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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156484/-perioperative-intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-children
#1
Robert Sümpelmann
The objective of this consensus-based S1 Guideline for perioperative fluid therapy in children is to maintain or re-establish the child's homeostasis. Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. For the intraoperative background infusion a physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1 - 2.5% glucose is recommended to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155436/enzyme-replacement-therapy-for-infantile-onset-pompe-disease
#2
REVIEW
Min Chen, Lingli Zhang, Shuyan Quan
BACKGROUND: Infantile-onset Pompe disease is a rare and progressive autosomal-recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Current treatment involves enzyme replacement therapy (with recombinant human alglucosidase alfa) and symptomatic therapies (e.g. to control secretions). Children who are cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM)-negative require immunomodulation prior to commencing enzyme replacement therapy.Enzyme replacement therapy was developed as the most promising therapeutic approach for Pompe disease; however, the evidence is lacking, especially regarding the optimal dose and dose frequency...
November 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146721/development-of-a-function-blocking-antibody-against-fibulin-3-as-targeted-reagent-for-glioblastoma
#3
Mohan Sobhana Nandhu, Prajna Behera, Vivek Bhaskaran, Sharon L Longo, Lina M Barrera-Arenas, Sadhak Sengupta, Diego J Rodriguez-Gil, E Antonio Chiocca, Mariano S Viapiano
PURPOSE: We sought a novel approach against glioblastomas (GBM) focused on targeting signaling molecules localized in the tumor extracellular matrix (ECM). We investigated fibulin-3, a glycoprotein that forms the ECM scaffold of GBMs and promotes tumor progression by driving Notch and NF-kB signaling. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used deletion constructs to identify a key signaling motif of fibulin-3. A monoclonal antibody (mAb428.2) was generated against this epitope and extensively validated for specific detection of human fibulin-3...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131413/the-effect-of-epitope-based-ligation-of-icam-1-on-survival-and-retransplantation-of-pig-islets-in-nonhuman-primates
#4
Jae-Il Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Yun-Jung Choi, Hi-Jung Park, Hye-Jin Park, Hae Joo Wi, Sunok Yoon, Jun-Seop Shin, Jin Kyun Park, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Eun Bong Lee, Hee Jung Kang, Eung Soo Hwang, Sang-Joon Kim, Chung-Gyu Park, Seong Hoe Park
BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to allogeneic transplantation. However, the wide immunologic barrier between pigs and primates limits the long-term survival of the graft. MD-3, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a particular epitope of human ICAM-1, can render T cells tolerant to a xenograft by arresting dendritic cell maturation. We report the long-term survival of adult wild-type pig islets and successful retransplantation in nonhuman primates using a protocol comprising induction with MD-3 mAb and maintenance with anti-CD154 mAb and sirolimus...
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106037/mesenchymal-stem-cells-seeded-on-a-human-amniotic-membrane-improve-liver-regeneration-and-mouse-survival-after-extended-hepatectomy
#5
Aure Despeyroux, Cédric Duret, Claire Gondeau, Esther Perez-Gracia, Lisa Chuttoo, Hugues de Boussac, Philippe Briolotti, Claire Bony, Danièle Noël, Christian Jorgensen, Dominique Larrey, Martine Daujat-Chavanieu, Astrid Herrero
Liver failure remains the leading cause of postoperative mortality after hepatectomy. The present study investigated the effect of treatment with allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on survival and liver regeneration 48h and 7 days after 80% hepatectomy in C57Bl/6 mice. To optimize their biodistribution, MSCs were grown on acellular human amniotic membranes (HAM) and applied as a patch on the remnant liver. This approach was compared with MSC infusion and HAM patch alone. Hepatectomized mice without any treatment were used as control group...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096037/evaluation-of-pharmacokinetic-models-for-perfusion-imaging-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-porcine-skeletal-muscle-using-low-molecular-weight-contrast-agents
#6
Stefan Hindel, Giorgos Papanastasiou, Peter Wust, Marc Maaß, Anika Söhner, Lutz Lüdemann
PURPOSE: Pharmacokinetic models for perfusion quantification with a low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA) in skeletal muscle using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were evaluated. METHODS: Tissue perfusion was measured in seven regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the total hind leg supplied by the femoral artery in seven female pigs. DCE-MRI was performed using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space sharing. The sequence was acquired twice, first after LMCA and then after blood pool contrast agent injection...
