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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092625/adrenergic-control-of-pinealocyte-chondriome-an-in-vitro-study
#2
B Przybylska-Gornowicz, B Lewczuk, N Ziółkowska, M Prusik
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic innervation plays the main role in the regulation of melatonin secretion in mammalian pinealocytes. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: 1) to establish whether the pinealocyte chondriome is controlled by norepinephrine, 2) to determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on mitochondria, and 3) to characterize adrenoceptors involved in the regulation of the chondriome. The static organ culture of the pineal gland was used. The explants were incubated for 5 consecutive days in control medium and between 20:00 and 08:00 in medium with the presence of 10 μM norepinephrine - adrenergic agonist; isoproterenol - beta-adrenoceptor agonist; cirazoline, methoxamine, M-6364 - alfa1 - adrenoceptors agonists or PMA - activator of PKC...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091817/teratomas-of-the-cranial-vault-a-systematic-analysis-of-clinical-outcomes-stratified-by-histopathological-subtypes
#3
Carlito Lagman, Timothy T Bui, Brittany L Voth, Lawrance K Chung, David J Seo, Courtney Duong, Mark R Libowitz, Naomi E Walker, Daniel T Nagasawa, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Teratomas of the cranial vault are divided into histopathological subtypes and grouped by prognoses: mature (good prognosis), mixed/malignant and immature teratomas (intermediate prognosis). This schema also includes non-teratomatous tumors. The authors of this study sought to elucidate histologically dependent predictors of survival and further clarify the classification system of intracranial teratomas. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis of the published literature to identify studies describing patients with intracranial teratomas diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and presenting definite information on histologies, therapies, and outcomes at a minimum follow-up of 2 years...
January 14, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078855/the-impact-of-electromagnetic-field-at-a-frequency-of-50-hz-and-a-magnetic-induction-of-2-5-mt-on-viability-of-pineal-cells-in-vitro
#4
A Koziorowska, E Pasiud, M Fila, M Romerowicz-Misielak
The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the pineal gland has been described in numerous studies, but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of the experiment described in this study was to evaluate the effect of EMF on the viability of the pineal gland cells of pig in vitro. Primary culture of the pineal gland cells has been exposed to the influence of an EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz with 1, 2 or 3 hours and for 3 hours every 2 or 3 days. After the experiment, viability of cells was assessed by MTT assay and compared to a control culture not exposed to electromagnetic fields...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069468/children-with-dorsal-midbrain-syndrome-as-a-result-of-pineal-tumors
#5
Mary Ellen Hoehn, Julie Calderwood, Thomas O'Donnell, Gregory T Armstrong, Amar Gajjar
BACKGROUND: Dorsal midbrain syndrome (also known as Parinaud syndrome and pretectal syndrome) is a well-known complication of tumors of the pineal region. However, there are few reports regarding outcomes, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to report the ophthalmic outcomes in a group of children with pineal tumors treated at a single institution. METHODS: The medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with pineal region tumors and evaluated at our ophthalmology clinic were studied retrospectively...
January 6, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061973/the-melatonergic-system-in-anxiety-disorders-and-the-role-of-melatonin-in-conditional-fear
#6
F Huang, Z Yang, C-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Resistance to extinction of certain conditioned responses forms the basis of anxieties, phobias, and compulsions. There has been an available effective means of extinction-based exposure psychotherapy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that has been hypothesized to result from impaired extinction of fear memory. PTSD is considered as a memory disorder within a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction framework. Therefore, the aim of this review was to report the preclinical profile of melatonin, a pineal gland hormone, as a potential pharmacological option in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD, tested with the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052648/neurocognitive-and-psychological-functioning-of-children-with-an-intracranial-germ-cell-tumor
#7
Younghee Park, Eun-Seung Yu, Boram Ha, Hyeon-Jin Park, Jong-Heun Kim, Joo-Young Kim
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the neurocognitive functioning of children with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) prior to receiving proton beam therapy (PBT), and to identify differential characteristics of their neurocognitive functioning depending on tumor location. As a secondary object of this study, neurocognitive functions were followed up at 1-2 years after PBT to examine early post-treatment changes. Material and Methods: Between 2008 and 2014, 34 children with IGCT treated who received PBT at National Cancer Center, Korea were enrolled in this study...
