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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807922/are-standard-doses-of-piperacillin-in-piperacillin-tazobactam-regimens-adequate-for-the-management-of-febrile-neutropenia-answers-from-population-pharmacokinetic-modelling-and-monte-carlo-simulations
#1
Fekade Bruck Sime, Uwe Hahn, Morgyn S Warner, Ing Soo Tiong, Michael S Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Sandra L Peake, Jason A Roberts
Changes in the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in febrile neutropenic patients have been reported to result in sub-optimal exposures. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for piperacillin and perform dosing simulation to describe optimal dosing regimens for haematological malignancy patients with febrile neutropenia. Concentration-time data were obtained from previous prospective observational pharmacokinetic and interventional therapeutic drug monitoring studies. Non-parametric population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo dosing simulations were performed with Pmetrics® package for R...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805209/neuropeptide-s-induces-acute-anxiolysis-by-phospholipase-c-dependent-signaling-within-the-medial-amygdala
#2
Thomas Grund, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an important anxiolytic substance of the brain. However, the signaling pathways downstream of NPS receptor (NPSR) activation, underlying the behavioral effect of NPS, remain largely unknown. Here, we show that bilateral microinfusion of NPS (0.2 nmol/0.5 μl) into the medial amygdala (MeA) of male adult Wistar rats reduced anxiety-related behavior on both, the elevated plus-maze and the open field. Moreover, as shown in amygdala tissue micropunches intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1 nmol/5 μl) I) evoked phosphorylation and synthesis of CaMKIIɑ in relation to reference protein beta-tubulin representing Ca(2+) influx, and II) induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2...
August 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794968/successful-salvage-chemotherapy-and-allogeneic-transplantation-of-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patient-with-disseminated-fusarium-solani-infection
#3
Sheenu Sheela, Sawa Ito, Jeffrey R Strich, Maura Manion, Celina Montemayor-Garcia, Hao-Wei Wang, Karolyn A Oetjen, Kamile A West, Austin J Barrett, Mark Parta, Juan Gea-Banacloche, Steven M Holland, Christopher S Hourigan, Catherine Lai
Disseminated Fusarium infection is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often have an extended duration of neutropenia during intensive induction chemotherapy, consolidation chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). There is no consensus regarding management of invasive disseminated Fusarium infections in the setting of prolonged neutropenia (Tortorano et al., 2014) [1]. We report a case of disseminated Fusarium in a patient with relapsed AML who underwent successful chemotherapy and haplo-identical allogeneic SCT with administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte infusions...
2017: Leukemia Research Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768659/elucidating-the-role-of-leptin-in-systemic-inflammation-a-study-targeting-physiological-leptin-levels-in-rats-and-their-macrophages
#4
Elizabeth A Flatow, Evilin N Komegae, Monique T Fonseca, Camila F Brito, Florin M Musteata, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues, Alexandre A Steiner
To elucidate the role of leptin in acute systemic inflammation, we investigated how its infusion at low, physiologically relevant doses affects the responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats subjected to 24 h of food deprivation. Leptin was infused subcutaneously (0-20 μg/kg/h) or intracerebroventricularly (0-1 μg/kg/h). Using hypothermia and hypotension as biomarkers of systemic inflammation, we identified the phase extending from 90 to 240 min post-LPS as the most susceptible to modulation by leptin...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761575/chemical-stability-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-in-polyvinylchloride-bags-and-elastomeric-pumps
#5
Joseph Terracciano, Elizabeth G Rhee, Jacqueline Walsh
BACKGROUND: Elastomeric pumps are often used to administer intravenous antibiotics in the outpatient setting, but effective infusion requires that the drug remain stable in solution throughout the procedure. OBJECTIVE: To determine the chemical stability of ceftolozane/tazobactam when reconstituted and stored over an extended time in the AccuFlo (EMED Technologies, El Dorado Hills, California) and I-Flow Homepump Eclipse (Halyard, Alpharetta, Georgia) elastomeric pumps compared with the results of the label-supporting studies in polyvinylchloride (PVC) bags...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760897/tools-for-the-individualized-therapy-of-teicoplanin-for-neonates-and-children
#6
V Ramos-Martín, M N Neely, K Padmore, M Peak, M W Beresford, M A Turner, S Paulus, J López-Herce, W W Hope
