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Aminoglycoside

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454283/investigating-antibiotics-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-microbial-contaminants-in-groundwater-in-relation-to-the-proximity-of-urban-areas
#1
Edina Szekeres, Cecilia Maria Chiriac, Andreea Baricz, Tiberiu Szőke-Nagy, Ildiko Lung, Maria-Loredana Soran, Knut Rudi, Nicolae Dragos, Cristian Coman
Groundwater is an essential public and drinking water supply and its protection is a goal for global policies. Here, we investigated the presence and prevalence of antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and microbial contamination in groundwater environments at various distances from urban areas. Antibiotic concentrations ranged from below detection limit to 917 ng/L, being trimethoprim, macrolide, and sulfonamide the most abundant antibiotic classes. A total of eleven ARGs (aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B - MLSB, sulfonamide, and tetracycline), one antiseptic resistance gene, and two MGEs were detected by qPCR with relative abundances ranging from 6...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452341/betadine-and-breast-implants
#2
Mark L Jewell, William P Adams
In the fourth quarter of 2017, the US FDA reviewed and approved a request by one of the breast implant manufacturers for a change in the Directions for Use (DFU) that removed warnings regarding the use of Betadine (povidone-iodine [PI] 10% solution, 1% available iodine [Purdue Frederick Company, Stamford, CT], also available in generic formulations [Aplicare, Inc., Meriden, CT]). Previously, in 2000, there were concerns by the FDA that PI would degrade the silicone elastomer shell. This change in the DFU represents an important advance that will benefit patients through the permitted use of PI to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of implant surfaces...
February 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451850/determination-of-14-aminoglycosides-by-lc-ms-ms-using-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-solid-phase-extraction-for-clean-up
#3
Marie-Claude Savoy, Pei Mun Woo, Pauline Ulrich, Adrienne Tarres, Pascal Mottier, Aurélien Desmarchelier
A LC-MS/MS method for screening fourteen aminoglycosides in foodstuffs of animal origin is presented. Its scope includes raw materials and processed ingredients but also finished products composed of milk, meat, fish, egg or fat. Aminoglycosides are extracted in an acidic aqueous solution, which is first recovered after centrifugation, then diluted with a basic buffer and finally purified by molecularly imprinted polymer-solid phase extraction (MIP-SPE). Analytes are detected within 8 min by ion-pair reversed phase LC-MS/MS...
February 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449781/whole-genome-sequencing-of-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-isolated-from-humans-and-poultry-in-burkina-faso
#4
Assèta Kagambèga, Taru Lienemann, Jonathan G Frye, Nicolas Barro, Kaisa Haukka
Background: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Methods: Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449049/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-national-study-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#5
M Lagree, S Bontemps, R Dessein, F Angoulvant, F Madhi, A Martinot, R Cohen, F Dubos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical practices for ESBL-producing urinary tract infection (UTI) in France. METHODS: We performed an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study in 22 pediatric departments of university or secondary care hospitals. We collected data of the last five patients presenting with ESBL-producing UTI in 2012 and the physicians' therapeutic approach to two case vignettes of acute non-septic ESBL-producing pyelonephritis (7-month-old girl) and cystitis (30-month-old girl)...
