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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723468/trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-in-urologic-practice
#1
REVIEW
Hala Kandil, Emma Cramp, Tejal Vaghela
CONTEXT: The significant global upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, particularly among Enterobacteriaceae, represents a serious threat to health care systems. The implications for urologic practice are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To review trends in antibiotic resistance in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We report current European trends of resistance in Gram-negative uropathogens. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In addition to β-lactam resistance, Gram-negative pathogens are often resistant to multiple drug classes, including aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems, commonly used to treat urologic infections...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718238/bacteriology-of-diabetic-foot-in-tertiary-care-hospital-frequency-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-risk-factors
#2
Syeda Sadia Amjad, Jamal Zafar, Nadia Shams
BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#3
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717172/evolution-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutational-resistome-in-an-international-cystic-fibrosis-clone
#4
Carla López-Causapé, Lea Mette Sommer, Gabriel Cabot, Rosa Rubio, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Helle Krogh Johansen, Joan Figuerola, Rafael Cantón, Timothy J Kidd, Soeren Molin, Antonio Oliver
Emergence of epidemic clones and antibiotic resistance development compromises the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic respiratory infections. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the phylogeny, interpatient dissemination, WGS mutator genotypes (mutome) and resistome of a widespread clone (CC274), in isolates from two highly-distant countries, Australia and Spain, covering an 18-year period. The coexistence of two divergent CC274 clonal lineages was revealed, but without evident geographical barrier; phylogenetic reconstructions and mutational resistome demonstrated the interpatient transmission of mutators...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716109/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia-in-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-a-retrospective-study
#5
Hyo Sup Kim, Bo Kyoung Park, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee, Nack-Gyun Chung, Bin Cho, Dae Chul Jeong, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections has reduced after the introduction of antibiotics with anti-pseudomonal effects, P. aeruginosa bacteremia still causes high mortality in immunocompromised patients. This study determined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of P. aeruginosa bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibilities of strains isolated from febrile neutropenic patients. METHODS: Thirty-one febrile neutropenic children and adolescents with underlying hematologic/oncologic disorders diagnosed with P...
July 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705770/in%C3%A2-vitro-activity-of-aminoglycosides-clofazimine-d-cycloserine-and-dapsone-against-83-mycobacterium-avium-complex-clinical-isolates
#6
Chen-Cheng Huang, Ming-Feng Wu, Hui-Chen Chen, Wei-Chang Huang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment success rates for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases range from 50% to 55% only. To explore effective antimicrobials against either Mycobacteriumintracellulare or M. avium, we determined in vitro activities of five aminoglycosides, clofazimine, dapsone and d-cycloserine compared with primary (clarithromycin) and secondary (moxifloxacin and linezolid) antimycobacterial agents. METHODS: 83 non-duplicate clinical MAC isolates were collected from sputum and identified at the species level by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the 65 kDa hsp and rpoB genes...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696058/early-postnatal-gentamicin-and-ceftazidime-treatment-in-normal-and-food-restricted-neonatal-wistar-rats-implications-for-kidney-development
#7
Ruud R G Bueters, Annelies Jeronimus-Klaasen, Roger J M Brüggemann, Lambertus P van den Heuvel, Michiel F Schreuder
BACKGROUND: Up to two-thirds of premature born neonates are treated for infections with aminoglycosides such as gentamicin. Although acute toxicities are well described, there is uncertainty on developmental changes after treatment of premature born neonates. We studied the effect of gentamicin and ceftazidime on kidney development in the rat. Additionally, we evaluated the modulating effect of extrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: On postnatal day (PND) 2, Wistar rats were cross-fostered into normal sized litters (12 pups) or large litters (20 pups) to create normal food (NF) or food restricted (FR) litters to simulate growth restriction and dosed daily intraperitoneally with placebo, 4 mg/kg of gentamicin or 50 mg/kg ceftazidime until PND 8...
