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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623510/the-implication-of-neuronimmunoendocrine-nie-modulatory-network-in-the-pathophysiologic-process-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Yan Shen, Xingfang Guo, Chao Han, Fang Wan, Kai Ma, Shiyi Guo, Luxi Wang, Yun Xia, Ling Liu, Zhicheng Lin, Jinsha Huang, Nian Xiong, Tao Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder implicitly marked by the substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron degeneration and explicitly characterized by the motor and non-motor symptom complexes. Apart from the nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, the immune and endocrine study findings are also frequently reported, which, in fact, have helped to broaden the symptom spectrum and better explain the pathogenesis and progression of PD. Nevertheless, based on the neural, immune, and endocrine findings presented above, it is still difficult to fully recapitulate the pathophysiologic process of PD...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622599/adrenergic-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-structures-related-to-secretory-processes-in-pig-pinealocytes-an-ultrastructural-quantitative-study
#2
Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz, Bogdan Lewczuk, Natalia Ziółkowska, Magdalena Prusik
Two structures, considered as secretory in nature, are present in the pinealocytes in of the domestic pig show the presence of two structures, which are considered as secretory in nature - the dense core vesicles (DCV) and the membrane bounded (dense) bodies (MBB). The latter are extremely numerous in pig pinealocytes (they occupy 6-20% of the cytoplasm), and the number of MBB changes under different physiological and experimental conditions. Norepinephrine is the main neurotransmitter that regulates the secretion of pineal melatonin...
June 9, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622452/a-seasonal-and-age-related-study-of-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland-of-male-viscacha-lagostomus-maximus-maximus
#3
Fabricio Ivan Busolini, Gabriela Judith Rosales, Verónica Palmira Filippa, Fabian Heber Mohamed
The pineal gland of viscacha exhibits histophysiological variations throughout the year, with periods of maximal activity in winter and minimal activity in summer. The aim of this study was to analyze the interstitial cells (IC) in the pineal gland of male viscachas in relation to season and age. The S-100 protein, glio-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin were detected in adult and immature animals by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Double-IHC was also performed. The S-100 protein was localized within both, IC nucleus and cytoplasm...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621462/evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-neocortex-like-structure-in-a-late-permian-therapsid
#4
Michael Laaß, Anders Kaestner
The special sensory, motor, and cognitive capabilities of mammals mainly depend upon the neocortex, which is the six-layered cover of the mammalian forebrain. The origin of the neocortex is still controversial and the current view is that larger brains with neocortex first evolved in late Triassic Mammaliaformes. Here, we report the earliest evidence of a structure analogous to the mammalian neocortex in a forerunner of mammals, the fossorial anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis from the late Permian of Tanzania...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621458/what-did-the-unossified-zone-of-the-non-mammalian-therapsid-braincase-house
#5
Michael Laaß, Burkhard Schillinger, Anders Kaestner
Most nonmammalian synapsids possess a mid-dorsal depression in the brain cavity known as the "unossified zone." It remains obscure which structures this zone contained, and, as candidates, the vermis of the cerebellum, the superior sagittal sinus, a junction of several blood vessels, the pineal gland or other midbrain structures were considered. Neutron tomography of a skull of Diictodon feliceps (Therapsida, Anomodontia) revealed some clear impressions of canals in this region of the brain cavity. Furthermore, the prootic sinus probably ran on the internal surface of the pila antotica and had a similar course in anomodonts as it has been proposed for cynodonts and Mesozoic mammals...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608861/neonatal-pinealectomy-in-rats-a-simple-micro-suction-technique
#6
Bohdan Pawlicki, Brandon Michael Henry, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Mariusz Gajda, Iwona Brzozowska, Jerzy A Walocha, Anna Skowron-Cendrzak
To determine the role of the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin on various aspects of the functioning of the organism, the gland can be easily surgically removed in rats within 18 hours after birth. We performed pinealectomy in rats in a state of deep hypothermia under an operating microscope, using a micro-suction device of our own construction. The rats were induced into a state of suspended animation by placing them in the freezing compartment at minus 20 Celsius degrees. The cessation of respiration and heart beat lasted for about 15 minutes...
