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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#1
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804744/reduced-rich-club-connectivity-is-related-to-disability-in-primary-progressive-ms
#2
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Sibylle Hodecker, Bastian Cheng, Nadine Wanke, Kim Lea Young, Claus Hilgetag, Christian Gerloff, Christoph Heesen, Götz Thomalla, Susanne Siemonsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the structural connectivity of the brain's rich-club organization is altered in patients with primary progressive MS and whether such changes to this fundamental network feature are associated with disability measures. METHODS: We recruited 37 patients with primary progressive MS and 21 healthy controls for an observational cohort study. Structural connectomes were reconstructed based on diffusion-weighted imaging data using probabilistic tractography and analyzed with graph theory...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803349/scary-symptoms-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evidence-for-symptom-interpretation-bias-in-pathological-health-anxiety
#3
Zhimin Yan, Michael Witthöft, Josef Bailer, Carsten Diener, Daniela Mier
Patients with pathological health anxiety (PHA) tend to automatically interpret bodily sensations as sign of a severe illness. To elucidate the neural correlates of this cognitive bias, we applied an functional magnetic resonance imaging adaption of a body-symptom implicit association test with symptom words in patients with PHA (n = 32) in comparison to patients with depression (n = 29) and healthy participants (n = 35). On the behavioral level, patients with PHA did not significantly differ from the control groups...
August 12, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802727/brain-activation-during-processing-of-genuine-facial-emotion-in-depression-preliminary-findings
#4
REVIEW
Samantha J Groves, Toni L Pitcher, Tracy R Melzer, Jennifer Jordan, Janet D Carter, Gin S Malhi, Lucy C Johnston, Richard J Porter
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the neural correlates of processing genuine compared with posed emotional expressions, in depressed and healthy subjects using a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm METHOD: During fMRI scanning, sixteen depressed patients and ten healthy controls performed an Emotion Categorisation Task, whereby participants were asked to distinguish between genuine and non-genuine (posed or neutral) facial displays of happiness and sadness...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802589/ventral-lateral-parietal-cortex-and-episodic-memory-retrieval
#5
REVIEW
Michael D Rugg, Danielle R King
With the advent of functional neuroimaging it quickly became apparent that successful episodic memory retrieval was consistently associated with enhanced activity in ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC), especially the left angular gyrus. Here, we selectively review recent neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging evidence relevant to the question of the functional significance of this activity. We argue that the balance of the evidence suggests that the angular gyrus supports the representation of retrieved episodic information, and that this likely reflects a more general role for the region in representing multi-modal and multi-domain information...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801826/brain-activity-changes-in-somatosensory-and-emotion-related-areas-with-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-deficiency
#6
Masaru Kadowaki, Taku Tadenuma, Nobuyuki Kumahashi, Yuji Uchio
BACKGROUND: Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? METHODS: Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797109/upper-limb-movements-can-be-decoded-from-the-time-domain-of-low-frequency-eeg
#7
Patrick Ofner, Andreas Schwarz, Joana Pereira, Gernot R Müller-Putz
How neural correlates of movements are represented in the human brain is of ongoing interest and has been researched with invasive and non-invasive methods. In this study, we analyzed the encoding of single upper limb movements in the time-domain of low-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Fifteen healthy subjects executed and imagined six different sustained upper limb movements. We classified these six movements and a rest class and obtained significant average classification accuracies of 55% (movement vs movement) and 87% (movement vs rest) for executed movements, and 27% and 73%, respectively, for imagined movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794195/object-comparison-in-the-lateral-intraparietal-area
#8
Wei Song Ong, Koorosh Mirpour, James W Bisley
We can search for and locate specific objects in our environment by looking for objects with similar features. Object recognition involves stimulus similarity responses in ventral visual areas and task related responses in prefrontal cortex. We tested whether neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of posterior parietal cortex could form an intermediary representation, collating information from object specific similarity map representations to allow general decisions about whether a stimulus matches the object being looked for...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792619/corticosterone-and-exogenous-glucose-alter-blood-glucose-levels-neurotoxicity-and-vascular-toxicity-produced-by-methamphetamine
#9
John F Bowyer, Karen M Tranter, Sumit Sarkar, Nysia I George, Joseph P Hanig, Kimberly A Kelly, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Diane B Miller, James P O'Callaghan
