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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#1
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317906/novel-hypophysiotropic-agrp2-neurons-and-pineal-cells-revealed-by-bac-transgenesis-in-zebrafish
#2
Inbal Shainer, Adi Buchshtab, Thomas A Hawkins, Stephen W Wilson, Roger D Cone, Yoav Gothilf
The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299428/the-avian-hippocampus-and-the-hypothetical-maps-used-by-navigating-migratory-birds-with-some-reflection-on-compasses-and-migratory-restlessness
#3
Verner P Bingman, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The homology between the avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus nurtures the expectation that HF plays a fundamental role in navigation by migratory birds. Indeed, HF of migratory birds displays anatomical properties that differ from non-migratory species. Using a hypothetical framework of multiple maps of differing spatial resolution and range, homing pigeon data suggest that HF is important for navigating by landscape features near familiar breeding, over-wintering, and stop-over sites...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294066/mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-alleviating-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Mayuri Shukla, Parichart Boontem, Russel J Reiter, Jutamaad Satayavivad, Piyarat Govitrapong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of higher cognitive functions and an associated loss of memory. The thus far "incurable" stigma for AD prevails because of variations in the success rates of different treatment protocols in animal and human studies. Among the classical hypotheses explaining AD pathogenesis, the amyloid hypothesis is currently being targeted for drug development. The underlying concept is to prevent the formation of these neurotoxic peptides which play a central role in AD pathology and trigger a multispectral cascade of neurodegenerative processes post-aggregation...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278291/diagnostic-accuracy-of-susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-pineal-gland-calcification
#5
Lisa C Adams, Sarah M Böker, Yvonne Y Bender, Gerd Diederichs, Eva M Fallenberg, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R Makowski
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. METHODS: 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273380/an-aanat-asmt-transgenic-animal-model-constructed-with-crispr-cas9-system-serving-as-the-mammary-gland-bioreactor-to-produce-melatonin-enrich-milk-in-sheep
#6
Teng Ma, Jingli Tao, Minghui Yang, Changjiu He, Xiuzhi Tian, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Shoulong Deng, Jianzhong Feng, Zhenzhen Zhang, Jing Wang, Pengyun Ji, Yukun Song, Pingli He, Hongbing Han, Juncai Fu, Zhengxing Lian, Guoshi Liu
Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriching milk will benefit to the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriching milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the non-transgenic cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270617/mechanisms-regulating-angiogenesis-underlie-seasonal-control-of-pituitary-function
#7
Jennifer Castle-Miller, David O Bates, Domingo J Tortonese
Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology, such as those affecting reproduction, hibernation, and metabolism, are controlled by pituitary hormones released in response to annual environmental changes. In temperate zones, the primary environmental cue driving seasonal reproductive cycles is the change in day length (i.e., photoperiod), encoded by the pattern of melatonin secretion from the pineal gland. However, although reproduction relies on hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone output, and most cells producing reproductive hormones are in the pars distalis (PD) of the pituitary, melatonin receptors are localized in the pars tuberalis (PT), a physically and functionally separate part of the gland...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254568/extra-hypothalamic-brain-clocks-in-songbirds-photoperiodic-state-dependent-clock-gene-oscillations-in-night-migratory-blackheaded-buntings-emberiza-melanocephala
#8
Devraj Singh, Vinod Kumar
The avian circadian pacemaker system is comprised of independent clocks in the retina, pineal and hypothalamus, as shown by daily and circadian oscillations of core clock genes (Per2, Cry1, Bmal1 and Clock) in several birds including migratory blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala). This study investigated the extra-hypothalamic brain circadian clocks in blackheaded buntings, and measured Per2, Cry1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Clock mRNA expressions at 4h intervals over 24h beginning 1h after light-on in the left and right telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum, the brain regions involved in several physiological and cognitive functions...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251954/-novel-agonists-of-melatonin-receptors-as-promising-hypotensive-and-neuroprotective-agents-for-therapy-of-glaucoma
#9
N B Chesnokova, O V Beznos, N A Lozinskaya, M S Volkova, E V Zaryanova, N A Zefirov, A V Grigoryev
Melatonin is a pineal hormone that has a capacity to lower intraocular pressure; it exhibits neuroprotective and antioxidant properties that make it possible to use melatonin in the therapy of glaucoma. Analogs of melatonin having affinity to melatonin receptors are promising candidates for application as antiglaucomatous drugs. Chemical modification of the melatonin structure can in-crease efficiency, bioavailability and selectivity of these analogs. We have designed and synthe-sized a number of new 2-oxindole derivatives - ligands of melatonin MT3 subtype receptors that displayed ability to lower intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits and high antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion-radical...
