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Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Mamoru Yoneda, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
OBJECTIVE: The pineal hormone melatonin, which regulates the body's circadian rhythm, possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects and thereby improves metabolic disorders. Ramelteon is a potent and highly selective agonist of melatonin receptors and attenuates age-associated hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, the effects of ramelteon on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in a rat model of MetS...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Aruna Nambirajan, Mehar C Sharma, Madhu Rajeshwari, Aanchal Kakkar, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar
Ependymomas are gliomas that recapitulate normal ependymal cells. The epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) shows "dot-like" and "ring-like" staining patterns, highlighting "microlumens" or intracytoplasmic rosettes, a pathognomonic ultrastructural feature. NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein localized at the apical plasma membrane of human epithelia, has been found to localize to these microlumens. We aimed to analyze the staining patterns of EMA and EBP50 in ependymomas and other tumors, and thereby compare their diagnostic utility...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Zhen Zeng, Tijiang Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Xiaoxi Chen
Meningiomas are the most common primary nonneuroglial extra-axial neoplasms, which commonly present as spherical or oval masses with a dural attachment. Meningiomas without dural attachment are rare and, according to their locations, are classified into 5 varieties, including intraventricular, deep Sylvain fissure, pineal region, intraparenchymal, or subcortical meningiomas. To the best of our knowledge, intraparenchymal meningioma with cerebriform pattern has never been reported. In this paper, we report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with paroxysmal headaches and progressive loss of vision for 10 months and blindness for 2 weeks...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Melanie Hakar, James P Chandler, Eileen H Bigio, Qinwen Mao
We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient who presented with worsening headaches, vertigo, and vision changes. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion in the pineal region. The patient was taken for resection of the lesion which was classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pineal parenchyma, intermediate grade. Histologically, the neoplasm was cellular, mitotically active, and composed of tightly packed cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, scant cytoplasm, and ill-defined cell borders...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mel S Lee, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Pei-Hsun Sung, John Y Chiang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hon-Kan Yip
Despite state-of-the-art pharmaceutical regimens, continuous improvements in diagnostic techniques as well as refinements in equipment and interventional procedures, many diseases remain refractory to conventional therapies. Recent advances in stem cell (SC) biology have opened an avenue to exploring its therapeutic potential in various disease entities, especially those that are ischemia-related and refractory to conventional treatment. A number of experimental studies and clinical trials have already demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Carla Schettino, Clemente Dato, Guglielmo Capaldo, Simone Sampaolo, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Mariarosa Ab Melone
INTRODUCTION: Rasagiline is a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor that ameliorates the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) by inhibiting striatal dopamine metabolism. There is also evidence that monoamine oxidase B inhibitors increase melatonin levels in the pineal gland and may have a beneficial effect on sleep disorders, which are a common feature in patients with PD. METHODS: This single-center, prospective, observational, 12-week study compared the effect of combination therapy with levodopa 200-300 mg/d + rasagiline 1 mg/d (n=19) with levodopa 200-300 mg/d alone (n=19) in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with idiopathic PD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Iwona Adamska, Bogdan Lewczuk, Magdalena Markowska, Pawel M Majewski
The aim of the present study was to characterize the daily profiles of melatonin synthesis-related indoles in the pineal glands of male Hy-Line chickens hatched in the winter and reared under controlled light (L:D 12:12) conditions. The pineal glands were isolated from 16-day-old birds immediately after decapitation every 2h over a 24-h period. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection. According to the obtained data, in chicken pineal glands tryptophan occurred at the highest level among the investigated compounds, showing rhythmical, daily changes with decreased levels during the scotophase...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Edith V Sullivan, Barton Lane, Dongjin Kwon, M J Meloy, Susan F Tapert, Sandra A Brown, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark, Bonnie J Nagel, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Andrew Korenevsky, Yulia Milyutina, Ljudmila Kozina, Alexander Arutjunyan
Industrial xenobitics, as well as endogenous damaging factors, such as L-homocysteine, are a well-known source of reactive oxygen species that disrupt biological processes. Among many others, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone synthesis and secretion mediated by a variety of neurotransmitters, which are under control of the hypothalamus and pineal gland, may be put in peril by reactive oxygen species. Their formation can be one of the reasons for the reproductive function shutdown in ageing as the generic response to the damaging factors independent of their nature...