Our previous studies have raised the possibility that altered blood glucose levels may influence and/or be predictive of methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of exogenous glucose and corticosterone (CORT) pretreatment alone or in combination with METH on blood glucose levels and the neural and vascular toxicity produced. METH exposure consisted of four sequential injections of 5, 7.5, 10, and 10 mg/kg (2h between injections) D-METH. The three groups given METH in combination with saline, glucose (METH+Glucose), or CORT (METH+CORT) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the corresponding treatment groups without METH except at 3 h after the last injection...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790399/gender-difference-in-spontaneous-deception-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Dongchuan Yu
Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In order to examine the neural substrates underlying more natural, spontaneous deception in real social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a two-person gambling card-game...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782545/reshaping-the-brain-after-stroke-the-effect-of-prismatic-adaptation-in-patients-with-right-brain-damage
#11
Sonia Crottaz-Herbette, Eleonora Fornari, Michael P Notter, Claire Bindschaedler, Laura Manzoni, Stephanie Clarke
Prismatic adaptation has been repeatedly reported to alleviate neglect symptoms; in normal subjects, it was shown to enhance the representation of the left visual space within the left inferior parietal cortex. Our study aimed to determine in humans whether similar compensatory mechanisms underlie the beneficial effect of prismatic adaptation in neglect. Fifteen patients with right hemispheric lesions and 11 age-matched controls underwent a prismatic adaptation session which was preceded and followed by fMRI using a visual detection task...
August 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782489/neural-correlates-in-patients-with-major-affective-disorders-an-fmri-study
#12
Maurizio Pompili
Brain areas of functional activation during emotional stimuli and their correlations with affective temperaments evaluated using Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) and hopelessness levels assessed with Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) have been investigated. Brain activity in response to emotional stimuli was examined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (NMR BOLD) signal. Seventeen subjects (mean age ± SD = 57 ± 12), diagnosed with major affective disorders and eighteen healthy controls (HC) (mean age ± SD = 50±11) participated in this study...
August 3, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780219/neurofunctionally-dissecting-the-reading-system-in-children
#13
Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M Jacobs, Hauke R Heekeren, Johannes C Ziegler
The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9-13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization)...
July 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#14
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772233/functional-mri-based-identification-of-brain-regions-activated-by-mechanical-noxious-stimulation-and-modulatory-effect-of-remifentanil-in-cats
#15
Dai Nagakubo, Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Masatoshi Kamata, Tomoya Iizuka, Kanako Muta, Naoki Fujita, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ryohei Nishimura
This study was conducted to identify the brain regions corresponding to mechanical noxious stimulation in cats using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to investigate the modulatory effect of remifentanil on the activation of these regions. Six healthy cats were anesthetized using a constant-rate infusion of alfaxalone. Cats were allocated to one of three treatment groups: remifentanil 0 (saline), 0.25, and 0.5μg/kg/min. A 3.0-T MRI unit was used to collect fMRI data. During the fMRI scanning, mechanical noxious stimulation was applied by tail clamping...
July 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772117/stirred-not-shaken-motor-control-with-partially-mixed-selectivity
#16
Hansjörg Scherberger
In this issue of Neuron, Zhang et al. (2017) demonstrate that neurons in human parietal cortex represent effector responses functionally segregated, while other movement variables are associated in a subordinated fashion. Such partially mixed selectivity facilitates efficient motor control in various behavioral contexts.
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769835/music-of-the-7ts-predicting-and-decoding-multivoxel-fmri-responses-with-acoustic-schematic-and-categorical-music-features
#17
Michael A Casey
Underlying the experience of listening to music are parallel streams of auditory, categorical, and schematic qualia, whose representations and cortical organization remain largely unresolved. We collected high-field (7T) fMRI data in a music listening task, and analyzed the data using multivariate decoding and stimulus-encoding models. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment, which measured BOLD responses evoked by naturalistic listening to twenty-five music clips from five genres. Our first analysis applied machine classification to the multivoxel patterns that were evoked in temporal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769784/cortical-surface-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-brain-with-white-matter-hyperintense-lesions
#18
Ying Zhuang, Xianjun Zeng, Bo Wang, Muhua Huang, Honghan Gong, Fuqing Zhou
Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769056/increased-epha4-ephexin1-signaling-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-plays-a-role-in-depression-like-phenotype
#19
Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Youge Qu, Mayumi Nakamura, Chao Dong, Chun Yang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Mei Han, Yukihiko Shirayama, Akiko Hayashi-Takagi, