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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549796/development-of-the-error-monitoring-system-from-ages-9-35-unique-insight-provided-by-mri-constrained-source-localization-of-eeg
#1
George A Buzzell, John E Richards, Lauren K White, Tyson V Barker, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
The ability to self-detect errors and dynamically adapt behavior is a cornerstone of higher-level cognition, requiring coordinated activity from a network of neural regions. However, disagreement exists over how the error-monitoring system develops throughout adolescence and early adulthood. The present report leveraged MRI-constrained EEG source localization to detail typical development of the error-monitoring system in a sample of 9-35 year-olds (n=43). Participants performed a flanker task while high-density EEG was recorded; structural MRIs were also acquired for all participants...
May 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549234/lesion-characteristics-driving-right-hemispheric-language-reorganization-in-congenital-left-hemispheric-brain-damage
#2
Karen Lidzba, Bianca de Haan, Marko Wilke, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Martin Staudt
Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI...
May 23, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546077/systemic-administration-of-l-kynurenine-sulfate-induces-cerebral-hypoperfusion-transients-in-adult-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Dániel Péter Varga, Ákos Menyhárt, Tamás Puskás, Ferenc Bari, Eszter Farkas, Zsolt Kis, László Vécsei, József Toldi, Levente Gellért
The kynurenine pathway is a cascade of enzymatic steps generating biologically active compounds. l-kynurenine (l-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation. In the mammalian brain, l-KYN is partly converted to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which exerts multiple effects on neurotransmission. Recently, l-KYN or one of its derivatives were attributed a direct role in the regulation of the systemic circulation. l-KYN dilates arterial blood vessels during sepsis in rats, while it increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in awake rabbits...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539879/multiple-neural-networks-malfunction-in-primary-blepharospasm-an-independent-components-analysis
#4
Xiao-Feng Huang, Meng-Ru Zhu, Ping Shan, Chen-Hui Pei, Zhan-Hua Liang, Hui-Ling Zhou, Ming-Fei Ni, Yan-Wei Miao, Guo-Qing Xu, Bing-Wei Zhang, Ya-Yin Luo
Primary blepharospasm (BPS) is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary blinking and eyelid spasms. The pathophysiology of BPS remains unclear. Several neuroimaging studies have suggested dysfunction of sensory processing and sensorimotor integration, but the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine whether patients with BPS exhibit altered functional brain connectivity and to explore possible correlations between these networks and clinical variables. Twenty-five patients with BPS and 25 healthy controls were enrolled...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538517/greater-corticostriatal-activation-associated-with-facial-motor-imagery-compared-with-motor-execution-a-functional-mri-study
#5
Meena M Makary, Seulgi Eun, Kyungmo Park
Motor imagery (MI) relies on conscious mental simulation of a motor act without overt motor output and can promote motor skill acquisition and facilitate rehabilitation for patients with stroke or neurological conditions. Although a plethora of neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural network of MI regarding different body parts, exploration of the neural correlates to facial MI remains warranted. Here, we used functional MRI with a large cohort of 41 participants who underwent motor execution (ME) and MI runs of mouth-stretching tasks...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536517/differential-recruitment-of-parietal-cortex-during-spatial-and-non-spatial-reach-planning
#6
Pierre-Michel Bernier, Kevin Whittingstall, Scott T Grafton
The planning of goal-directed arm reaching movements is associated with activity in the dorsal parieto-frontal cortex, within which multiple regions subserve the integration of arm- and target-related sensory signals to encode a motor goal. Surprisingly, many of these regions show sustained activity during reach preparation even when target location is not specified, i.e., when a motor goal cannot be unambiguously formed. The functional role of these non-spatial preparatory signals remains unresolved. Here this process was investigated in humans by comparing reach preparatory activity in the presence or absence of information regarding upcoming target location...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536516/multi-regional-adaptation-in-human-auditory-association-cortex
#7
Urszula Malinowska, Nathan E Crone, Frederick A Lenz, Mackenzie Cervenka, Dana Boatman-Reich
In auditory cortex, neural responses decrease with stimulus repetition, known as adaptation. Adaptation is thought to facilitate detection of novel sounds and improve perception in noisy environments. Although it is well established that adaptation occurs in primary auditory cortex, it is not known whether adaptation also occurs in higher auditory areas involved in processing complex sounds, such as speech. Resolving this issue is important for understanding the neural bases of adaptation and to avoid potential post-operative deficits after temporal lobe surgery for treatment of focal epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535411/the-effectiveness-of-the-computerized-visual-perceptual-training-program-on-individuals-with-down-syndrome-an-fmri-study
#8
Yi-Ting Wan, Ching-Sui Chiang, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Yee-Pay Wuang
This study investigated the effectiveness of the Computerized Visual Perception Training (CVPT) program on individuals with Down syndrome (DS, mean age=13.17±4.35years, age range: 6.54-20.75 years). All participants have mild intellectual disability classified by the standard IQ measures (mean=61.2, ranges from 55 to 68). Both the Test of Visual Perceptual Skill- Third Edition (TVPS-3) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to evaluate the training outcomes. Results of TVPS-3 and fMRI showed that DS group had visual perceptual deficits and abnormal neural networks related to visual organization...
