOSE: (1) To qualify complaints of quality of vision in patients with (severe) keratoconjunctivitis sicca by examining straylight values and (2) to check for an effect of scleral lens wear on straylight. METHODS: Straylight was measured in 16 patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca using the Oculus C-Quant. In 9 of these patients, scleral lenses were used, and straylight was measured with and without scleral lenses. Other tests included the Schirmer test, visual acuity, the van Bijsterveld score, and a straylight questionnaire...
June 2016: Cornea
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