January 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247123/identification-of-characteristic-features-of-pineal-germinoma-that-enhance-accuracy-of-preoperative-differentiation-in-pineal-region-tumors-its-significance-on-optimum-surgical-treatment
#10
Akihiro Inoue, Takanori Ohnishi, Shohei Kohno, Shiro Ohue, Shinji Iwata, Shirabe Matsumoto, Masahiro Nishikawa, Saya Ozaki, Yosuke Mizuno, Riko Kitazawa, Takeharu Kunieda
The aim of the study is to identify characteristic features of pineal germinoma that enhance preoperative accuracy in differentiating germinoma from other pineal region tumors. Twenty-one consecutive patients with pineal region tumors were enrolled. In all patients, tumor resection was performed to verify the histology. Clinical records including upward gaze palsy of Parinaud's syndrome and neuroimaging were analyzed. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and tumor progression patterns in pineal germinoma...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240360/melatonin-induced-increase-of-lipid-droplets-accumulation-and-in-vitro-maturation-in-porcine-oocytes-is-mediated-by-mitochondrial-quiescence
#11
Bin He, Chao Yin, Yabin Gong, Jie Liu, Huiduo Guo, Ruqian Zhao
Melatonin, the major pineal secretory product, has a significant impact on the female reproductive system. Recently, the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian oocyte maturation and embryonic development have drawn increased attention. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. This study demonstrates that supplementing melatonin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium enhances IVM rate, lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation as well as triglyceride content in porcine oocytes. Decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) content indicated that melatonin induced a decrease of mitochondrial activity...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236180/supraorbital-subfrontal-trans-laminar-endoscope-assisted-approach-for-tumors-of-the-posterior-third-ventricle
#12
Maurizio Iacoangeli, Roberto Colasanti, Domenic Esposito, Alessandro Di Rienzo, Lucia di Somma, Mauro Dobran, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati
BACKGROUND: Different surgical approaches have been developed for dealing with third ventricle lesions, all aimed at obtaining a safe removal minimizing brain manipulation. The supraorbital subfrontal trans-lamina terminalis route, commonly employed only for the anterior third ventricle, could represent, in selected cases with endoscopic assistance, an alternative approach to posterior third ventricular lesions. METHODS: Seven patients underwent a supraorbital subfrontal trans-laminar endoscope-assisted approach to posterior third ventricle tumors (two craniopharyngiomas, one papillary tumor of the pineal region, one pineocytoma, two neurocytomas, one glioblastoma)...
February 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236067/mixed-pineal-mature-teratoma-and-germinoma-in-two-brothers-of-the-fraternal-triplets
#13
Gordan Grahovac, Tord Alden, Wadhwani Nitin
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial teratomas are rare germ cell neoplasms that contain tissues derived from all three germ cell layers and most commonly occurring during childhood. This is the first report of pineal region mixed mature teratoma and germinoma in two fraternal brothers of fraternal triplets. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a mixed mature teratoma and germinoma of the pineal region in two brothers of fraternal triplets. Older brother was initially diagnosed at the age of 11 years with the pure teratoma of the pineal region but the review of the pathology 3 years after initial surgery revealed the mixed mature teratoma with 5% germinomatous component...
