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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922884/a-single-institution-experience-with-pineal-region-tumors-50-tumors-over-1-decade
#1
Isaac Josh Abecassis, Brian Hanak, Jason Barber, Martin Mortazavi, Richard G Ellenbogen
BACKGROUND: Pineal region tumors are rare intracranial tumors that are more common in children than adults. Surgical management of tumors in this region using a tailored approach is a strategy that enhances extent of resection and neurological outcome. OBJECTIVE: To review our institutional experience with pineal region tumors in children and adults over the past 10 years. METHODS: Our institutional pathology database and patient records were retrospectively reviewed for details regarding clinical and radiological presentation, surgical management, extent of resection, morbidity, and neurological outcome...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919448/review-7%C3%AE-hydroxypregnenolone-regulating-locomotor-behavior-identified-in-the-brain-and-pineal-gland-across-vertebrates
#2
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Shogo Haraguchi, Hubert Vaudry
The brain synthesizes steroids de novo from cholesterol, which are called neurosteroids. Based on extensive studies on neurosteroids over the past thirty years, it is now accepted that neurosteroidogenesis in the brain is a conserved property across vertebrates. However, the formation of bioactive neurosteroids in the brain is still incompletely elucidated in vertebrates. In fact, we recently identified 7 α -hydroxypregnenolone (7 α -OH PREG) as a novel bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor behavior in the brain of several vertebrates...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919247/the-effect-of-directed-photic-stimulation-of-the-pineal-on-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs...
September 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914878/-pineal-cyst
#4
I T Abramov, D I Pitskhelauri, N K Serova
A pineal cyst (PC) is a benign neoplasm in the pineal region, or more precisely in the pineal body. Most cysts are incidental findings and are not associated with symptoms typical of patients seeking medical advice. Symptomatic cysts are discovered less often and, depending on the clinical picture, require different treatment approaches. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the literature data about the clinical picture, diagnosis, and treatment of PCs for more than a century (1914-2016)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912098/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-sirt3-attenuates-sodium-fluoride-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-activating-the-mt1-pi3k-akt-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Chao Song, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Dan Li, Tingchao Mao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in liver. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized in the pineal gland, was previously shown to protect against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin pretreatment on NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and elucidates the potential mechanism of melatonin-mediated protection. Reducing mitochondrial ROS by melatonin substantially attenuated NaF-induced NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation and cytotoxicity in L-02 cells...
September 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911201/gene-expression-profiling-of-puberty-associated-genes-reveals-abundant-tissue-and-sex-specific-changes-across-postnatal-development
#6
Huayun Hou, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Maisam Makarem, Christina Corre, Shems Saleh, Ariane Metcalf, Anna Goldenberg, Mark R Palmert, And Michael D Wilson
The timing of human puberty is highly variable, sexually dimorphic, and associated with adverse health outcomes. Over 20 genes carrying rare mutations have been identified in known pubertal disorders, many of which encode critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 candidate genes at loci associated with age at menarche or voice breaking in males. We know little about the spatial, temporal or postnatal expression patterns of the majority of these puberty-associated genes...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911179/deciphering-the-function-of-the-blunt-circadian-rhythm-of-melatonin-in-the-newborn-lamb-impact-on-adrenal-and-heart
#7
Maria Seron-Ferre, Claudia Torres-Farfan, Francisco J Valenzuela, Sebastian Castillo-Galan, Auristela Rojas, Natalia Mendez, Henry Reynolds, Guillermo J Valenzuela, Anibal J Llanos
Neonatal lambs, as with human and other neonates, have low arrhythmic endogenous levels of melatonin for several weeks until they start their own pineal rhythm of melatonin production at approximately 2 weeks of life. During pregnancy, daily rhythmic transfer of maternal melatonin to the fetus has important physiological roles in sheep, nonhuman primates, and rats. This melatonin rhythm provides a circadian signal and also participates in adjusting the physiology of several organs in preparation for extrauterine life...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882401/loss-and-gain-of-cone-types-in-vertebrate-ciliary-photoreceptor-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Jacob M Musser, Detlev Arendt
Ciliary photoreceptors are a diverse cell type family that comprises the rods and cones of the retina and other related cell types such as pineal photoreceptors. Ciliary photoreceptor evolution has been dynamic during vertebrate evolution with numerous gains and losses of opsin and phototransduction genes, and changes in their expression. For example, early mammals lost all but two cone opsins, indicating loss of cone receptor types in response to nocturnal life style. Our review focuses on the comparison of specifying transcription factors and cell type-specific transcriptome data in vertebrate retinae to build and test hypotheses on ciliary photoreceptor evolution...
