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Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Anna Zadernowska, Łucja Łaniewska-Trokenheim
The objective of the study was to answer the question of whether the ready-to-eat meat products can pose indirect hazard for consumer health serving as reservoir of Enterococcus strains harboring tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides resistance genes. A total of 390 samples of ready-to-eat meat products were investigated. Enterococcus strains were found in 74.1% of the samples. A total of 302 strains were classified as: Enterococcus faecalis (48.7%), Enterococcus faecium (39.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Nguyen Huu Hoang, Nguyen Lan Huong, Byul Kim, Jae Kyung Sohng, Yeo Joon Yoon, Je Won Park
A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the robust profiling and characterization of biosynthetic congeners in the 2-deoxy-aminocyclitol istamycin pathway, from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces tenjimariensis ATCC 31603. Gradient elution on an Acquity CSH C18 column was performed with a gradient of 5 mM aqueous pentafluoropropionic acid and 50% acetonitrile. Sixteen natural istamycin congeners were profiled and quantified in descending order; istamycin A, istamycin B, istamycin A0 , istamycin B0 , istamycin B1 , istamycin A1 , istamycin C, istamycin A2 , istamycin C1 , istamycin C0 , istamycin X0 , istamycin A3 , istamycin Y0 , istamycin B3 , and istamycin FU-10 plus istamycin AP...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
F Sörgel, R Höhl, R Glaser, C Stelzer, M Munz, M Vormittag, M Kinzig, J Bulitta, C Landersdorfer, A Junger, M Christ, M Wilhelm, U Holzgrabe
Optimized dosage regimens of antibiotics have remained obscure since their introduction. During the last two decades pharmacokinetic(PK)-pharmacodynamic(PD) relationships, originally established in animal experiments, have been increasingly used in patients. The action of betalactams is believed to be governed by the time the plasma concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Aminoglycosides act as planned when the peak concentration is a multiple of the MIC and vancomycin seems to work best when the area under the plasma vs...
October 24, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Arun Kamal, Raja Bhaskara Kanakeshwar, Ashok Shyam, Dheenadayalan Jayaramaraju, Devendra Agraharam, Ramesh Perumal, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: Open fractures are challenging injuries and there is a lot of variation in practice preferences which may reflect the wide variations in outcome in different units across the world. A survey was done amongst the international community of SICOT membership to document the practice preferences and variations. METHODS: An online questionnaire containing 23 questions which were sub-divided into three sections covering the various aspects of open injury management was sent by email to orthopaedic trauma surgeons across the world...
October 24, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Raquel Girardello, Marina Visconde, Rodrigo Cayô, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Cristina Gales
Polymyxins have become drugs of last resort for treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance to this compound have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to this antimicrobial in two A. baumannii clinical isolates, respectively, susceptible (A027) and resistant (A009) to polymyxin B before and after polymyxin B exposure (A027(ind) and A009(ind)). The pmrAB and lpxACD were sequenced and their transcriptional levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
A Rapacz-Kmita, M M Bućko, E Stodolak-Zych, M Mikołajczyk, P Dudek, M Trybus
The present paper concerns the potential use of montmorillonite as a drug carrier and focusses on the intercalation of the studied clay with gentamicin (an aminoglycoside antibiotic) at various temperatures (20, 50 and 80°C). The experiments were performed to identify the temperature required for the optimum intercalation of gentamicin into the interlayer of montmorillonite. The structural and microstructural properties of gentamicin and the potential for introducing it between smectite clay layers were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques, and SEM with EDS analysis...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Islam Ghazi, Yukihiro Hamada, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE: The physical compatibility of commonly used agents that could be coadministered in the clinical setting with tedizolid phosphate during Y-site administration was evaluated. METHODS: Tedizolid phosphate vials were reconstituted to a final concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. All other drugs were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection (where applicable) to the highest standard concentrations used clinically...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Sinem Acar, Ece Bulut, Bora Durul, Ilhan Uner, Mehmet Kur, M Dilek Avsaroglu, Hüseyin Avni Kirmaci, Yasar Osman Tel, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Yesim Soyer
192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Corinne Ruppen, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
BACKGROUND: According to expert opinions, gentamicin should be administered as an adjunct to penicillin against severe group B streptococcal (GBS) infections. Whether the adjunct is important is of particular interest for elderly patients. Not only is the risk of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity higher in elderly persons, but their immune defence to bacterial infections may also be impaired. METHOD: Time-kill assays with human blood products, such as serum, neutrophilic granulocytes (opsonophagocytic assays) and whole blood from healthy, elderly volunteers were performed to evaluate the effect of gentamicin in combination with penicillin...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Li Wang, Lei Liu, Dong Liu, Zhe Yin, Jiao Feng, Defu Zhang, Haihong Fang, Yefeng Qiu, Weijun Chen, Ruisheng Yang, Jinglin Wang, Yunzhi Fa, Dongsheng Zhou
The purpose of this study was to characterize mechanisms of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Shigella boydii. S. boydii strain 2246 with resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and azithromycin was isolated from a human case of watery diarrhea in a Chinese public hospital. Resistance in strain 2246 to ceftriaxone and azithromycin was attributable to the presence of blaCTX-M-14, and erm(B) and mph(A), respectively, which were co-located on a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid p2246-CTXM. p2246-CTXM represented a novel IncFII-type MDR plasmid with a very complex chimera structure...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philippe Willems, Jan Muller, Jan Verhaegen, Veroniek Saegeman, Stefanie Desmet
We report a case of a 77-year old male who developed a fulminant erysipelas and sepsis, caused by Myroides odoratimimus. Selecting the optimal antibiotic therapy for the treatment of infections with M. odoratimimus is challenging due to limited clinical experience with this micro-organism and its reported multidrug-resistance. Review of previous studies concerning in vitro antibacterial susceptibility and clinical experience with M. odoratimimus resulted in six case reports describing bacteremia, soft tissue and bone infections, pneumonia and urinary tract infections...