November 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095869/elimination-kinetics-of-ceftiofur-hydrochloride-in-milk-after-an-8-day-extended-intramammary-administration-in-healthy-and-infected-cows
#7
Rongwei Han, Songli Li, Jun Wang, Zhongna Yu, Jiaqi Wang, Nan Zheng
Ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) is occasionally used for the intramammary (IMM) treatment of mastitis. This extralabel manner could result in a drug-residue violation of the milk. The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of IMM CEF in lactating dairy cattle. The pharmacokinetic profile of CEF after repeated IMM administration in nine healthy cows and nine Staphylococcus aureus infected cows was investigated, alongside determining the MICs of Staph. aureus field strains. The MIC 90 value for CEF in Staph...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091209/determination-of-alternative-ceftolozane-tazobactam-dosing-regimens-for-patients-with-infections-due-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-with-mic-values-between-4-and-32%C3%A2-mg-l
#8
Senthil Natesan, Manjunath P Pai, Thomas P Lodise
Background: Optimization of the antibiotics for patients with infections due to MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA) often requires consideration of alternate dose and infusion times that can be influenced by renal function. Objectives: We sought to identify ceftolozane/tazobactam dosing schemes that optimized the probability of target attainment (PTA) against infections due to MDR-PA with ceftolozane/tazobactam MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L across different categories of renal function...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084192/transient-left-ventricular-dysfunction-due-to-coronary-spasm-after-spinal-anesthesia-with-bupivacaine-a-case-report
#9
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Marek Słomczyński, Karolina Horbacka, Jarosław Bartkowski, Bartosz Kalawski
Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic (LA) used for cutaneous infiltration, peripheral nerve blocks, epidural and spinal anesthesia. However, its application may result in cardiovascular complications such as: hypotension, bradycardia, cardiac arrest and toxic myocardial injury. The authors describe a 53-year-old male with a history of cigarette smoking, admitted for an elective inguinal hernia surgery. Before surgery, the patient received subarachnoid injection of bupivacaine (20 mg). After the operation, he developed transient hypotension...
October 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061006/-efficacy-of-extended-infusion-of-carbapenem-plus-sulbactam-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensive-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#10
X Wang, Y Hu, C L Que, H Zhang, J J Huang, J Cao, Z Jin, G F Wang, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of extended-infusion of carbapenem plus sulbactam for ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). Methods: Clinical data of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by XDRAB who were treated with extended-infusion carbapenem plus sulbactam or tigecycline-based therapy in Peking University First Hospital from January 2015 to December 2016 were collected and reviewed in this retrospective study. Twenty-one patients were treated with extended-infusion carbapenem plus sulbactam, and 20 other patients received tigecycline combined with other antibiotics...
October 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059028/introduction-of-a-dose-banding-system-for-parenteral-chemotherapy-on-a-haematology-oncology-day-ward
#11
Caoimhe E O'Leary, Aisling Collins, Martin C Henman, Fionnuala King
Introduction The increasing incidence of cancer and the finite capacity of hospital aseptic compounding units pose a serious challenge to the provision of cancer care. Chemotherapy dose-banding is a method of rationalising parenteral chemotherapy dosing and supply, whereby patient-individualised doses are rounded to predetermined banded doses. The banded doses may be outsourced as stock items which increases the supply capacity of the aseptic compounding unit. Methods Kotter's 8-step change management model was used to structure the implementation of dose-banding of 5-fluorouracil 46-h infusers on the haematology-oncology day ward in St...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053883/pharmacokinetics-of-inorganic-cobalt-and-a-vitamin-b12-supplement-in-the-thoroughbred-horse-differentiating-cobalt-abuse-from-supplementation
#12
L L Hillyer, Z Ridd, S Fenwick, P Hincks, S W Paine
BACKGROUND: Whilst cobalt is an essential micronutrient for vitamin B12 synthesis in the horse, at supra-physiological concentrations it has been shown to enhance performance in humans and rats and there is evidence that its administration in high doses to horses poses a welfare threat. Animal sport regulators currently control cobalt abuse via international race day thresholds, but since cobalt may be present in physiological concentrations this work was initiated to explore means of potentially adding to application of those thresholds...