January 4, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042087/melatonin-as-a-promising-agent-of-regulating-stem-cell-biology-and-its-application-in-disease-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Shuo Zhang, Simon Chen, Yuan Li, Yu Liu
Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012610/secondary-to-excessive-melatonin-synthesis-the-consumption-of-tryptophan-from-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-melatonin-over-signaling-in-the-pars-tuberalis-may-be-central-to-the-pathophysiology-of-winter-depression
#9
José Carlos Pereira, Márcia Pradella Hallinan, Rosana Cardoso Alves
Seasonal affective disorder is defined as recurrent episodes of major depression, mania, or hypomania with seasonal onset and remission. In this class of mood disturbances, a unipolar major depressive disorder known as winter depression is common in populations living in northern latitudes far from the equator. Winter depression repeatedly occurs in the autumn or winter and remits in the spring or summer, and its etiopathogenesis is currently unknown. However, one can surmise that excessive melatonin production during the reduced duration of daily sunlight in the autumn and winter plays a role in its pathophysiology...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011926/evaluation-of-age-dependent-treatment-strategies-for-children-and-young-adults-with-pineoblastoma-analysis-of-pooled-european-society-for-paediatric-oncology-siop-e-and-us-head-start-data
#10
Martin Mynarek, Barry Pizer, Christelle Dufour, Dannis van Vuurden, Miklos Garami, Maura Massimino, Jason Fangusaro, Tom Davidson, Maria Joao Gil-da-Costa, Jaroslav Sterba, Martin Benesch, Nicolas Gerber, B Ole Juhnke, Robert Kwiecien, Torsten Pietsch, Marcel Kool, Steve Clifford, David W Ellison, Felice Giangaspero, Pieter Wesseling, Floyd Gilles, Nicholas Gottardo, Jonathan L Finlay, Stefan Rutkowski, Katja von Hoff
BACKGROUND: Pineoblastoma is a rare pineal region brain tumor. Treatment strategies have reflected those for other malignant embryonal brain tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Original prospective treatment and outcome data from international trial groups were pooled. Cox regression models were developed considering treatment elements as time-dependent covariates. RESULTS: Data on 135 patients with pineoblastoma aged 0.01-20.7 (median 4.9) years were analyzed...
December 23, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002522/primary-retroperitoneal-seminoma-embryology-histopathology-and-treatment-particularities
#11
Constantin Virgil Gîngu, Mihaela Mihai, Cătălin Baston, Mugurel Alexandru Crăsneanu, Alexandru Vladimir Dick, Vlad Olaru, Ioanel Sinescu
INTRODUCTION: Retroperitoneal seminoma is a very rare form of cancer, with embryological origin represented by primordial germ cells from the urogenital ridges left behind during the fetal development. Extragenital germ cell tumors can also occur in the mediastinum or the pineal gland. The aim of this paper is to outline the particularities and draw embryological, histopatological and treatment conclusions regarding extragonadal germ cell tumors. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 43-year-old patient without any additional pathology was admitted for anemia of unknown etiology...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001090/recent-technological-advances-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-surgery
#12
Bassel Zebian, Francesco Vergani, José Pedro Lavrador, Soumya Mukherjee, William John Kitchen, Vita Stagno, Christos Chamilos, Benedetta Pettorini, Conor Mallucci
X-rays and ventriculograms were the first imaging modalities used to localize intracranial lesions including brain tumors as far back as the 1880s. Subsequent advances in preoperative radiological localization included computed tomography (CT; 1971) and MRI (1977). Since then, other imaging modalities have been developed for clinical application although none as pivotal as CT and MRI. Intraoperative technological advances include the microscope, which has allowed precise surgery under magnification and improved lighting, and the endoscope, which has improved the treatment of hydrocephalus and allowed biopsy and complete resection of intraventricular, pituitary and pineal region tumors through a minimally invasive approach...