May 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534658/dynamic-brain-glucose-metabolism-identifies-anti-correlated-cortical-cerebellar-networks-at-rest
#9
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Corinde E Wiers, Sunny W Kim, Şukru B Demiral, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
It remains unclear whether resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) networks are associated with underlying synchrony in energy demand, as measured by dynamic 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoroglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We measured absolute glucose metabolism, temporal metabolic connectivity (t-MC) and rfMRI patterns in 53 healthy participants at rest. Twenty-two rfMRI networks emerged from group independent component analysis (gICA). In contrast, only two anti-correlated t-MC emerged from FDG-PET time series using gICA or seed-voxel correlations; one included frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, the other included the cerebellum and medial temporal regions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532578/impaired-peripheral-reaching-and-on-line-corrections-in-patient-df-optic-ataxia-with-visual-form-agnosia
#10
Stéphanie Rossit, Monika Harvey, Stephen H Butler, Larissa Szymanek, Stéphanie Morand, Simona Monaco, Robert D McIntosh
An influential model of vision suggests the presence of two visual streams within the brain: a dorsal occipito-parietal stream which mediates action and a ventral occipito-temporal stream which mediates perception. One of the cornerstones of this model is DF, a patient with visual form agnosia following bilateral ventral stream lesions. Despite her inability to identify and distinguish visual stimuli, DF can still use visual information to control her hand actions towards these stimuli. These observations have been widely interpreted as demonstrating a double dissociation from optic ataxia, a condition observed after bilateral dorsal stream damage in which patients are unable to act towards objects that they can recognize...
April 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529806/increased-alpha-rhythm-dynamic-range-promotes-recovery-from-visuospatial-neglect-a-neurofeedback-study
#11
Tomas Ros, Abele Michela, Anne Bellman, Philippe Vuadens, Arnaud Saj, Patrik Vuilleumier
Despite recent attempts to use electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) as a tool for rehabilitation of motor stroke, its potential for improving neurological impairments of attention-such as visuospatial neglect-remains underexplored. It is also unclear to what extent changes in cortical oscillations contribute to the pathophysiology of neglect, or its recovery. Utilizing EEG-NFB, we sought to causally manipulate alpha oscillations in 5 right-hemisphere stroke patients in order to explore their role in visuospatial neglect...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528847/independent-contributions-of-fmri-familiarity-and-novelty-effects-to-recognition-memory-and-their-stability-across-the-adult-lifespan
#12
Marianne de Chastelaine, Julia T Mattson, Tracy H Wang, Brian E Donley, Michael D Rugg
The impact of age on the neural correlates of familiarity-driven recognition memory has received relatively little attention. Here, the relationships between age, the neural correlates of familiarity, and memory performance were investigated using an associative recognition test in young, middle-aged and older participants. Test items comprised studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new word pairs. fMRI 'familiarity effects' were operationalized as greater activity for studied test pairs incorrectly identified as 'rearranged' than for correctly rejected new pairs...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#13
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527790/visual-cortex-signals-a-mismatch-between-regularity-of-auditory-and-visual-streams
#14
Michael Andric, Ben Davis, Uri Hasson
Understanding how humans code for and respond to environmental uncertainty/regularity is a question shared by current computational and neurobiological approaches to human cognition. To date, studies investigating neurobiological systems that track input uncertainty have examined responses to uni-sensory streams. It is not known, however, whether there exist brain systems that combine information about the regularity of input streams presented to different senses. We report an fMRI study that aimed to identify brain systems that relate statistical information across sensory modalities...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527714/investigation-of-left-and-right-lateral-fluid-percussion-injury-in-c57bl6-j-mice-in-vivo-functional-consequences
#15
Lesley D Schurman, Terry L Smith, Anthony J Morales, Nancy N Lee, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips, Aron H Lichtman
Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526620/evidence-for-cortical-structural-plasticity-in-humans-after-a-day-of-waking-and-sleep-deprivation
#16
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Nathalia Zak, Linn B Norbom, Per Ø Pedersen, Sophia H Quraishi, Atle Bjørnerud, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Ulrik F Malt, Inge R Groote, Lars T Westlye
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process required for human health and functioning. Insufficient sleep causes impairments across cognitive domains, and sleep deprivation can have rapid antidepressive effects in mood disorders. However, the neurobiological effects of waking and sleep are not well understood. Recently, animal studies indicated that waking and sleep are associated with substantial cortical structural plasticity. Here, we hypothesized that structural plasticity can be observed after a day of waking and sleep deprivation in the human cerebral cortex...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#17
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525604/decomposing-tool-action-observation-a-stereo-eeg-study
#18
F Caruana, P Avanzini, R Mai, V Pelliccia, G LoRusso, G Rizzolatti, G A Orban
A description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human cortical activity during cognitive tasks is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. In the present study, we employed stereo-EEG in order to assess the neural activity during tool-action observation. We recorded from 49 epileptic patients (5502 leads) implanted with intracerebral electrodes, while they observed tool and hand actions. We deconstructed actions into 3 events-video onset, action onset, and tool-object contact-and assessed how different brain regions respond to these events...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525569/comparative-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#19
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of MPH, modafinil and MDMA on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Methods: Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, MPH, modafinil and MDMA were administrated to 21 healthy subjects, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523564/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-environmental-enrichment-reduce-acute-cell-death-and-prevent-neurodevelopment-and-memory-impairments-in-rats-submitted-to-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#20
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, F K Odorcyk, L Reichert, J L Cordeiro, E F Sanches, L D Freitas, C Dalmaz, A Pagnussat, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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