October 20, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051801/current-and-emerging-factor-viii-replacement-products-for-hemophilia-a
#13
REVIEW
Lorraine A Cafuir, Christine L Kempton
Hemophilia A is a congenital X-linked bleeding disorder caused by coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Routine infusion of factor replacement products is the current standard of care; however, the development of alloantibodies against FVIII remains a challenge. The treatment of hemophilia has undergone major advances over the past century to improve safety, effectiveness, manufacturing, and convenience of factor products. Major recent advances in the treatment of hemophilia A include the emergence of extended half-life products, factor VIII orthologs, and gene therapy products...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046944/complement-functional-tests-for-monitoring-eculizumab-treatment-in-patients-with-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-an-update
#14
Gianluigi Ardissino, Francesca Tel, Martina Sgarbanti, Donata Cresseri, Antenore Giussani, Samantha Griffini, Elena Grovetto, Ilaria Possenti, Michela Perrone, Sara Testa, Fabio Paglialonga, Piergiorgio Messa, Massimo Cugno
BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) characterized by platelet consumption, hemolysis, and organ damage. Eculizumab (ECU), a humanized antibody that blocks complement activity, has been successfully used in aHUS, but the best treatment schedule is not yet clear. METHODS: Here, we report our experience with ECU maintenance treatment and the interval between subsequent doses being extended based on global classical complement pathway (CCP) activity aimed at <30% for maintaining aHUS into remission...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033555/treatment-adherence-in-hemophilia
#15
REVIEW
Courtney D Thornburg, Natalie A Duncan
Prophylactic clotting-factor regimens reduce the occurrence of bleeding episodes and maintain joint health in individuals with moderate and severe hemophilia. However, these outcomes are only achieved with adherence to prescribed prophylaxis regimens. There are several types of barriers to adherence related to key patient, condition, treatment, health-care system, and/or socioeconomic variables. Notably, health-care professionals may not prescribe prophylaxis if they perceive that a patient will be nonadherent...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030176/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-disposition-and-drug-drug-interactions-for-valproic-acid-and-divalproex
#16
Todd M Conner, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Manjunath P Pai, Hasan B Alam, Duxin Sun, Ronald C Reed, Tao Zhang
Valproic acid (VPA) is an older first-line antiepileptic drug with a complex pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, currently under investigation for several novel neurologic and non-neurologic indications. Our study objective was to design and validate a mechanistic model of VPA disposition in adults and children; and evaluate its predictive performance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study expands upon existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for VPA by incorporating UGT enzyme kinetics and an advanced dissolution, absorption, and metabolism (ADAM) model for extended-release (ER) formulation...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022203/modeling-the-dynamics-of-heterogeneity-of-solid-tumors-in-response-to-chemotherapy
#17
Heyrim Cho, Doron Levy
In this paper, we extend the model of the dynamics of drug resistance in a solid tumor that was introduced by Lorz et al. (Bull Math Biol 77:1-22, 2015). Similarly to the original, radially symmetric model, the quantities we follow depend on a phenotype variable that corresponds to the level of drug resistance. The original model is modified in three ways: (i) We consider a more general growth term that takes into account the sensitivity of resistance level to high drug dosage. (ii) We add a diffusion term in space for the cancer cells and adjust all diffusion terms (for the nutrients and for the drugs) so that the permeability of the resource and drug is limited by the cell concentration...
October 11, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019070/time-dependent-production-of-endothelium-related-biomarkers-is-affected-differently-in-hemorrhagic-and-septic-shocks
#18
Cenk Nuri Coskun, Suzan Emel Usanmaz, Vahide Savci, Emine Demirel-Yilmaz
Shock is associated with inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine time-dependent alteration of blood biomarkers related to endothelial function in hemorrhagic and septic shocks. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by bleeding the animals. A cecal ligation and incision model was used to induce septicemia. Resuscitation was carried out by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution. Resuscitation extended survival time in both shock groups. Blood pressure increased by resuscitation in the hemorrhagic shock but not in the septic shock...
October 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018078/novel-approaches-to-hemophilia-therapy-successes-and-challenges
#19
Valder R Arruda, Bhavya S Doshi, Benjamin J Samelson-Jones
New therapies for hemophilia A and hemophilia B will likely continue to change clinical practice. Ranging from extended half-life to non-factor products and gene therapy, these innovative approaches have the potential to enhance the standard of care by decreasing infusion frequency to increase compliance, promoting prophylaxis, offering alternatives to inhibitor patients, and easing route of administration. Each category has intrinsic challenges that may limit the broader application of these promising therapies...
October 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988067/the-effect-of-resuscitation-strategy-on-the-longitudinal-immuno-inflammatory-response-to-blunt-trauma
#20
Alexander Bonde, Ask Tybjærg Nordestgaard, Rasmus Kirial, Peter Svenningsen, Martin Sillesen
INTRODUCTION: Resuscitation strategies following blunt trauma have been linked to immuno-inflammatory complications leading to systemic inflammatory syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). The effect of resuscitation strategy on longitudinal inflammation marker trajectories is, however, unknown. We hypothesized that the effect of resuscitation strategy extends beyond the trauma-related coagulopathy, perhaps affecting the longitudinal immuno-inflammatory response to injury...
September 28, 2017: Injury
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