The aim of the study was to develop a population PK model for teicoplanin across childhood age ranges to be used as Bayesian prior information in the constructed software for individualized therapy. We developed a non-parametric population model fitted to PK data from neonates, infants and older children. We then implemented it in the BestDose multiple-model Bayesian adaptive control algorithm to show its clinical utility. It was used to predict the required dosages to achieve teicoplanin optimal pre-dose targets (15 mg/L) from day 3 of therapy...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757508/in-vitro-synergistic-activities-of-cefazolin-and-nisin-a-against-mastitis-pathogens
#7
Kohei Kitazaki, Shoko Koga, Kohei Nagatoshi, Koichi Kuwano, Takeshi Zendo, Jiro Nakayama, Kenji Sonomoto, Hitoshi Ano, Hiromu Katamoto
First-generation cephalosporins such as cefazolin (CEZ) have been widely used for mastitis treatment in dairy cattle. However, the use of antibiotics results in the presence of antibiotic residues in milk, which is used for human consumption. Nisin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis, has been used as a broad-spectrum food preservative for over 50 years. Therefore, a combination of CEZ and nisin A might provide an extended activity spectrum against mastitis pathogens and reduce the antibiotic dose for mastitis treatment...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743820/the-effects-of-suramin-on-ca-2-activated-force-and-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-release-in-skinned-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-rat
#8
Dane W Williams, Dimitrie George Stephenson, Giuseppe S Posterino
Suramin has long been used in the treatment of various human diseases. Intravenous infusions of Suramin are commonly administered to patients over extended periods of time but there are a number of significant contraindications with peripheral muscle weakness being one of the most frequently reported. Previous work has shown that even after a single infusion (300 mg kg(-1)) Suramin remains in skeletal muscle in effective concentrations (11.6 μg mL(-1); 84 days) for prolonged periods. These observations provide a strong rationale for investigation of the specific effects of Suramin on skeletal muscle function...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725939/escalated-cocaine-binges-in-rats-enduring-effects-of-social-defeat-stress-or-intra-vta-crf
#9
Michael Z Leonard, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
RATIONALE: Exposure to intermittent social defeat stress elicits corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) release into the VTA and induces long-term modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine activity in rats. These adaptations are associated with an intense cocaine-taking phenotype, which is prevented by CRF receptor antagonists. OBJECTIVE: The present studies examine whether infusion of CRF into the VTA is sufficient to escalate cocaine-taking behavior, in the absence of social defeat experience...
July 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721670/extending-a-tandem-mass-spectral-library-to-include-ms-2-spectra-of-fragment-ions-produced-in-source-and-ms-n-spectra
#10
Xiaoyu Yang, Pedatsur Neta, Stephen E Stein
Tandem mass spectral library searching is finding increased use as an effective means of determining chemical identity in mass spectrometry-based omics studies. We previously reported on constructing a tandem mass spectral library that includes spectra for multiple precursor ions for each analyte. Here we report our method for expanding this library to include MS(2) spectra of fragment ions generated during the ionization process (in-source fragment ions) as well as MS(3) and MS(4) spectra. These can assist the chemical identification process...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#11
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709989/evaluating-biapenem-dosage-regimens-in-intensive-care-unit-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-using-monte-carlo-simulation
#12
Yongfu Hang, Yafang Chen, Ling Xue, Shusen Sun, Long Liu, Jie Gao, Cheng Xie, Xianfeng Zhang, Jianguo Zhu, Jun Jin, Liyan Miao
This study sought to both identify optimal dosage regimens and estimate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics characteristics of short-infusion (SI) versus extended-infusion (EI) for the use of biapenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in Chinese Intensive Care patients. A total of 85 strains of P. aeruginosa were collected, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of biapenem was measured by the serial two-fold agar dilution method. We designed four frequently used clinical regimens: biapenem 300mg I...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704084/the-impact-on-patients-of-a-nurse-led-clinical-service-in-gastroenterology
#13
Maria Tan, Shyam Menon, Doreen Black
Higher rates of chronic liver disease have resulted in a significant increase in the number of patients needing regular abdominal paracentesis for ascites. Waiting times for admission at the Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust had become longer and delays in intervention and treatment became inevitable. In 2014, the Trust developed a nurse-led abdominal paracentesis day-case service. A qualitative evaluation of the service was conducted using in-depth patient interviews and surveys to determine the impact of the service, including how the new nursing role affected the patient experience...