September 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880375/melatonin-does-it-have-utility-in-the-treatment-of-hematologic-neoplasms
#9
REVIEW
Tian Li, Zhi Yang, Shuai Jiang, Wencheng Di, Zhiqiang Ma, Wei Hu, Fulin Chen, Russel J Reiter, Yang Yang
Melatonin, discovered in 1958 in the bovine pineal tissue, is an indoleamine that modulates circadian rhythms and has a wide variety of other functions. Hematologic neoplasms are the leading cause of death in children and adolescents throughout the world. Research has demonstrated that melatonin is a low-toxicity protective molecule against experimental hematological neoplasms, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Herein, we provide an introduction to hematologic neoplasms and melatonin, especially as they relate to the actions of melatonin on hematologic carcinogenesis...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867647/inhibitory-effects-of-melatonin-on-titanium-particle-induced-inflammatory-bone-resorption-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#10
Zichuan Ping, Zhirong Wang, Jiawei Shi, Liangliang Wang, Xiaobin Guo, Wei Zhou, Xuanyang Hu, Xiexing Wu, Yu Liu, Wen Zhang, Huilin Yang, Yaozeng Xu, Ye Gu, Dechun Geng
Wear debris-induced peri-implant osteolysis challenges the longevity of implants. The host response to wear debris causes chronic inflammation, promotes bone resorption, and impairs bone formation. We previously demonstrated that melatonin enhances bone formation and attenuates wear debris-induced bone loss in vivo. However, whether melatonin inhibits chronic inflammation and bone resorption at sites of wear debris-induced osteolysis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the potential inhibitory effects of melatonin on titanium particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis in a murine calvarial model and on RANKL-induced osteoclastic formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
August 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864562/waiting-for-the-sun-the-circannual-program-of-reindeer-is-delayed-by-the-recurrence-of-rhythmical-melatonin-secretion-after-the-arctic-night
#11
David Hazlerigg, Arnoldus Schytte Blix, Karl-Arne Stokkan
At temperate latitudes, the annual cycle of day length synchronizes circannual rhythms, and, in mammals, this is mediated via nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin, proportional to the length of the night. Here, we studied circannual synchronization in an arctic species, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus), which ceases to produce a rhythmic melatonin signal when it is exposed to extended periods of continuous midwinter darkness, and continuous midsummer light. Using food intake, antler growth and moult as endpoints, we demonstrate that when animals living at 70°N are transferred from natural photoperiods in late autumn to either continuous light or continuous darkness, they undergo a conspicuous acceleration of the circannual program...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#12
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844909/regression-of-pineal-lesions-spontaneous-or-iatrogenic-a-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Schipmann, Dennis Keurhorst, Michaela Köchling, Michael Schwake, Katharina Heß, Benedikt Sundermann, Walter Stummer, Angela Brentrup
Tumours arising from the pineal region account for approximately 1% of intracranial neoplasms. We present a case of a previously healthy five-year-old boy with an acute onset of headache. An MRI scan revealed a pineal mass with aqueduct compression. The patient was scheduled for tumour resection. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed in advance for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Afterwards a MRI showed a relevant regression of the pineal mass without specific treatment. Consequently, surgery was cancelled and further MRI follow-up revealed a regression of the mass and a constant tumour mass over a period of 30 month...
August 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833600/clinicopathologic-features-and-pathogenesis-of-melanocytic-colonization-in-atypical-meningioma
#14
Mitra Dehghan Harati, Andrew Yu, Shino D Magaki, Mari Perez-Rosendahl, Kyuseok Im, Young K Park, Marvin Bergsneider, William H Yong
Only two prior cases of benign dendritic melanocytes colonizing a meningioma have been reported. We add a third case, describe clinicopathologic features shared by the three, and elucidate the risk factors for this very rare phenomenon. A 29 year-old Hispanic woman presented with headache and hydrocephalus. MRI showed a lobulated enhancing pineal region mass measuring 41 mm in greatest dimension. Subtotal resection of the mass demonstrated an atypical meningioma, WHO grade II, and the patient subsequently underwent radiotherapy...
