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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099525/polyethylene-glycol-camouflaged-earthworm-hemoglobin
#1
Vivek P Jani, Alborz Jelvani, Selamawit Moges, Parimala Nacharaju, Camille Roche, David Dantsker, Andre Palmer, Joel M Friedman, Pedro Cabrales
Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Despite decades of research to develop hemoglobin (Hb) based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) as RBC substitutes, there are no products approved for clinical use. Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin (LtEc) is the large acellular O2 carrying protein complex found in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099042/sex-differences-in-associations-between-insulin-resistance-heart-rate-variability-and-arterial-stiffness-in-healthy-women-and-men-a-physiology-study
#2
Luke Anthony Rannelli, Jennifer M MacRae, Michelle C Mann, Sharanya Ramesh, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Doreen Rabi, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
Diabetes confers greater cardiovascular risk to women than to men. Whether insulin-resistance-mediated risk extends to the healthy population is unknown. Measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, glucose) were determined in 48 (56% female) healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by spectral power analysis and arterial stiffness was determined using noninvasive applanation tonometry. Both were measured at baseline and in response to angiotensin II infusion...
November 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079263/comparison-of-rates-of-nephrotoxicity-associated-with-vancomycin-in-combination-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-administered-as-an-extended-versus-standard-infusion
#3
Mariam Mousavi, Tanya Zapolskaya, Marco R Scipione, Eddie Louie, John Papadopoulos, Yanina Dubrovskaya
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite recent reports of relatively high rates (16-37%) of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients receiving the combination of intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) and vancomycin, data are limited evaluating the impact of PTZ infusion strategy on the occurrence of nephrotoxicity. The objective of this study was to compare the rates of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving vancomycin in combination with PTZ administered as an extended infusion (EI) versus a standard infusion (SI)...
January 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077047/extended-infusion-compared-to-standard-infusion-cefepime-as-empiric-treatment-of-febrile-neutropenia
#4
Rebekah H Wrenn, David Cluck, LeAnne Kennedy, Christopher Ohl, John C Williamson
Background Extended infusion (EI) dosing provides a longer time above the minimum inhibitory concentration, which is important for the clinical success of β-lactam antibiotics, especially for patients with impaired immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and clinical impact of administering cefepime by EI as treatment of febrile neutropenia. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study. All patients received cefepime 2 g IV every 8 h, with the first dose administered using a 30-min infusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070059/differences-in-cardiovascular-responses-to-alamandine-in-two-kidney-one-clip-hypertensive-and-normotensive-rats
#5
Ava Soltani Hekmat, Kazem Javanmardi, Amin Kouhpayeh, Ehsan Baharamali, Mojtaba Farjam
BACKGROUND: Alamandine is a newly discovered component of the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure. In this study, the effect of alamandine on cardiovascular parameters in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats and normotensive rats, and the possible roles of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the PD123319-sensitive receptors in mediating this effect was investigated.Methods and Results:The cardiovascular parameters were monitored for 10 min before the infusion of the drugs or saline, and for 30 min afterward...
January 7, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063683/diphasic-dyskinesias-during-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-lcig-infusion-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Meloni Mario, Solla Paolo, Mascia Mario Marcello, Marrosu Francesco, Cannas Antonino
OBJECTIVES: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion (LCIG) is indicated in patients with advanced levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD) for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Here we describe 4 PD patients who developed disabling diphasic dyskinesias after LCIG initiation. METHODS: The clinical data of 33 PD patients consecutively treated with LCIG therapy were obtained through direct clinical observation and detailed review of medical records...