December 21, 2016: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992316/glutamate-excitotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-epilepsy-modulatory-role-of-melatonin
#13
Shruti Vishnoi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Suhel Parvez
Epilepsy is thought to be associated with oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The enhanced synthesis and release of oxygen free radicals is linked to the low and oxidative potential of the central nervous system. Glutamate excitotoxicity also contributes significantly to the production of reactive nitrogen species that cause nitrosative stress. A decrease in adenosine triphosphate synthesis, which leads to free radical formation, is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987529/melatonin-promotes-circadian-rhythm-induced-proliferation-through-interaction-of-clock-hdac3-c-myc-in-mice-adipose-tissue
#14
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Dan Luo, Chao Sun
Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/day) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, p < 0...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981356/chronomedicine-and-type-2-diabetes-shining-some-light-on-melatonin
#15
REVIEW
Andrew C Forrestel, Susanne U Miedlich, Michael Yurcheshen, Steven D Wittlin, Michael T Sellix
In mammals, the circadian timing system drives rhythms of physiology and behaviour, including the daily rhythms of feeding and activity. The timing system coordinates temporal variation in the biochemical landscape with changes in nutrient intake in order to optimise energy balance and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Circadian disruption (e.g. as a result of shift work or jet lag) can disturb this continuity and increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Obesity and metabolic disease can also disturb the timing and amplitude of the clock in multiple organ systems, further exacerbating disease progression...
December 16, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960163/melatonin-induces-anti-inflammatory-effects-to-play-a-protective-role-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-acute-pancreatitis
#16
Yina Chen, Jie Zhang, Qian Zhao, Qinfen Chen, Yangjie Sun, Yin Jin, Jiansheng Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melatonin, which is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and released into blood, has anti-inflammatory properties in acute pancreatitis. Many studies show that melatonin can relieve inflammation in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are still undefined, especially the relationship between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We explored the anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin in AR42J and rat models...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943459/protective-roles-of-melatonin-in-central-nervous-system-diseases-by-regulation-of-neural-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Xin Yu, Zheng Li, Heyi Zheng, Jeffery Ho, Matthew T V Chan, William Ka Kei Wu
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are immature precursors of the central nervous system (CNS), with self-renewal and multipotential differentiation abilities. Their proliferation and differentiation are dynamically regulated by hormonal and local factors. Alteration in neurogenesis is associated with many neurological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that modulation of NSCs can be a promising therapeutic approach for neural injury and neurodegenerative disorders. Melatonin, a pineal gland-derived hormone, regulates the neuroimmuno-endocrine axis and is functionally important to the circadian rhythm, tumour suppression and immunity...
December 12, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942944/the-suprapineal-recess-of-the-third-ventricle-an-anatomic-study-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: The suprapineal recess (SPR) is a small, backward extension of the third ventricle. Few radiological studies have investigated the morphology of the SPR. Here, we explore the SPR with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: A total of 124 patients underwent thin-slice MR imaging examinations with T2-weighted imaging and the constructive interference steady-state (CISS) sequence. Imaging data were transferred to a workstation for analysis. RESULTS: The pineal gland (P) was delineated in 99% of the patients on T2-weighted imaging and 100% of the patients on the CISS sequence...
December 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942881/predictors-of-early-in-hospital-death-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-swollen-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#19
Jarle Sundseth, Antje Sundseth, Eva Astrid Jacobsen, Are Hugo Pripp, Wilhelm Sorteberg, Marianne Altmann, Karl-Fredrik Lindegaard, Jon Berg-Johnsen, Bente Thommessen
BACKGROUND: Swollen middle cerebral artery infarction is a life-threatening disease and decompressive craniectomy is improving survival significantly. Despite decompressive surgery, however, many patients are not discharged from the hospital alive. We therefore wanted to search for predictors of early in-hospital death after craniectomy in swollen middle cerebral artery infarction. METHODS: All patients operated with decompressive craniectomy due to swollen middle cerebral artery infarction at the Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway, between May 1998 and October 2010, were included...
February 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928096/extremely-late-recurrence-21-years-after-total-removal-of-immature-teratoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Yui Mano, Masayuki Kanamori, Toshihiro Kumabe, Ryuta Saito, Mika Watanabe, Yukihiko Sonoda, Teiji Tominaga
Immature teratoma (IMT) is normally treated by resection and adjuvant therapy. The present unusual case of recurrent germinoma occurred 21 years after total resection of pineal IMT. A 3-year-old boy presented with headache, disturbance of consciousness, and Parinaud's syndrome. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a pineal mass lesion, and total resection of the tumor was achieved. The histological diagnosis was mature teratoma. He did not receive further treatment, and did well without recurrence for 20 years...
December 7, 2016: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
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