July 11, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693691/prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-crkp-and-the-distribution-of-class-1-integron-in-their-strains-isolated-from-a-hospital-in-central-china
#8
Ou Qin, Li Wenfang, Li Bei, Yu Chunfang
Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the genetic characteristics of the class 1 integron in CRKP on multi-drug resistance.Methods Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were collected from multiple departments of a hospital in central China. CRKP strains were identified among the isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility of CRKP strains was analyzed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was adopted to amplify the class 1 integron variable area...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693665/characterization-of-high-level-ampicillin-and-aminoglycoside-resistant-enterococci-isolated-from-non-hospital-sources
#9
Emmanuel O Ngbede, Mashood A Raji, Clara N Kwanashie, Jacob K P Kwaga, Alex A Adikwu, Nanven A Maurice, Andrew M Adamu
PURPOSE: High level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci are being increasingly reported from non-hospital sources. This study was carried out to characterize these strains from non-hospital sources in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: A collection of Enterococcus faecium isolated from vegetables, soil, farm animals and manure and observed to be resistant to ampicillin (n=63) and gentamicin (n=37) discs, were screened for resistance to high levels of ampicillin and aminoglycoside using E-test strips...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692817/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-bacterial-infections
#10
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Bacterial infections remain a common complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in the pre-engraftment phase. The risk of bacterial infections is mainly related to neutropenia, mucositis, and the presence of vascular lines. Most parts of the world have witnessed a shift in epidemiology toward Gram-negative bacteria; a large proportion of which are resistant to fluoroquinolones, extended-spectrum beta-lactams, carbapenems, and in some units even colistin. Meticulous infection control practices are essential for prevention of bacterial infections in HSCT...
July 3, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689415/thermophilic-enzyme-or-mesophilic-enzyme-with-enhanced-thermostability-can-we-draw-a-line
#11
Xiaomin Jing, Wilfredo Evangelista Falcón, Jerome Yves Baudry, Engin H Serpersu
The aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase 4' (ANT) is a homodimeric enzyme that modifies the C4'-OH site of aminoglycoside antibiotics by nucleotidylation. A few single and double residue mutants of this enzyme (T130K, D80Y and D80Y/T130K) from Bacillus stearothermophilus show increased thermostability. This paper investigates how such residue replacements, which are distant from active site and monomer-monomer interface, result in various changes of the thermostability of the enzyme. In this work, we show that thermodynamic properties of enzyme-ligand complexes and protein dynamics may be indicators of thermophilic behavior...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685903/the-structure-of-rbmb-from-streptomyces-ribosidificus-an-aminotransferase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-ribostamycin
#12
Trevor R Zachman-Brockmeyer, James B Thoden, Hazel M Holden
Aminoglycoside antibiotics represent a classical group of antimicrobials first discovered in the 1940s. Due to their ototoxic and nephrotoxic side effects, they are typically only used against Gram negative bacteria who have become resistant to other therapeutics. One family of aminoglycosides include such compounds as butirosin, ribostamycin, neomycin, and kanamycin, amongst others. The common theme in these antibiotics is that they are constructed around a chemically stable aminocyclitol unit referred to as 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS)...
July 7, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684253/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-gentamicin-trigger-expression-of-aac-6-ie-aph-2%C3%A2-ia-chaperones-and-biofilm-related-genes-in-lactobacillus-plantarum-mcc3011
#13
Jaimee George, Prakash Motiram Halami
This study aimed to analyze the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin on expression of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) bifunctional aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)Ia, biofilm and chaperone genes in Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of biofilm formation in five isolates obtained from chicken sausages indicated their role in exhibiting phenotypic resistance based on varied MIC values, despite carrying the bifunctional gene. Biofilm formation significantly increased when L. plantarum MCC3011 was grown in subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin (4 μg/ml), kanamycin (8 μg/ml) and streptomycin (2 μg/ml)...
