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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#1
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422058/melatonin-a-review-of-its-potential-functions-and-effects-on-dental-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Maria Permuy, Mónica López-Peña, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Fernando Muñoz
Melatonin is a hormone synthesised and secreted by the pineal gland and other organs. Its secretion, controlled by an endogenous circadian cycle, has been proven to exert immunological, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can be beneficial in the treatment of certain dental diseases. This article is aimed at carrying out a review of the literature published about the use of melatonin in the dental field and summarising its potential effects. In this review article, an extensive search in different databases of scientific journals was performed with the objective of summarising all of the information published on melatonin use in dental diseases, focussing on periodontal diseases and dental implantology...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417262/melatonin-inhibits-neural-cell-apoptosis-and-promotes-locomotor-recovery-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Zhaoliang Shen, Zipeng Zhou, Shuang Gao, Yue Guo, Kai Gao, Haoyu Wang, Xiaoqian Dang
The spinal cord is highly sensitive to spinal cord injury (SCI) by external mechanical damage, resulting in irreversible neurological damage. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can effectively reduce apoptosis and protect against SCI. Melatonin, an indoleamine originally isolated from bovine pineal tissue, exerts neuroprotective effects after SCI through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413554/confounding-features-of-ectopic-craniopharyngioma-a-differential-for-tumors-showing-diffusion-restriction
#4
Sudha Karnan, Vanitha Krishnamoorthy, Kailasanathan Natarajan, Babu Peter Sathyanathan
Craniopharyngiomas comprise approximately 1-3% of all intracranial tumors and arise from squamous epithelial rests along remnants of Rathke's cleft. They have bimodal age distribution. The ectopic sites reported are the nasopharynx, sphenoid bone, pineal region, cerebellopontine angle and third ventricle. We report a case of ectopic craniopharyngioma in the Foramen of Monro with restricted diffusion, which have is an unusual feature, not commonly reported and is a potential pitfall.
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413204/the-study-of-the-circannual-relationship-between-the-activity-of-the-epiphysis-and-gonads-in-rats-of-different-sex-and-age
#5
N Kononenko, V Hnatiuk
The relationship between the activity of the epiphysis and gonads in rats of different sex and age in different seasons of the year was determined by studying the levels of melatonin and testosterone in the blood plasma. Determination of the levels of melatonin and testosterone in the serum of rats was carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To assess the relationship between the levels of melatonin and testosterone the correlation coefficient was calculated. Based on the study of the levels of melatonin and testosterone in serum the circannual relationship between the activity of the pineal gland and gonads in males of reproductive age has been determined...
April 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408139/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-melatonin-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-exposed-to-sublethal-dose-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#6
Chutikorn Nopparat, Varunya Chantadul, Kannika Permpoonputtana, Piyarat Govitrapong
Brain inflammaging is considered as one of the underlying factors of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine mainly synthesized by the pineal gland, on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inflammaging state in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data showed that p21(Cip1) and p16(INK4a), cell cycle arrest markers, and the number of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βgal) staining increased significantly in H2O2-treated cells. Melatonin treatment could reverse this effect...
April 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400824/melatonin-and-human-mitochondrial-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Amin Soltani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394432/immunofluorescence-reveals-unusual-patterns-of-labelling-for-connexin43-localized-to-calbindin-d28k-positive-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland
#8
D D Tsao, S G Wang, B D Lynn, J I Nagy
Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382516/ramelteon-a-selective-mt1-mt2-receptor-agonist-suppresses-the-proliferation-and-invasiveness-of-endometrial-cancer-cells
#9
Kiyono Osanai, Yoichi Kobayashi, Masahiro Otsu, Tomoko Izawa, Keiji Sakai, Mitsutoshi Iwashita
The incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing, making it the fifth most common cancer worldwide. To date, however, there is no standard therapy for patients with recurrent endometrial cancer. Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in various tumor types. Although melatonin is available as a supplement, it has not been approved for cancer treatment. Ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor type 1 and 2 (MT1/MT2) receptor agonist, has been approved to treat sleep disorders, suggesting that ramelteon may be effective in the treatment of endometrial cancer...