August 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828619/melatonin-transport-into-mitochondria
#15
REVIEW
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González-Menéndez, David Hevia, Rafael Cernuda-Cernuda
Melatonin is a well-known, nighttime-produced indole found in bacteria, eukaryotic unicellulars, animals or vascular plants. In vertebrates, melatonin is the major product of the pineal gland, which accounts for its increase in serum during the dark phase, but it is also produced by many other organs and cell types. Such a wide distribution is consistent with its multiple and well-described functions which include from the circadian regulation and adaptation to seasonal variations to immunomodulatory and oncostatic actions in different types of tumors...
August 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828230/synchrotron-scanning-reveals-the-palaeoneurology-of-the-head-butting-moschops-capensis-therapsida-dinocephalia
#16
Julien Benoit, Paul R Manger, Luke Norton, Vincent Fernandez, Bruce S Rubidge
Dinocephalian therapsids are renowned for their massive, pachyostotic and ornamented skulls adapted for head-to-head fighting during intraspecific combat. Synchrotron scanning of the tapinocephalid Moschops capensis reveals, for the first time, numerous anatomical adaptations of the central nervous system related to this combative behaviour. Many neural structures (such as the brain, inner ear and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve) were completely enclosed and protected by bones, which is unusual for non-mammaliaform therapsids...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815663/who-2016-classification-of-gliomas
#17
Pieter Wesseling, David Capper
Gliomas are the most frequent intrinsic tumours of the central nervous system and encompass two principle subgroups: diffuse gliomas and gliomas showing a more circumscribed growth pattern ('non-diffuse gliomas'). In the revised 4th edition of the WHO Classification of CNS tumors published in 2016, classification of especially diffuse gliomas has fundamentally changed: for the first time a large subset of these tumours is now defined based on presence/absence of IDH mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Following this approach, the diagnosis of (anaplastic) oligoastrocytoma can be expected to largely disappear...
August 16, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815312/trilateral-retinoblastoma-a-systematic-review-of-211-cases
#18
REVIEW
Ryuya Yamanaka, Azusa Hayano, Yasuo Takashima
We conducted a systematic review of 72 studies to characterize trilateral retinoblastomas. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival, and statistical significance was assessed by using a log-rank test. We analyzed 211 cases of trilateral retinoblastomas. The average age of onset of retinoblastoma was 0.79 ± 1.38 years, and the average latency period between the onset of retinoblastomas and trilateral retinoblastomas was 1.49 ± 1.76 years. The brain tumors were found before the retinoblastoma diagnosis in 6 cases (3...
August 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804040/significance-of-the-tentorial-alignment-in-protecting-the-occipital-lobe-through-the-poppen-approach-for-tentorial-or-pineal-area-meningiomas
#19
Deling Li, Haoyu Zhang, Wang Jia, Liwei Zhang, Junting Zhang, Weiming Liu, Ming Ni, Guijun Jia
OBJECT: We aimed to identify the factors that can predict the risk of occipital lobe damage preoperatively when resecting tumors located at the tentorial or pineal regions through the occipital-transtentorial approach (Poppen approach). METHODS: In 27 consecutive patients who underwent tumor resection through the Poppen approach for tentorial or pineal region meningiomas, the following morphologic parameters were assessed on a preoperative MRI: 1) tentorial angle; 2) tentorial length; 3) the shortest distance from the confluence of sinus to the tumor...
August 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803211/melatonin-protects-chondrocytes-from-impairment-induced-by-glucocorticoids-via-nad-dependent-sirt1
#20
Wei Yang, Xiaomin Kang, Na Qin, Feng Li, Xinxin Jin, Zhengmin Ma, Zhuang Qian, Shufang Wu
Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids is used to relieve pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis patients, which is occasionally accompanied with the serious side effects of glucocorticoids in collagen-producing tissue. Melatonin is the major hormone released from the pineal gland and its beneficial effects on cartilage has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of melatonin on matrix degeneration in chondrocytes induced by dexamethasone (Dex). The chondrocytes isolated from mice knee joint were treated with Dex, melatonin, EX527 and siRNA targeted for SIRT6, respectively...
October 2017: Steroids
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