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Aminoglycoside

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343755/covalently-linked-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin-hybrid-antibiotics-as-a-tool-to-fight-bacterial-resistance
#1
Michal Shavit, Varvara Pokrovskaya, Valery Belakhov, Timor Baasov
To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides...
March 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343384/n6-n6-and-o4-modifications-to-neomycin-affect-ribosomal-selectivity-without-compromising-antibacterial-activity
#2
Girish C Sati, Dimitri Scherbakov, Sven N Hobbie, Andrea Vasella, Erik C Böttger, David Crich
The synthesis of a series of neomycin derivatives carrying the 2-hydroxyethyl substituent on N6' and/or N6''' both alone and in combination with a 4'-O-ethyl group is described. By means of cell-free translation assays with wild-type bacterial ribosomes and their hybrids with eukaryotic decoding A sites, we investigate how individual substituents and their combinations affect activity and selectivity at the target level. In principle, and as shown by cell-free translation assays, modifications of the N6' and N6''' positions allow to enhance target selectivity without compromising antibacterial activity...
March 27, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337503/gut-microbiome-related-metabolic-changes-in-plasma-of-antibiotic-treated-rats
#3
C Behr, H Kamp, E Fabian, G Krennrich, W Mellert, E Peter, V Strauss, T Walk, I M C M Rietjens, B van Ravenzwaay
The intestinal microbiota contributes to the metabolism of its host. Adequate identification of the microbiota's impact on the host plasma metabolites is lacking. As antibiotics have a profound effect on the microbial composition and hence on the mammalian-microbiota co-metabolism, we studied the effects of antibiotics on the "functionality of the microbiome"-defined as the production of metabolites absorbed by the host. This metabolomics study presents insights into the mammalian-microbiome co-metabolism of endogenous metabolites...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337076/nebulized-gentamicin-as-an-alternative-to-nebulized-tobramycin-for-tracheitis-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Justin K Chen, Brittany L Martin-McNew, Lisa M Lubsch
OBJECTIVES: Tracheitis is an infection of the lower respiratory tract and is defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) based on signs and symptoms with no radiographic evidence of pneumonia. One method of treatment involves the use of tobramycin given by nebulizer. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of nebulized gentamicin with nebulized tobramycin. METHODS: This study was conducted in patients under 21 years of age who received greater than or equal to 1 day of gentamicin, 80 mg, or tobramycin, 300 mg, given twice a day by nebulization within the 14-month study period...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336597/draft-genome-sequence-of-providencia-stuartii-ps71-a-multidrug-resistant-strain-associated-with-nosocomial-infections-in-greece
#5
A Liakopoulos, O Oikonomou, D W Wareham
Providencia stuartii is frequently associated with nosocomial outbreaks and displays intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials. We report here the draft genome sequence of a P. stuartii strain carrying acquired resistance genes conferring panresistance to cephalosporins (blaSHV-5 and blaVEB-1), carbapenems (blaVIM-1), and aminoglycosides (rmtB) involved in an outbreak in Greek hospitals.
March 23, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333340/evaluation-of-the-new-genotype-ntm-dr-kit-for-the-molecular-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria
#6
Faiza Mougari, Jade Loiseau, Nicolas Veziris, Christine Bernard, Béatrice Bercot, Wladimir Sougakoff, Vincent Jarlier, Laurent Raskine, Emmanuelle Cambau
Objectives: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging pathogens causing difficult-to-treat infections. We tested a new assay (GenoType NTM-DR) that detects natural and acquired resistance mechanisms to macrolides and aminoglycosides in frequently isolated NTM species. Methods: Performance was assessed on 102 isolates including reference strains [16 Mycobacterium avium , 10 Mycobacterium intracellulare , 8 Mycobacterium chimaera , 15 Mycobacterium chelonae and 53 Mycobacterium abscessus (including subsp...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331426/environmental-distribution-and-drug-susceptibility-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-isolated-from-outdoor-and-indoor-environments
#7
Sachiko Nakamoto, Misaki Sakamoto, Kana Sugimura, Yuki Honmura, Yuki Yamamoto, Natsumi Goda, Hiroo Tamaki, Naoto Burioka
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an environmental bacterium with multi-drug resistance. We isolated Achromobacter xylosoxidans and investigated its susceptibility to 13 drugs. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from rivers and ponds, and 11 samples were swabbed from residential sinks and baths. Nine strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans were isolated from the 89 samples. Five strains, including 2 that were sampled from residential homes, showed high resistance to multiple aminoglycosides. This indicated that Achromobacter xylosoxidans is widely distributed in various outdoor and indoor environments...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330238/isolation-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-in-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-of-patients
#8
Li-Min Wang, Xiao-Liang Qiao, Liang Ai, Jing-Jing Zhai, Xue-Xia Wang