October 6, 2016: Current Aging Science
Satoshi Matsuo, Serhat Baydin, Abuzer Güngör, Koichi Miki, Noritaka Komune, Ryota Kurogi, Koji Iihara, Albert L Rhoton
OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Soujanya D Yelamanchi, Manish Kumar, Anil K Madugundu, Lathika Gopalakrishnan, Gourav Dey, Sandip Chavan, Gajanan Sathe, Premendu P Mathur, Harsha Gowda, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla K Shankar, T S Keshava Prasad
The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time...
October 7, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Sylwia Mańka, Ewa Majewska
Literature data indicate a significant immunoregulatory role of melatonin. Melatonin exerts an effect directly affecting leucocytes bearing specific melatonin receptors or indirectly by means of melatonin regulating other hormones, opioids or cytokines. Despite numerous experiments, the influence of the hormone on the immune system is still controversial. Melatonin affects the immune response acting as both an activator and an inhibitor of the inflammatory process. The hormone acts as an "immunological buffer" activating impaired immunity in immunosuppression, chronic stress or old age as well as suppressing overreaction of the immune system...
October 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Shih-Chi Su, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Wei-En Yang, Wen-Hung Chung, Russel J Reiter, Shun-Fa Yang
Melatonin is a naturally occurring molecule secreted by the pineal gland and known as a gatekeeper of circadian clocks. Mounting evidence indicates that melatonin, employing multiple and interrelated mechanisms, exhibits a variety of oncostatic properties in a myriad of tumors during different stages of their progression. Tumor metastasis, which commonly occurs at the late stage is responsible for the majority of cancer deaths; metastases lead to the development of secondary tumors distant from a primary site...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Wei-Wei Chen, Xia Zhang, Wen-Juan Huang
Pain and anxiety are the most common neurological responses to many harmful or noxious stimuli and their management clinically is often challenging. Many of the frequently used morphine-based drugs, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen, while efficient for treating pain, lead to patients suffering from several unwanted side effects. Melatonin, produced from the pineal body is a hormone of darkness, is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, and exerts a number of pharmacological effects...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lars Peter Holst Andersen
The hormone, melatonin is produced with circadian rhythm by the pineal gland in humans. The melatonin rhythm provides an endogenous synchronizer, modulating e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, cortisol rhythm, sleep-awake-cycle, immune function and anti-oxidative defence. Interestingly, a number of experimental animal studies demonstrate significant dose-dependent anti-nociceptive effects of exogenous melatonin. Similarly, recent experimental- and clinical studies in humans indicate significant analgesic effects...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Meena Patil, Manjiri Karandikar
Pineal tumors comprise 0.4 - 1.0% of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR) is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60 year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Aditya Kumar Gupta, Michael Jones, Kristina Prelog, John Bui, Jacqui Zhu, Anthea Ng, Luciano Dalla-Pozza
Patients with familial/heritable retinoblastoma (RB) are at increased risk of developing second malignancies throughout life, including a pineoblastoma (trilateral RB [TRB]) in early childhood. Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance brain imaging for those with heritable RB until 5 years of age. The presence of pineal cysts has been reported in patients with RB. Pineal cysts are thought to arise due to focal degeneration of the pineal gland and can be found incidentally. The finding of pineal abnormalities including cysts in children with RB on imaging is disconcerting, as it raises the possibility of an underlying malignancy, specifically a pinealoblastoma...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Janusz Blasiak, Russel J Reiter, Kai Kaarniranta
Melatonin, an indoleamine, is synthesized mainly in the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, but it is produced in many other organs, including the retina, which seems to be especially important as the eye is a primary recipient of circadian signals. Melatonin displays strong antioxidative properties, which predispose it to play a protective role in many human pathologies associated with oxidative stress, including premature aging and degenerative disease. Therefore, melatonin may play a role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease affecting photoreceptors, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with an established role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
I Paterniti, M Campolo, M Cordaro, D Impellizzeri, R Siracusa, R Crupi, E Esposito, S Cuzzocrea
Melatonin is the principal secretory product of the pineal gland, and its role as an immunomodulator is well established. Recent evidence shows that melatonin is a scavenger of oxyradicals and peroxynitrite and reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury events associated with spinal cord trauma. Previous results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor activated by fatty acids, plays a role in control of secondary inflammatory process associated with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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