December 31, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054645/characterization-of-a-model-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-in-vivo-elicited-by-continuous-infusion-of-endotoxin
#7
D Kiers, R M Koch, L Hamers, J Gerretsen, E J M Thijs, L van Ede, N P Riksen, M Kox, P Pickkers
Investigating the systemic inflammatory response in patients with critical illness such as sepsis, trauma and burns is complicated due to uncertainties about the onset, duration and severity of the insult. Therefore, in vivo models of inflammation are essential to study the pathophysiology and to evaluate immunomodulatory therapies. Intravenous bolus administration of endotoxin to healthy volunteers is a well-established model of a short-lived systemic inflammatory response, characterized by increased plasma cytokine levels, flu-like symptoms and fever...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018190/disruption-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-involving-astrocytes-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-for-males-and-females
#8
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008098/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-increases-cortisol-and-catecholamine-concentrations-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Gabriele Grimm, Michael Resl, Birgit B Heinisch, Martin Hülsmann, Anton Luger, Martin Clodi, Greisa Vila
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone released by the heart in response to volume load and exerts natriuretic properties. It is clinically used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, and investigated as a pharmacological agent in the therapy of heart failure. Here we investigate the changes in pituitary, adrenal and thyroid hormones in response to BNP administration in a randomized single-blinded cross-over study conducted in ten healthy men aged 21-29 years. Participants received in two study sessions a continuous intravenous infusion during four hours (once placebo and once three pmol/kg/min BNP) and remained in supine position throughout the study...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005739/minimally-invasive-strip-craniectomy-simplifies-anesthesia-practice-in-patients-with-isolated-sagittal-synostosis
#10
Daan P F van Nunen, Bart M Stubenitsky, Peter A Woerdeman, Kuo Sen Han, Corstiaan C Breugem, Aebele B Mink van der Molen, Jurgen C de Graaff
BACKGROUND: Traditional open corrective surgery for isolated sagittal synostosis entails significant blood loss, transfusion rates, morbidity, and a lengthy hospitalization. Minimally invasive strip craniectomy (MISC) was introduced to avoid the disadvantages of open techniques. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was, first, to compare the anesthesia practice in MISC and open extended strip craniectomy (OESC), and, second, to evaluate the incidence of perioperative complications in both surgical procedures...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004572/infusing-lubricant-onto-erasable-microstructured-surfaces-toward-guided-sliding-of-liquid-droplets
#11
Xia-Chao Chen, Ke-Feng Ren, Jing Wang, Wen-Xi Lei, Jian Ji
Introducing a lubricant layer onto surfaces has emerged as a novel strategy to address a wide range of interface-related challenges. Recent studies of lubricant-infused surfaces have extended beyond repelling liquids to manipulating the mobility of fluids. In this study, we report a design of slippery surfaces based on infusing lubricant onto a polyelectrolyte multilayer film whose surface microstructures can be erased rapidly under mild condition. Unlike other lubricant-infused surfaces, the liquid movements (e...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004057/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-extended-interval-prophylaxis-with-recombinant-factor-ix-fc-fusion-protein-rfixfc-in-subjects-with-haemophilia-b
#12
K John Pasi, Kathelijn Fischer, Margaret Ragni, Beatrice Nolan, David J Perry, Roshni Kulkarni, Margareth Ozelo, Johnny Mahlangu, Amy D Shapiro, Ross I Baker, Carolyn M Bennett, Christopher Barnes, Johannes Oldenburg, Tadashi Matsushita, Huixing Yuan, Alejandra Ramirez-Santiago, Glenn F Pierce, Geoffrey Allen, Baisong Mei
The safety, efficacy, and prolonged half-life of recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein (rFIXFc) were demonstrated in the Phase 3 B-LONG (adults/adolescents ≥12 years) and Kids B-LONG (children <12 years) studies of subjects with haemophilia B (≤2 IU/dl). Here, we report interim, long-term safety and efficacy data from B-YOND, the rFIXFc extension study. Eligible subjects who completed B-LONG or Kids B-LONG could enrol in B-YOND. There were four treatment groups: weekly prophylaxis (20-100 IU/kg every 7 days), individualised prophylaxis (100 IU/kg every 8-16 days), modified prophylaxis (further dosing personalisation to optimise prophylaxis), and episodic (on-demand) treatment...
December 22, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002688/ocrelizumab-versus-placebo-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Xavier Montalban, Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Giancarlo Comi, Jérôme de Seze, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Bernhard Hemmer, Fred Lublin, Kottil W Rammohan, Krzysztof Selmaj, Anthony Traboulsee, Annette Sauter, Donna Masterman, Paulo Fontoura, Shibeshih Belachew, Hideki Garren, Nicole Mairon, Peter Chin, Jerry S Wolinsky
Background An evolving understanding of the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis suggests that depleting B cells could be useful for treatment. We studied ocrelizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively depletes CD20-expressing B cells, in the primary progressive form of the disease. Methods In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 732 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in a 2:1 ratio to receive intravenous ocrelizumab (600 mg) or placebo every 24 weeks for at least 120 weeks and until a prespecified number of confirmed disability progression events had occurred...