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are usual cause of upper respiratory tract infection cases. The present study aims the isolation of bacterial strains which are resistant to the commonly prescribed antibiotics. In total, 900 throat swabs were obtained from the patients suffering from upper respiratory tract infections residing in three different localities. The maximum number of isolates (64 %) were obtained from locality-1 (L-1), whereas lowest isolates were found in second locality (L-2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329088/short-course-adjunctive-gentamicin-as-empirical-therapy-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#9
David S Y Ong, Jos F Frencken, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Nicole Juffermans, Tom van der Poll, Marc Bonten, Olaf Cremer
Background.: Meta-analyses failed to demonstrate clinical benefits of beta lactam plus aminoglycoside combination therapy, compared to beta lactam monotherapy, in patients with sepsis. However, few data exist on the effects of short-course adjunctive aminoglycoside therapy in sepsis patients with organ failure or shock. Methods.: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock in two intensive care units in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2015...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325182/antimicrobial-pharmacology-for-the-neonatal-foal
#10
REVIEW
K Gary Magdesian
Neonatal foals are at high risk of developing sepsis, which can be life-threatening. Early antimicrobial use is a critical component of the treatment of sepsis. Because the neonatal foal has unique pharmacologic physiology, antimicrobial choice and dosing are often different than in adult horses. Broad-spectrum, bactericidal, and intravenous antimicrobials should be considered first-line therapy for septic foals. A combination of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antimicrobial or third-generation cephalosporin is an excellent empirical first choice for treating septic foals, until culture and susceptibility results are available...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323095/megalin-targeted-enhanced-transfection-efficiency-in-cultured-human-hk-2-renal-tubular-proximal-cells-using-aminoglycoside-carboxyalkyl-polyethylenimine-containing-nanoplexes
#11
Fatemeh Oroojalian, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Wayne Thomas Shier, Khalil Abnous, Mohammad Ramezani
Non-viral vectors are of interest as therapeutic gene delivery agents in gene therapy, because they are simple to prepare, easy to modify and have definable safety profiles compared to viral vectors. The potential of gene therapy in the treatment of renal diseases is limited by a lack of effective kidney-targeted gene delivery systems. Aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin and neomycin were connected by amide linkages to carboxyl groups on carboxyalkylated-PEI25 (25kDa PEI) or carboxyalkylated-PEI10 (10kDa PEI)...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321788/characteristics-of-aerococcus-viridans-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis-and-its-effect-on-milk-scc-yield-and-composition
#12
Meng Sun, Jian Gao, Tariq Ali, Dan Yu, Shiyao Zhang, Saeed U Khan, Séamus Fanning, Bo Han
Aerococcus viridians (A. viridans), an environmental Gram-positive bacterium, has been documented to be associated with bovine mastitis. However, its exact role in bovine mastitis and the changes it brings about in milk characteristics are not yet known. The objectives of the current study were to describe the antibiotic resistance of A. viridans from bovine mastitis as well as the correlation between existence of this pathogen in udders and the somatic cell counts (SCC), daily milk yield, and composition of individual cow...
March 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320725/occurrence-of-acquired-16s-methyltransferase-mediated-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-enterobacteriaceae-within-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-of-northeast-india
#13
Jayalaxmi Wangkheimayum, Deepjyoti Paul, Debadatta Dhar, Rajlakshmi Nepram, Shiela Chetri, Deepshikha Bhowmik, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Objectives: Methylation of ribosomal target leads to a high level of resistance towards the entire clinically relevant aminoglycoside antibiotics, so early detection of these resistant determinants will help to reduce the treatment failure as well as will lessen the dissemination rate. Here, we characterize different 16s methyltransferase responsible for aminoglycoside resistance and their epidemiological background in clinical isolates of enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary referral hospital of India.Methods: All aminoglycoside resistant isolates were screened for different 16s methyltransferase by PCR assay and incompatibility typing of the conjugable plasmid harboring resistant genes was determined by PCR based replicon typing...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320109/protective-effect-of-dexpanthenol-against-nephrotoxic-effect-of-amikacin-an-experimental-study
#14
Elif Ece Doğan, Reha Erkoç, İskender Ekinci, Jamshid Hamdard, Barış Döner, Mehmet Ali Çıkrıkçıoğlu, Cumali Karatoprak, Ganime Çoban, Ömer Faruk Özer, Rümeyza Kazancıoğlu
BACKGROUND: Amikacin has the largest spectrum among aminoglycosides, its nephrotoxic effect limits its utilization. Our purpose in this study is to review the protective effect of dexpanthenol against the nephrotoxic effect of amikacin, accompanied with histopathological and biochemical parameters. METHODS: 32 rats were randomly separated into four groups with eight in each (amikacin (1.2mg/kg/day), amikacin (1.2mg/kg/day)+dexpanthenol (500mg/kg/day), dexpanthenol (500mg/kg/day) and control)...
