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Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Arshad Ismail, Mushal Allam, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
OBJECTIVES: The draft genome sequences of two Enterobacter aerogenes HN503E2II and PN108E5IIB isolated from two Cameroonian abattoirs, are reported here. METHODS: Genomic DNA of these isolates was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Generated reads were de novo assembled using the Qiagen CLC Genomics Workbench. The assembled contigs were annotated and antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors and plasmids were identified. RESULTS: The whole genome sequencing revealed that both strains are similar with genomes of 4,878,638 and 4,794,257bp and encoded several resistance genes associated with resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, fosfomycin, phenicols, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, macrolide and tetracycline...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Amit Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Gupta, Dilip Kumar Kala, Tarun Patni, Ramakant Dixit, Satyadeep Verma, Arjun Chandran
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of resistance to second line drugs among multi drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis patients being treated on category IV regimen. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted at Department of Respiratory Medicine, J.L.N. Medical College, Ajmer in collaboration with IRL, STDC, Ajmer. Second line anti tubercular drug sensitivity for 398 multi drug resistant tuberculosis patients (between June-2015 and June-2016) was done to find out prevalence and pattern of resistance to second line drugs...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Mushal Allam, Arshad Ismail, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
OBJECTIVES: We report here the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain HN503E1II isolated from a nasal sample of an abattoir worker in Cameroon. METHODS: Genomic DNA of E. coli was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Generated reads were de novo assembled using the Qiagen CLC Genomics Workbench. The assembled contigs were annotated and antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors, plasmids and sequence types were identified. RESULTS: The genome comprised a circular chromosome of 4,674,201bp, with a 50...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Branka Bedenić, Mia Slade, Lidija Žele Starčević, Sanda Sardelić, Mirna Vranić-Ladavac, Ana Benčić, Vlasta Zujić Atalić, Maja Bogdan, Marina Bubonja-Šonje, Maja Tomić-Paradžik, Tatjana Tot, Amarela Lukić-Grlić, Domagoj Drenjančević, Dijana Varda-Brkić, Daniela Bandić-Pavlović, Slobodan Mihaljević, Gernot Zarfel, Marija Gužvinec, Rick Conzemius, Ivan Barišić, Arjana Tambić-Andraševic
PURPOSE: A dramatic increase in OXA-48 β-lactamase was observed recently not only in large hospital centres, but also in smaller suburban hospital centres in geographic areas bordering Croatia. The aim of the study was to analyse the epidemiology, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and the routes of spread of OXA-48 carbapenemase in Croatia. METHODS: Carbapenemase and other β-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected by PCR and sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ingus Perkons, Iveta Pugajeva, Vadims Bartkevics
An analytical method based on liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed for the simultaneous determination of six aminoglycoside antibiotics in honey. The sample pretreatment included extraction with aqueous trichloroacetic acid followed by solid-phase extraction on Strata-X polymeric reversed phase cartridges. Liquid chromatography separation was performed on an Obelisc R zwitterionic type mixed-mode column. An ionBooster™ heated electrospray source was used and showed enhanced ionization efficiency in comparison to a conventional electrospray source...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Daniel R McHugh, Miarasa S Steele, Dana M Valerio, Alexander Miron, Rachel J Mann, David F LePage, Ronald A Conlon, Calvin U Cotton, Mitchell L Drumm, Craig A Hodges
Nonsense mutations are present in 10% of patients with CF, produce a premature termination codon in CFTR mRNA causing early termination of translation, and lead to lack of CFTR function. There are no currently available animal models which contain a nonsense mutation in the endogenous Cftr locus that can be utilized to test nonsense mutation therapies. In this study, we create a CF mouse model carrying the G542X nonsense mutation in Cftr using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. The G542X mouse model has reduced Cftr mRNA levels, demonstrates absence of CFTR function, and displays characteristic manifestations of CF mice such as reduced growth and intestinal obstruction...
2018: PloS One
Subhajit Bhunia, Nilanjan Dey, Anirban Pradhan, Santanu Bhattacharya
A donor-acceptor based conjugated microporous polymer, PER@NiP-CMOP-1, has been synthesized which can achieve highly sensitive stereo-specific "Turn ON" biosensing of an aminoglycoside up to the ppb level. The coordination-driven inhibition of photo-induced electron transfer (d-PET) for d-electrons and the rotational freezing are the key factors for the recovery of the emission.
June 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Roya Chegene Lorestani, Alisha Akya, Azam Elahi, Yazdan Hamzavi
Background and Objectives: Integrons play a major role in the transmission and accumulation of resistance factors in multidrug resistant bacteria. This study was aimed to evaluate the gene cassettes of class I integron and antimicrobial resistance in isolates of Citrobacter with multidrug resistance (MDR). Materials and Methods: Ninety isolates of Citrobacter spp. were collected from the largest hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using disc diffusion method...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Y Liu, L Fan, Y Q Tang, Z Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and drug sensitivity of nasal Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with chronic sinusitis and healthy controls. Method: Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test were performed in 71 patients with CRS (experimental group) and 103 healthy controls (control group). The infection rate of Staphylococcus aureus and the sensitivity of the drug were analyzed based on these results. Result: Twenty-nine Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 71 cases of patients in the experimental group, and the positive rate was 40...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Geovana B Michael, Janine T Bossé, Stefan Schwarz
Members of the highly heterogeneous family Pasteurellaceae cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. Antimicrobial agents are the most powerful tools to control such infections. However, the acquisition of resistance genes, as well as the development of resistance-mediating mutations, significantly reduces the efficacy of the antimicrobial agents. This article gives a brief description of the role of selected members of the family Pasteurellaceae in animal infections and of the most recent data on the susceptibility status of such members...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Syed Beenish Rufai, Jitendra Singh, Parveen Kumar, Purva Mathur, Sarman Singh
There is limited data on the use of Genotype MTBDRslVersion 1 (MTBDRsl V1) as an initial rapid screening test to rule out XDR-TB and most importantly its performance in various genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is scarcely studied. A total of 359 MDR-TB isolates were tested for gene mutations representing second line drug resistance, using the MTBDRsl_V.1 and the results were compared with phenotypic method (Bactec MGIT-960 system) for second-line drug (SLD) susceptibility testing. Genetic lineages of all these isolates were also determined using spoligotyping and SITVIT2 WEB database...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Safa S Almarzoky Abuhussain, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
The role of inhalational combination therapy when treating carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with newer beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors has not been established. Using a 72 hour in vitro pharmacodynamic chemostat model, we simulated the human exposures achieved in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) 2.5g q8h alone and in combination with inhaled amikacin (AMK) 400mg q12h, a reformulated aminoglycoside designed for inhalational administration, against 3 P...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Moritz Fritzenwanker, Can Imirzalioglu, Susanne Herold, Florian M Wagenlehner, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Trinad Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are on the rise, particularly in southeastern European countries, and this is increasingly true in Germany as well. The organisms in question include enterobacteriaceae such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli and non-fermenting bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. As the carbapenems have been the gold standard to date for the systemic treatment of serious infections with Gram-negative bacteria, carbapenem resistance presents new and difficult challenges in therapeutic decision-making, particularly because of the high frequency of coresistance...
May 21, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Erika M Zettner, Malcolm A Gleser
Objective Hearing loss is a significant and growing problem as patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) live longer and experience frequent courses of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics (hereafter, "IVs"). This study seeks to document that risk in a large adult population with CF, accounting for age and aminoglycoside exposure. Study Design Retrospective case review of patients with CF who had multiple audiograms over years. Setting Tertiary care cystic fibrosis setting. Subject and Methods The first and last audiograms recorded over a 10-year period were compared for 165 adult patients with CF...
June 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Si Li, Wanzi Shi, Huimin Li, Nan Xu, Ruijie Zhang, Xuejiao Chen, Weiling Sun, Donghui Wen, Shanliang He, Jianguo Pan, Zhidong He, Yingying Fan
The occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution and ecological risks of 27 antibiotics in water and sediments from rivers and coastal area of Zhuhai, Pearl River estuary, south China were investigated. Higher concentrations of antibiotics were found in river water in dry season than those in wet season (p < 0.01), especially for quinolones (QNs) (6.36-463 ng/L) and aminoglycosides (AGs) (94.9-458 ng/L). In coastal water samples, the concentrations of antibiotics were up to 419 ng/L and 357 ng/L in dry season and wet season, respectively...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lu Liu, Yu Feng, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
Objectives: New Delhi MBL (NDM) is a type of carbapenemase; 20 variants of NDM have been identified to date. We have found a new variant of NDM, NDM-21, and describe it here. Methods: A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli was subjected to WGS using an Illumina X10 sequencer to identify the antimicrobial resistance genes and its ST. The gene encoding the new variant of NDM was cloned into E. coli DH5α, with blaNDM-5 being cloned as the control. Transformants were tested for susceptibility to carbapenems...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
José García, Dianny Martínez, Luisa Caña, Diorelis González, Lucy Rodríguez, Hectorina Rodulfo, Marcos De Donato, Militza Guzmán
BACKGROUND: Enterobacteria resistant to quinolones is increasing worldwide, including Venezuela. The mechanism for this resistance could be due to genes included in the chromosome or in transmissible plasmids. AIM: To evaluate the resistance to quinolones, coded by qnr genes present in enterobacteria species, isolated in the University Hospital of Cumana, Venezuela. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests to quinolones, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides were carried out to all the isolates...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Kennedy F Chah, Ifeoma C Ugwu, Angela Okpala, Kwabugge Y Adamu, Carla Andrea Alonso, Sara Ceballos, John N Nwanta, Carmen Torres
OBJECTIVE: To screen chickens and pigs slaughtered for human consumption for presence and characteristics of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmidic AmpC (pAmpC) beta-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria. METHODS: Faecal samples from 410 broiler chickens and 100 pigs were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2μg/ml cefotaxime. The antibacterial resistance phenotypes of the recovered isolates were determined by disc-diffusion method while PCR and subsequent sequencing was performed to identify the ESBL and pAmpC gene variants and other associated resistance determinants...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Lisa T Hong, Theodore G Liou, Rishi Deka, Jordan B King, Vanessa Stevens, David C Young
BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of continuous infusion (CI) beta-lactam (BL) antibiotics in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients; however, little is known regarding pharmacokinetic changes during treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation (APE). Identifying and understanding these changes may assist in optimizing antibiotic dosing during APE treatment. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of 162 adult CF patients admitted to the University of Utah Hospital between January 1, 2008 and May 15, 2014 for treatment of an APE with both a CI BL and intravenous tobramycin...
June 13, 2018: Chest
Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard
Development of new antibiotics is costly and time-consuming and therefore it is highly attractive if the efficacy of conventional antibiotics can be expanded. For the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, we recently demonstrated that inactivation of the ATP synthase increases the susceptibility of the pathogen 16-fold to the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. Aminoglycosides are rarely used as monotherapy against S. aureus due to the risk of resistance development and toxic effects. Here we have explored the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of aminoglycosides against S...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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