19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002666/transient-supersaturation-supports-drug-absorption-from-lipid-based-formulations-for-short-periods-of-time-but-ongoing-solubilisation-is-required-for-longer-absorption-periods
#14
Matthew F Crum, Natalie L Trevaskis, Colin W Pouton, Christopher J H Porter
The current studies sought to explore the impact of drug supersaturation and precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBF), on in vivo absorption using a coupled in vitro digestion - in vivo perfusion absorption model. Fenofibrate absorption was evaluated from a number of LBFs with different solubilisation and supersaturation capacities, and conditions at the absorptive membrane manipulated by changing perfusion conditions, intestine segment lengths and by the conduct of experiments in the presence or absence of suspended/precipitated drug...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002433/a-therapeutic-uricase-with-reduced-immunogenicity-risk-and-improved-development-properties
#15
Andrew C Nyborg, Chris Ward, Anna Zacco, Benoy Chacko, Luba Grinberg, James C Geoghegan, Ryan Bean, Michaela Wendeler, Frank Bartnik, Ellen O'Connor, Flaviu Gruia, Vidyashankara Iyer, Hui Feng, Varnika Roy, Mark Berge, Jeffrey N Miner, David M Wilson, Dongmei Zhou, Simone Nicholson, Clynn Wilker, Chi Y Wu, Susan Wilson, Lutz Jermutus, Herren Wu, David A Owen, Jane Osbourn, Steven Coats, Manuel Baca
Humans and higher primates are unique in that they lack uricase, the enzyme capable of oxidizing uric acid. As a consequence of this enzyme deficiency, humans have high serum uric acid levels. In some people, uric acid levels rise above the solubility limit resulting in crystallization in joints, acute inflammation in response to those crystals causes severe pain; a condition known as gout. Treatment for severe gout includes injection of non-human uricase to reduce serum uric acid levels. Krystexxa® is a hyper-PEGylated pig-baboon chimeric uricase indicated for chronic refractory gout that induces an immunogenic response in 91% of treated patients, including infusion reactions (26%) and anaphylaxis (6...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998456/-temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-rgc-death-and-axon-degeneration-in-the-rat-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#16
Y W Wang, T Chen, J Ma, Y Zhong
Objective: To investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axon degeneration in the rat model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION). Methods: Experimental study. The model of rNAION was induced by directly illuminating the optic nerve head with laser, after intravenous infusion with the photosensitizing agent rose Bengal. Seventy-one SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1-week (n=14), 2-week (n=14), 4-week (n=15) , 8-week (n=16) model group and the normal control group (n=12)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966034/population-pharmacokinetics-of-meropenem-in-elderly-patients-dosing-simulations-based-on-renal-function
#17
Muhammad Usman, Otto R Frey, Georg Hempel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate different dosage regimens of meropenem in elderly patients in relation with renal function using a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model. METHODS: The data of 178 elderly patients treated with meropenem was collected from different sources. A popPK model was developed by using NONMEM® and the influence of different covariates on meropenem CL and V1 was observed. Monte Carlo dosing simulations were performed at steady state to observe the % T > MIC for targets of 40, 60 and 80% of dosage intervals at different levels of creatinine clearance (CLCR)...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951705/surfactant-and-aqueous-foam-driven-oil-extraction-from-micropatterned-surfaces
#18
Rémy Mensire, Jason S Wexler, Augustin Guibaud, Elise Lorenceau, Howard A Stone
Liquid-infused surfaces are rough or patterned surfaces in which a lubricating fluid, such as oil, is infused, which exhibits various original properties (omniphobicity, biofouling, drag reduction). An outer flow in a confined geometry can entrain the oil trapped between the pattern of the surfaces by shearing the oil-water interface and cause the loss of the omniphobic properties of the interface. Starting from the theoretical analysis of Wexler et al. (Shear-driven failure of liquid-infused surfaces. Phys...
December 13, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951554/the-birth-and-development-of-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis
#19
Jack W Moncrief
Peritoneal dialysis has a long and tortuous history. First done in animals in the late 1800s, it became clinically practical in the early 1960s. Peritoneal access was first achieved by intermittent abdominal puncture, and then through the development of a 'permanent access' when Silastic became available. The early design is appropriately named for Dr. Henry Tenckhoff. Successful peritoneal dialysis was performed intermittently with infusion of 2 liters of balanced fluid followed by a dwell time of 30-45 min, which in turn was followed by drainage and new infusion...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942737/prothrombin-complex-concentrates-an-alternative-to-fresh-frozen-plasma
#20
David R Burk, Jordan L Smith, Jason R Wild
Insufficiency fractures are a common cause of morbidity among geriatric patients worldwide. Improved outcomes are known to result from decreased delay to definitive operative fixation and mobilization. Use of warfarin is an important potential cause of delay. The ideal mode of warfarin reversal is currently unknown. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) offer rapid correction with small infusion volume, both of which are important for elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. The authors present 2 cases of insufficiency fractures occurring in geriatric patients receiving warfarin therapy reversed with a 3-factor PCC...
December 8, 2016: Orthopedics
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