2017: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608154/neural-control-of-daily-and-seasonal-timing-of-songbird-migration
#7
Tyler J Stevenson, Vinod Kumar
Bird migration is one of most salient annual events in nature. It involves predictable seasonal movements between breeding and non-breeding habitats. Both circadian and circannual clocks are entrained by photoperiodic cues and time daily and seasonal changes in migratory physiology and behavior. This mini-review provides an update on daily and seasonal rhythms of migratory behavior, and examines the neuroendocrine and molecular pathways involved in the timing of migration in songbirds. Recent findings have identified key neural substrates, and suggest the involvement of multiple neuroendocrine regulatory systems in controlling seasonal states in migrants...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604593/melatonin-modulates-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-under-insulin-resistance-condition
#8
Juhyun Song, Oh Yoen Kim
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival against stress. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates the signaling of neuronal cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress under IR condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602925/supracerebellar-infratentorial-paramedian-approach-in-helsinki-neurosurgery-cornerstones-of-a-safe-and-effective-route-to-the-pineal-region
#9
Joham Choque-Velasquez, Roberto Colasanti, Julio C Resendiz-Nieves, Behnam Rezai Jahromi, Danil A Kozyrev, Peeraphong Thiarawat, Juha Hernesniemi
OBJECTIVE: The supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) paramedian approach in sitting position represents one of the most used surgical route for dealing with pineal region lesions. Purpose of our study is to determine the cornerstones to perform this approach in a simple, safe and effective way, so that it could be easily reproduced in other neurosurgical centers, particularly in those with modest resources. METHODS: We reviewed and analyzed the surgical videos of twenty-four pineal region lesions that were operated on through a SCIT approach between June 2012 and October 2015...
June 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598265/robot-assisted-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-institutional-experience-in-9-patients
#10
Reid Hoshide, Mark Calayag, Hal Meltzer, Michael L Levy, David Gonda
OBJECTIVE The endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is an established and effective treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus. In its most common application, surgeons plan their entry point and the endoscope trajectory for the procedure based on anatomical landmarks, then control the endoscope freehand. Recent studies report an incidence of neural injuries as high as 16.6% of all ETVs performed in North America. The authors have introduced the ROSA system to their ETV procedure to stereotactically optimize endoscope trajectories, to reduce risk of traction on neural structures by the endoscope, and to provide a stable mechanical holder of the endoscope...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588354/pax6-binds-to-promoter-sequence-elements-associated-with-immunological-surveillance-and-energy-homeostasis-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#11
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
BACKGROUND: Patients having mutations of Pax6 bear phenotypes that match age-associated neurological disorders. Mutations affect most cellular functions such as cell division, growth, differentiation, and cell death in brain, eyes, pituitary, pineal, and pancreas. The progressive reduction in the level of Pax6 during aging has also been observed. However, information about downstream targets of Pax6 in brain is unclear. Therefore, it is presumed that age-dependent alterations of Pax6 may also affect cascades of promoter sequence recognition in brain during aging...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587149/suppression-of-osteoclastogenesis-by-melatonin-a-melatonin-receptor-independent-action
#12
Hyung Joon Kim, Ha Jin Kim, Moon-Kyoung Bae, Yong-Deok Kim
In vertebrates, melatonin is primarily secreted from the pineal gland but it affects various biological processes including the sleep-wake cycle, vasomotor control, immune system and bone homeostasis. Melatonin has been known to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone maturation, but a direct role of melatonin on osteoclast differentiation is still elusive. The present study investigated the effect of melatonin on the differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts. The presence of melatonin significantly reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and the siRNA-mediated knockdown of the melatonin receptor failed to overcome the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of melatonin...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583453/conservative-and-surgical-treatment-of-patients-with-pineal-cysts-a-prospective-case-series-of-110-patients
#13
Martin Májovský, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš
BACKGROUND: A pineal cyst is a relatively common benign condition of the pineal gland. The clinical management of patients with a pineal cyst remains controversial, especially when patients present with non-specific symptoms. METHODS: We performed a prospective study between 2000 and 2016. All patients with a pineal cyst larger than 7 mm were included. Epidemiological data, presenting symptoms, surgical results and radiographic and clinical follow-up were documented...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577421/season-dependent-effects-of-photoperiod-and-temperature-on-circadian-rhythm-of-arylalkylamine-n-acetyltransferase2-gene-expression-in-pineal-organ-of-an-air-breathing-catfish-clarias-gariepinus
#14
Kshetrimayum Manisana Singh, Saurav Saha, Braj Bansh Prasad Gupta
Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity, aanat gene expression and melatonin production have been reported to exhibit prominent circadian rhythm in the pineal organ of most species of fish. Three types of aanat genes are expressed in fish, but the fish pineal organ predominantly expresses aanat2 gene. Increase and decrease in daylength is invariably associated with increase and decrease in temperature, respectively. But so far no attempt has been made to delineate the role of photoperiod and temperature in regulation of the circadian rhythm of aanat2 gene expression in the pineal organ of any fish with special reference to seasons...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577110/daily-chronomics-of-proteomic-profile-in-aging-and-rotenone-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model-in-male-wistar-rat-and-its-modulation-by-melatonin
#15
Anita Jagota, Ushodaya Mattam
Aging is associated with changes in several basic parameters of circadian timing system (CTS) in mammals leading to circadian dysfunction. We had reported earlier that upon aging and in rotenone induced Parkinson's disease (RIPD) rat model there were significant alterations in the core clock genes expression levels and daily pulses. To identify biomarkers of aging and PD chronomics of proteomic day-night profiles in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pineal and substantia nigra (SN) in 3 month (m), 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model were studied at two time points i...
June 2, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567065/the-psychoneuroendocrine-immunotherapy-of-cancer-historical-evolution-and-clinical-results
#16
REVIEW
Paolo Lissoni, Giusy Messina, Arianna Lissoni, Rovelli Franco
The prognosis of the neoplastic diseases depends not only on the biogenetic characteristics of cancer cells but also on the immunological response of patients, which may influence the biological features of cancer cells themselves as well as the angiogenic processes. Moreover, the immune system in vivo is under a physiological psychoneuroendocrine (PNE) regulation, mainly mediated by the brain opioid system and the pineal gland. In more detail, the anticancer immunity is stimulated by the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) and inhibited by the opioid system, namely, through a mu-opioid receptor...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566124/melatonin-for-prevention-of-erythema-and-oxidative-stress-in-response-to-ultraviolet-radiation
#17
Cecilie Scheuer
Skin damage induced by UVR is an escalating problem in dermatology, and increasing incidence of skin cancer, especially for non-melanoma skin cancer, has been reported worldwide. UVR from sun exposure and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be a pivotal factor in the aetiology of skin cancer. The pineal hormone melatonin is recognized as the most potent endogenous antioxidant. Melatonin conducts its antioxidant effects acting directly as a radical scavenger and indirectly by up regulation of antioxidant enzymes...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561756/local-actions-of-melatonin-in-somatic-cells-of-the-testis
#18
REVIEW
Mónica Beatriz Frungieri, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Soledad Paola Rossi
The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551848/mri-features-of-pediatric-intracranial-germ-cell-tumor-subtypes
#19
Chih-Chun Wu, Wan-Yuo Guo, Feng-Chi Chang, Chao-Bao Luo, Han-Jui Lee, Yi-Wei Chen, Yi-Yen Lee, Tai-Tong Wong
Intracranial germ cell tumors differ in histology and location, and require different clinical management strategies. We characterized the imaging features that may aid pre-operative differentiation of intracranial germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs). This retrospective study analyzed 85 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors and adequate preoperative or pretreatment MRIs between 2000 and 2013 at our institution. Pretreatment MRI characteristics, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, tumor histopathology, and patient outcomes were compared...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538229/treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumour-clinical-experience-from-a-regional-cancer-centre-in-north-india
#20
Ahitagni Biswas, Pramod Kumar Julka, Sameer Bakhshi, Manmohan Singh, Goura Kishor Rath
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial germ cell tumour is a rare entity and constitutes 2-3% of all paediatric brain tumours in Western countries. We herein intend to report the clinical features and treatment outcome of patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumour treated at our institute. METHODS: Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2012. Histopathology slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry stains were done...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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