April 5, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375941/two-tumors-in-1-what-should-be-the-therapeutic-target-pediatric-germ-cell-tumor-with-somatic-malignant-transformation
#10
Cecile Faure Conter, Brice Fresneau, Estelle Thebaud, Amandine Bertrand, Frederique Dijoud, Angelique Rome, Cecile Dumesnil, Marie Pierre Castex, Anguella Ghanem, Daniel Orbach
BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors with somatic malignant transformation (GCT with SMT) are rare in children and poorly described. Data are missing to determine if therapies should target the GCT, the SMT compound, or both simultaneously. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective national study was conducted in the Société Française des cancers de l'Enfant (SFCE) Centers. Medical records from patients aged 0 to 18 years diagnosed with GCT with SMT between 2000 and 2015 were analyzed...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#11
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi Nong Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn Jonathan Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
March 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368307/trpv4-stimulation-induced-melatonin-secretion-by-increasing-arylalkymine-n-acetyltransferase-aanat-protein-level
#12
Hanan Awad Alkozi, Maria J Perez de Lara, Juan Sánchez-Naves, Jesús Pintor
Melatonin is a molecule which has gained a great deal of interest in many areas of science; its synthesis was classically known to be in the pineal gland. However, many organs synthesize melatonin, such as several ocular structures. Melatonin is known to participate in many functions apart from its main action regulating the circadian rhythm. It is synthesized from serotonin in two steps, with a rate-limiting step carried out by arylalkymine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this report, the role of TRPV4 channel present in human ciliary body epithelial cells in AANAT production was studied...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347292/protocol-for-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-trial-of-melatonin-for-treatment-of-nocturia-in-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-menims
#13
D Delgado, L Canham, N Cotterill, D Cottrell, M J Drake, K Inglis, D Owen, P White
BACKGROUND: Nocturia (the symptom of needing to wake up to pass urine) is common in progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Moderate-to-severe nocturia affects quality of life, can exacerbate fatigue and may affect capacity to carry out daily activities. Melatonin is a natural hormone regulating circadian cycles, released by the pineal gland at night-time, and secretion is impaired in MS. Melatonin levels can be supplemented by administration in tablet form at bedtime. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of melatonin on mean number of nocturia episodes per night in MS patients...
March 27, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#14
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323163/cerebrospinal-and-interstitial-fluid-transport-via-the-glymphatic-pathway-modeled-by-optimal-mass-transport
#15
Vadim Ratner, Yi Gao, Hedok Lee, Rena Elkin, Maiken Nedergaard, Helene Benveniste, Allen Tannenbaum
The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317906/novel-hypophysiotropic-agrp2-neurons-and-pineal-cells-revealed-by-bac-transgenesis-in-zebrafish
#16
Inbal Shainer, Adi Buchshtab, Thomas A Hawkins, Stephen W Wilson, Roger D Cone, Yoav Gothilf
The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299428/the-avian-hippocampus-and-the-hypothetical-maps-used-by-navigating-migratory-birds-with-some-reflection-on-compasses-and-migratory-restlessness
#17
Verner P Bingman, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The homology between the avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus nurtures the expectation that HF plays a fundamental role in navigation by migratory birds. Indeed, HF of migratory birds displays anatomical properties that differ from non-migratory species. Using a hypothetical framework of multiple maps of differing spatial resolution and range, homing pigeon data suggest that HF is important for navigating by landscape features near familiar breeding, over-wintering, and stop-over sites...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294066/mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-alleviating-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Mayuri Shukla, Parichart Boontem, Russel J Reiter, Jutamaad Satayavivad, Piyarat Govitrapong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of higher cognitive functions and an associated loss of memory. The thus far "incurable" stigma for AD prevails because of variations in the success rates of different treatment protocols in animal and human studies. Among the classical hypotheses explaining AD pathogenesis, the amyloid hypothesis is currently being targeted for drug development. The underlying concept is to prevent the formation of these neurotoxic peptides which play a central role in AD pathology and trigger a multispectral cascade of neurodegenerative processes post-aggregation...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278291/diagnostic-accuracy-of-susceptibility-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-evaluation-of-pineal-gland-calcification
#19
Lisa C Adams, Sarah M Böker, Yvonne Y Bender, Gerd Diederichs, Eva M Fallenberg, Moritz Wagner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus R Makowski
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. METHODS: 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273380/an-aanat-asmt-transgenic-animal-model-constructed-with-crispr-cas9-system-serving-as-the-mammary-gland-bioreactor-to-produce-melatonin-enrich-milk-in-sheep
#20
Teng Ma, Jingli Tao, Minghui Yang, Changjiu He, Xiuzhi Tian, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Shoulong Deng, Jianzhong Feng, Zhenzhen Zhang, Jing Wang, Pengyun Ji, Yukun Song, Pingli He, Hongbing Han, Juncai Fu, Zhengxing Lian, Guoshi Liu
Melatonin as a potent antioxidant exhibits important nutritional and medicinal values. To produce melatonin-enriching milk will benefit to the consumers. In this study, a sheep bioreactor which generates melatonin-enriching milk has been successfully developed by the technology that combined CRISPR/Cas9 system and microinjection. The AANAT and ASMT were cloned from pineal gland of Dorper sheep (Ovis aries). The in vitro studies found that AANAT and ASMT were successfully transferred to the mammary epithelial cell lines and significantly increased melatonin production in the culture medium compared to the non-transgenic cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
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