February 24, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228901/primary-choriocarcinoma-of-the-bilateral-basal-ganglia-presenting-in-a-teenaged-male
#14
Brandon C Perry, Francisco A Perez, Jason N Nixon, Bonnie L Cole, Gisele Ishak
Primary intracranial choriocarcinoma (PICCC), a type of germ-cell tumor, is a very rare primary tumor of the central nervous system that generally arises in the pineal or suprasellar region. We present a case of a teenage boy with PICCC of the bilateral basal ganglia, an anatomic site for which we were unable to find the previous reports. We offer discussion of the differential diagnosis, imaging characteristics, and prognosis of PICCC and germ-cell tumors of the basal ganglia, in the hope that it will increase awareness and allow for early detection...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222021/intense-blue-light-therapy-during-the-night-time-does-not-suppress-the-rhythmic-melatonin-biosynthesis-in-a-young-boy
#15
K Stebelova, J Kosnacova, M Zeman
OBJECTIVE: Melatonin is a hormone predominantly synthesized and secreted during the night by the pineal gland. Artificial light at night, especially its blue part, acutely suppresses the melatonin production. Th e aim of the present study was to find out, whether an intense blue light phototherapy of severe hyperbilirubinemia, may suppress the melatonin production during the night when the eyes will be properly protected by a sleep mask. METHODS: The main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured in urine in a nine-year old boy suffering from the Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I...
January 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221369/chemistry-based-molecular-signature-underlying-the-atypia-of-clozapine
#16
T Cardozo, E Shmelkov, K Felsovalyi, J Swetnam, T Butler, D Malaspina, S V Shmelkov
The central nervous system is functionally organized as a dynamic network of interacting neural circuits that underlies observable behaviors. At higher resolution, these behaviors, or phenotypes, are defined by the activity of a specific set of biomolecules within those circuits. Identification of molecules that govern psychiatric phenotypes is a major challenge. The only organic molecular entities objectively associated with psychiatric phenotypes in humans are drugs that induce psychiatric phenotypes and drugs used for treatment of specific psychiatric conditions...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218891/blood-transcriptome-based-biomarkers-for-human-circadian-phase
#17
Emma E Laing, Carla S Möller-Levet, Norman Poh, Nayantara Santhi, Simon N Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk
Diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders both require assessment of circadian phase of the brain's circadian pacemaker. The gold-standard univariate method is based on collection of a 24-hr time series of plasma melatonin, a suprachiasmatic nucleus-driven pineal hormone. We developed and validated a multivariate whole-blood mRNA-based predictor of melatonin phase which requires few samples. Transcriptome data were collected under normal, sleep-deprivation and abnormal sleep-timing conditions to assess robustness of the predictor...
February 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215583/clinicopathologic-characteristics-of-metastatic-esophageal-carcinoma-isolated-to-the-pineal-region-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Margaret E Flanagan, John R Williams, Samuel N Emerson, Peter A Chiarelli, Richard G Ellenbogen, Patrick J Cimino
Metastasis to the pineal region is a rare event, and esophageal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pineal region is exceptionally rare, with only two cases reported in the current literature. Here, we characterize a third case of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the pineal region, and compare clinicopathological characteristics among all three cases. The three patients were men, with ages at neurological presentation ranging from 48 to 65years. Time from initial esophageal adenocarcinoma diagnosis to development of neurologic symptoms ranged from 12 to 23months...
February 16, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214985/melatonin-alleviates-the-epilepsy-associated-impairments-in-hippocampal-ltp-and-spatial-learning-through-rescue-of-surface-glur2-expression-at-hippocampal-ca1-synapses
#19
Yue Ma, Xiaolong Sun, Juan Li, Ruihua Jia, Fang Yuan, Dong Wei, Wen Jiang
Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212404/the-pineal-gland-a-model-for-adrenergic-modulation-of-ubiquitin-ligases
#20
Jerry Vriend, Wenjun Liu, Russel J Reiter
INTRODUCTION: A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine...
2017: PloS One
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