July 4, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683192/evaluation-of-the-possible-nephroprotective-effects-of-vitamin-e-and-rosuvastatin-in-amikacin-induced-renal-injury-in-rats
#14
Ahmed Selim, Marwa M Khalaf, Amany M Gad, Ola M Abd El-Raouf
Amikacin (AMIK) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that possesses considerable nephrotoxic adverse effects. This study examined the protective effects of vitamin E (VIT. E) or rosuvastatin (ROSU) against AMIK-induced nephrotoxicity. For this purpose, eight groups of rats were used. Two control groups received saline and vehicle, AMIK group (1.2 g/kg, i.p.), VIT. E group (1000 mg/kg; p.o.), ROSU group (10 mg/kg; p.o.), AMIK + VIT. E group, AMIK + ROSU group, and combination group. The results showed that AMIK significantly increased serum levels of urea and creatinine...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681822/emergence-of-rmtc-and-rmtf-16s-rrna-methyltransferase-in-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Lavanya Mohanam, Thangam Menon
Occurrence of aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is investigated in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for amikacin and gentamicin were performed followed by polymerase chain reaction amplifications of AG modifying enzyme genes (aac(6´)-I, aac(6´)-II, aac(3)-II/VI, ant(2´´)-I, aph(3´)-VI) and 16S methylases (rmtA-D, rmtF and armA). MIC50and MIC90were 64, 128 and > 256, >256 for amikacin and gentamicin, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681038/mounting-resistance-of-uropathogens-to-antimicrobial-agents-a-retrospective-study-in-patients-with-chronic-bacterial-prostatitis-relapse
#16
Konstantinos Stamatiou, Nikolaos Pierris
PURPOSE: Despite recent progress in the management of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), many cases relapse. Increased drug resistance patterns of responsible bacteria have been proposed as the most probable causative factor. Driven by the limited number of previous studies addressing this topic, we aimed to study whether antibiotic resistance increases in patients with CBP when relapse occurs. A secondary aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of responsible bacteria from patients with CBP...
July 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680588/incidence-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-nosocomial-enterococcus-spp-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-beijing-china-a-four-year-retrospective-study
#17
Yangyang Zhang, Mingmei Du, Yan Chang, Liang-An Chen, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. are the common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical and microbiological features, and mortality of nosocomial enterococcal BSIs at a large Chinese tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study on adult patients with nosocomial BSIs due to Enterococcus spp. was performed between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015 at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676409/enterococci-in-orthopaedic-infections-who-is-at-risk-getting-infected
#18
Ilker Uçkay, Daniela Pires, Americo Agostinho, Nastassia Guanziroli, Mehmet Öztürk, Placido Bartolone, Philippe Tscholl, Michael Betz, Didier Pittet
Some orthopaedic patients might be at risk for enterococcal infections and might benefit from adapted perioperative prophylaxis. METHODS: We performed a single-center cohort of adult patients with orthopaedic infections. RESULTS: Among 2740 infection episodes, 665 surgeries (24%) involved osteosynthesis material, including total joint arthroplasties. The recommended perioperative prophylaxis was cefuroxime (or vancomycin in case of documented MRSA body carriage)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674559/-resistant-phenotypes-of-escherichia-coli-strains-responsible-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-laboratory-of-the-university-hospital-joseph-raseta-befelatanana-antananarivo
#19
Zafindrasoa Domoina Rakotovao-Ravahatra, Fidiniaina Mamy Randriatsarafara, Saïda Rasoanandrasana, Léa Raverohanta, Andriamiadana Luc Rakotovao
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli frequently occurs in the hospital environment. This study aims to describe resistant phenotypes of Escherichia coli strains to monitor their occurrence. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study of 102 Escherchia coli strains responsible for urinary tract infection in the laboratory of the University Hospital Joseph Raseta Befelatanana, Antananarivo from January 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS: Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance screening identified high-level penicillinases 50% (n=51), Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) 22...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674059/in-vivo-emergence-of-resistance-to-novel-cephalosporin-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations-through-the-duplication-of-the-amino-acid-d149-from-oxa-2-%C3%AE-lactamase-oxa-539-in-st235-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Pablo A Fraile-Ribot, Xavier Mulet, Gabriel Cabot, Ester Del Barrio-Tofiño, Carlos Juan, José L Pérez, Antonio Oliver
Resistance development to novel cephalosporin-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations during ceftazidime treatment of a surgical infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Both, initial (97C2) and final (98G1) isolates, belonged to the high-risk clone ST235 and were resistant to carbapenems (oprD-), fluoroquinolones (GyrA-T83I, ParC-S87L) and aminoglycosides (aacA7/aacA8/aadA6). 98G1 additionally showed resistance to ceftazidime, ceftazidime-avibactam and ceftolozane-tazobactam. Sequencing identified blaOXA-2 in 97C2, but 98G1 contained a 3-bp insertion leading to the duplication of the key residue D149 (designated OXA-539)...
July 3, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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