March 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316941/acute-kidney-injury-following-spinal-instrumentation-surgery-in-children
#15
Jasper J Jöbsis, Abdullah Alabbas, Ruth Milner, Christopher Reilly, Kishore Mulpuri, Cherry Mammen
AIM: To determine acute kidney in jury (AKI) incidence and potential risk factors of AKI in children undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery. METHODS: AKI incidence in children undergoing spinal instrumentation surgery at British Columbia Children's Hospital between January 2006 and December 2008 was determined by the Acute Kidney Injury Networ classification using serum creatinine and urine output criteria. During this specific time period, all patients following spinal surgery were monitored in the pediatric intensive care unit and had an indwelling Foley catheter permitting hourly urine output recording...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316100/thermodynamics-of-an-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzyme-with-low-substrate-promiscuity-the-aminoglycoside-n3-acetyltransferase-via
#16
Prashasti Kumar, Engin H Serpersu
Kinetic, thermodynamic and structural properties of the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferase-VIa (AAC-VIa) are determined. Among the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferases, AAC-VIa has one of the most limited substrate profiles. Kinetic studies showed that only 5 aminoglycosides are substrates for this enzyme with a range of 4-fold difference in kcat values. Larger differences in KM (∼40 fold) resulted in ∼30-fold variation in kcat /KM . Binding of aminoglycosides to AAC-VIa was enthalpically favored and entropically disfavored with a net result of favorable Gibbs energy (ΔG<0)...
March 17, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316051/pathogenic-multiple-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-serotypes-in-recreational-waters-of-mumbai-india-a-potential-public-health-risk
#17
Aayushi Maloo, Abhay B Fulke, Najmuddin Mulani, Soniya Sukumaran, Anirudh Ram
Globally, coastal waters have emerged into a pool of antibiotic resistance genes and multiple antibiotic resistant microorganisms, and pathogenicity of these resistant microorganisms in terms of serotypes and virulence genes has made the environment vulnerable. The current study underscores the presence of multiple antibiotic resistant pathogenic serotypes and pathotypes of Escherichia coli, the predominant faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in surface water and sediment samples of famous recreational beaches (Juhu, Versova, Mahim, Dadar, and Girgaon) of Mumbai...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306602/cure-rate-of-fungal-keratitis-with-antibacterial-therapy
#18
Alice Y Matoba, Ryan Barrett, Anna E Lehmann
PURPOSE: To study the cure rate of fungal keratitis with moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis who initially received moxifloxacin 0.3% monotherapy was performed. RESULTS: Eleven patients with culture-proven fungal keratitis were initially treated with moxifloxacin. One case each of Curvularia and Alternaria keratitis resolved with moxifloxacin monotherapy (18%). CONCLUSIONS: Moxifloxacin may have a significant clinical therapeutic effect in a subset of patients with fungal keratitis...
March 16, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304213/characterization-of-the-genetic-environment-of-the-blaveb-4-gene-associated-with-a-transposable-region-in-a-proteus-mirabilis-clinical-isolate
#19
Paula Espinal, Elisenda Miró, Laia Ramoneda, Manel Flores, Alba Rivera, Pere Coll, Ferran Navarro
Proteus mirabilis is the second most common cause of urinary tract infections and is also an important cause of nosocomial infections. TEM-type and CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the most widely distributed in this bacterial species, but minor ESBLs such as the VEB-type have also been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic environment of the blaVEB-4 gene found in a P. mirabilis clinical isolate recovered in Spain. P. mirabilis N2231 showed resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, remaining susceptible to imipenem, cefoxitin, β-lactamases inhibitors, and quinolones...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303847/trends-in-drug-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-over-a-10-year-period-nationwide-data-from-the-china-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-program
#20
Lei Gao, Yuan Lyu, Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. METHODS: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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