October 20, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Kyle A Tipton, Marjan Farokhyfar, Philip N Rather
Colony opacity phase variation in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075 is regulated by a reversible high-frequency switch. Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutations that decreased the opaque to translucent switch and a gene encoding a predicted periplasmic membrane fusion component of a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux system was isolated. This gene was designated arpA and immediately downstream was a gene designated arpB that encodes a predicted membrane transporter of RND-type systems...
October 19, 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
E Espigares, E Moreno Roldan, M Espigares, R Abreu, B Castro, A L Dib, Á Arias
The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method...
October 20, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Hugh Simon Lam, Kathy Y Y Chan, Margaret Ip, Kam Tong Leung, Norman W S Lo, Raymond P O Wong, Karen Li, Pak Cheung Ng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Tools to rapidly predict antibiotic resistance in neonatal sepsis would be extremely valuable. OBJECTIVES: To develop quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer/probe sets that can rapidly detect antibiotic resistance genes common to a neonatal unit, and to investigate the feasibility of direct detection of antibiotic resistance genes in whole blood of infants with Gram-negative septicaemia without first isolating the organism...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
Sheikh Farjana Sonia, Mohammad S Hassan, Ferdous Ara, Mohammed Hanif
Aminoglycoside is a widely used antibiotic in neonatal age group at hospital setting in Bangladesh. It has underlying side effect and toxicity which is mostly unseen and ignored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephrotoxic effect of aminoglycoside in neonates. This study was conducted in fifty hospital admitted neonates of Dhaka Shishu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FEMg) were measured before starting and after seven days of aminoglycoside treatment...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Shabana Orvankundil, Saradadevi Karunakaran Lalitha, Raji Thazhethekandi, Jahana Thottathil
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative oxidase positive bacillus that causes human infections infrequently. It is a normal inhabitant of soil and stagnant water of the tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it can cause infections ranging from life threatening sepsis with metastatic abscesses to skin infections and urinary tract infections. The organism is notoriously resistant to most cephalosporins and Ampicillin. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides show good in vitro susceptibility. High mortality rates associated with these infections necessitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Kenneth P Smith, James E Kirby
We evaluated activity of apramycin, a non-ototoxic/non-nephrotoxic aminocyclitol against 141 clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 51% of which were non-susceptible to carbapenems (CRE). Among CRE, 70.8% were apramycin susceptible, which compared favorably to aminoglycosides in current clinical use. Our data suggest that apramycin deserves further investigation as a repurposed, anti-CRE therapeutic.
September 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Lorraine Lau, Zubaida Al-Ismaili, Maya Harel-Sterling, Michael Pizzi, Jillian S Caldwell, Melissa Piccioni, Larry C Lands, Theresa Mottes, Prasad Devarajan, Stuart L Goldstein, Michael R Bennett, Michael Zappitelli
BACKGROUND: Serum cystatin C (CysC) is a more accurate glomerular filtration rate marker than serum creatinine (SCr) and may rise more quickly with acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 81 non-critically ill children during 110 aminoglycoside (AG) treatments. We calculated area under the curve (AUC) for CysC to diagnose SCr-defined AKI and predict persistent AKI. SCr-AKI definition was based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (≥stage 1: ≥50 % or 26...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Renata Yakubov, Machiel van den Akker, Kaba Machamad, Amit Hochberg, Erez Nadir, Adi Klein
BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children relies on surveillance data about epidemiology and resistance patterns of common uropathogens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of bacteria isolated from urine cultures of children with febrile UTI, seen at the pediatric department of a large regional hospital (Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel) between January 2007 and December 2014. RESULTS: In this study period, 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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