February 12, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447384/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-with-combat-related-open-soft-tissue-injuries
#6
Bradley A Lloyd, Clinton K Murray, Faraz Shaikh, M Leigh Carson, Dana M Blyth, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy J Whitman, David R Tribble
Introduction: All Department of Defense (DoD) guidance documents recommend cefazolin or clindamycin as post-trauma antibiotic prophylaxis for open soft-tissue injuries. Although not advocated, some patients with open soft-tissue injuries also received expanded Gram-negative coverage (EGN) prophylaxis based on the judgment of front-line trauma providers. During the study period, revised guidelines in 2011/2012 re-emphasized recommendations for using cefazolin or clindamycin, and stewardship efforts in the DoD trauma community aimed to reduce the practice of adding EGN to guideline-recommended antibiotic prophylaxis...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#7
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442147/-urosepsis
#8
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
February 7, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441044/alanine-enhances-aminoglycosides-induced-ros-production-as-revealed-by-proteomic-analysis
#9
Jin-Zhou Ye, Yu-Bin Su, Xiang-Min Lin, Shi-Shi Lai, Wan-Xin Li, Farman Ali, Jun Zheng, Bo Peng
Metabolite-enabled killing of antibiotic-resistant pathogens by antibiotics is an attractive strategy to manage antibiotic resistance. Our previous study demonstrated that alanine or/and glucose increased the killing efficacy of kanamycin on antibiotic-resistant bacteria, whose action is through up-regulating TCA cycle, increasing proton motive force and enhancing antibiotic uptake. Despite the fact that alanine altered several metabolic pathways, other mechanisms could be potentially involved in alanine-mediated kanamycin killing of bacteria which remains to be explored...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440952/antibiotic-treatment-in-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-clinical-practice-versus-guidelines-results-from-two-university-hospitals
#10
Sorin Claudiu Man, Valentina Sas, Cristina Schnell, Camelia Florea, Adelina Ţuţu, Ariana Szilágyi, Sergiu Belenes, Amalia Hebriştean, Anca Bonaţ, Claudia Cladovan, Cornel Aldea
Background and aims: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a both common and serious childhood infection. Antibiotic treatment guidelines help to reduce inadequate antibiotics prescriptions. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinical Emergency Hospital for Children, 3rd Pediatric Clinic, Cluj-Napoca and Dr. Gavril Curteanu Clinical City Hospital, in Oradea. All patients discharged with a diagnosis of CAP between December 1, 2014 and February 28, 2015, were included in the study...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439741/antibiotic-mediated-changes-in-the-fecal-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-define-the-incidence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#11
Wenguang Xiong, Yulin Wang, Yongxue Sun, Liping Ma, Qinglin Zeng, Xiaotao Jiang, Andong Li, Zhenling Zeng, Tong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial agents have been widely used in animal farms to prevent and treat animal diseases and to promote growth. Antimicrobial agents may change the bacterial community and enhance the resistome in animal feces. We used metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the changes in bacterial community, variations in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and their bacterial hosts in the feces of broiler chickens over a full-treatment course of chlortetracycline at low and therapeutic dose levels...
February 13, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439722/tomatidine-and-analog-fc04-100-possess-bactericidal-activities-against-listeria-bacillus-and-staphylococcus-spp
#12
Isabelle Guay, Simon Boulanger, Charles Isabelle, Eric Brouillette, Félix Chagnon, Kamal Bouarab, Eric Marsault, François Malouin
BACKGROUND: Tomatidine (TO) is a plant steroidal alkaloid that possesses an antibacterial activity against the small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus. We report here the spectrum of activity of TO against other species of the Bacillales and the improved antibacterial activity of a chemically-modified TO derivative (FC04-100) against Listeria monocytogenes and antibiotic multi-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), two notoriously difficult-to-kill microorganisms. METHODS: Bacillus and Listeria SCVs were isolated using a gentamicin selection pressure...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438479/novel-tn916-like-elements-confer-aminoglycoside-macrolide-co-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-ssp-gallolyticus
#13
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434581/site-specific-recombination-at-xerc-d-sites-mediates-the-formation-and-resolution-of-plasmid-co-integrates-carrying-a-blaoxa-58-and-tnapha6-resistance-module-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
María M Cameranesi, Jorgelina Morán-Barrio, Adriana S Limansky, Guillermo D Repizo, Alejandro M Viale