July 13, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699296/long-lasting-contribution-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-but-not-dorsal-lateral-striatum-to-sign-tracking
#14
Kurt M Fraser, Patricia H Janak
The attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues is dependent on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). These dopamine signals conform to traditional reward-prediction error signals and have been shown to diminish with time. Here we examined whether the diminishing dopamine signal in the NAcC has functional implications for the expression of sign-tracking, a Pavlovian conditioned response indicative of the attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues. Food-restricted male Sprague Dawley rats were trained in a Pavlovian paradigm in which an insertable lever predicted delivery of food reward in a nearby food cup...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677407/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-meropenem-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-patients-by-monte-carlo-simulation
#15
Lingti Kong, Yan Tang, Xiaohua Zhang, Guoyu Lu, Meiling Yu, Qingping Shi, Xiaofei Wu
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) is a frequent complication among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, there are currently no pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to guide meropenem dosing in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the PK/PD properties of meropenem in these patients and whether the usual dosing regimens of meropenem (2-hour infusion, 1 g, every 8 hours) was suitable. METHODS: A total of 11 patients with a diagnosis of ICH complicated with NP were selected in the emergency internal medicine and treated with a 1-g/2-hours extended infusion model...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657373/extended-infusion-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-optimizing-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
Nesrine A Rizk, Zeina A Kanafani, Hussam Z Tabaja, Souha S Kanj
Beta-lactams are at the cornerstone of therapy in critical care settings, but their clinical efficacy is challenged by the rise in bacterial resistance. Infections with multi-drug resistant organisms are frequent in intensive care units, posing significant therapeutic challenges. The problem is compounded by a dearth in the development of new antibiotics. In addition, critically-ill patients have unique physiologic characteristics that alter the drugs pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Areas covered: The prolonged infusion of antibiotics (extended infusion [EI] and continuous infusion [CI]) has been the focus of research in the last decade...
July 3, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645915/cebranopadol-blocks-the-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-conditioned-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#17
Giordano de Guglielmo, Alessandra Matzeu, Jenni Kononoff, Julia Mattioni, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Olivier George
Cebranopadol is a novel agonist of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptors with analgesic properties that is being evaluated in clinical Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials for the treatment of chronic and acute pain. Recent evidence indicates that the combination of opioid and NOP receptor agonism may be a new treatment strategy for cocaine addiction. We sought to extend these findings by examining the effects of cebranopadol on cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) and cocaine conditioned reinstatement in rats with extended access to cocaine...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643069/lessons-learned-from-a-phase-ii-clinical-trial-of-laparoscopic-hipec-for-gastric-cancer
#18
Brian Badgwell, Mariela Blum, Prajnan Das, Jeannelyn Estrella, Xuemei Wang, Keith Fournier, Richard Royal, Paul Mansfield, Jaffer Ajani
BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been found to have activity for select subgroups of patients with carcinomatosis from colon, ovarian, appendiceal, and recently, gastric origins. However, there is little data to support an aggressive surgical approach of cytoreduction (debulking) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion with chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with gastric cancer and positive cytology or carcinomatosis. The morbidity and mortality rates of cytoreduction and HIPEC, in combination with gastrectomy, are significant and the survival rates of this approach may not extend beyond that of treatment with systemic chemotherapy...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638789/multidisciplinary-approach-of-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#19
REVIEW
Giammaria Fiorentini, Donatella Sarti, Camillo Aliberti, Riccardo Carandina, Andrea Mambrini, Stefano Guadagni
Large bowel cancer is a worldwide public health challenge. More than one third of patients present an advanced stage of disease at diagnosis and the liver is the most common site of metastases. Selection criteria for early diagnosis, chemotherapy and surgery have been recently expanded. The definition of resectability remains unclear. The presence of metastases is the most significant prognostic factor. For this reason the surgical resection of hepatic metastases is the leading treatment. The most appropriate resection approach remains to be defined...
June 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638304/extended-infusion-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-children
#20
Chad A Knoderer, Lauren C Karmire, Katie L Andricopulos, Kristen R Nichols
OBJECTIVES: Extended-infusion piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) has been associated with positive clinical outcomes in adults, but similar data in children are lacking. The objective of this study was to describe efficacy outcomes with pediatric patients receiving extended-infusion TZP. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of children aged 1 month to 17 years who had documented Gram-negative infection and received extended-infusion TZP between April 2011 and March 2012...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
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