Members of the genus Acinetobacter possess distinct plasmid types which provide effective platforms for the acquisition, evolution, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance structures. Many plasmid-borne resistance structures are bordered by short DNA sequences providing potential recognition sites for the host XerC and XerD site-specific tyrosine recombinases (XerC/D-like sites). However, whether these sites are active in recombination and how they assist the mobilization of associated resistance structures is still poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434404/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-phlorotannins-from-edible-brown-algae-eisenia-bicyclis-against-streptomycin-resistant-listeria-monocytogenes
#15
Hyo-Jung Kim, Chakradhar Dasagrandhi, Song-Hee Kim, Bo-Geum Kim, Sung-Hwan Eom, Young-Mog Kim
Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is an important food borne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. Further, LM is an etiological agent associated with life threatening conditions like meningitis and encephalitis. Biofilm forming and drug resistant LM may potentially become difficult to treat infections and hence effective controlling measures are required to prevent LM infections. In view of this, the present study evaluated an anti-listerial potential of edible brown seaweed, Eisenia bicyclis, by disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433693/pharmacocin%C3%A3-tique-et-pharmacodynamie-des-antibiotiques-est-ce-diff%C3%A3-rent-en-n%C3%A3-onatologie
#16
R Cohen, M Tauzin, S Béchet, L Caeymaex
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) data on antimicrobial agents enable physicians to optimize their use in clinical practice. Neonates exhibit a large inter-individual variability in antibiotic levels due to immaturity and maturational changes in the first weeks of life. This variability explains the large therapeutic margins needed to ensure an optimal efficacy of antibiotics. These pharmacokinetic characteristics have to be taken into account when treating neonatal sepsis, along with pharmacodynamics targets for each antibiotic and notably minimal inhibitory concentration for usual causes of neonatal bacterial infections (group B streptococcus and Escherichia coli)...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433688/synergism-of-prenylflavonoids-from-morus-alba-root-bark-against-clinical-mrsa-isolates
#17
Guo-Ying Zuo, Cui-Xian Yang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a thorny problem in current anti-infective therapeutics and a challenge of new drug development. Plant prenylflavonoids possess anti-MRSA activity, but few of the prenylflavonoids have been reported the synergistic anti-MRSA effect when they are used in combination with conventional antibacterial agents. PURPOSE: This study deals with anti-MRSA activity of four prenylflavonoids from the root bark of Morus alba and their synergism with 11 conventional antibacterial agents...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432745/potential-testicular-toxicity-of-gentamicin-in-adult-rats
#18
Hamdy A A Aly, Memy H Hassan
Gentamycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic commonly used against Gram-negative bacteria. This study was designed to investigate the testicular toxicity of gentamicin in adult rats. Gentamicin was given to rats at 0, 60, 80 or 100 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days. The absolute weight of testes reduced significantly in relation to the dose, while gentamicin at a dose of 60 mg/kg did not show any significant change in the relative testes weight. Sperm count and motility and daily sperm production decreased in a dose-related manner...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429416/microbiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-otitis-externa-a-changing-pattern-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
E Heward, M Cullen, J Hobson
OBJECTIVE: Otitis externa is a common presentation to secondary care otolaryngology clinics. Despite this, few studies have investigated the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of otitis externa. This study aimed to examine these issues. METHODS: Analysis identified 302 swabs taken from 217 patients (100 male, 117 female), between 1 January 2015 and 30 March 2016, at our rapid access otolaryngology clinic. RESULTS: In total, 315 organisms were isolated; the most frequent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429295/-etiological-and-drug-sensitivity-analysis-of-lacrimal-canaliculitis
#20
Y Zhang, S J Deng, Z Q Wang, J W Ding, X G Sun
Objective: To analyze the etiology and drug sensitivity of lacrimal canaliculitis. Methods: Retrospective study of case series. The general information, culture results and drug sensitivity results of 52 patients (including 10 males and 42 females with an average age of 60.3 years) clinically diagnosed with lacrimal canaliculitis during 2011 and 2016 at Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University have been analyzed. The enumeration data have been tested with Chi-square method. Results: The positive rate of bacterial culture was 78...
February 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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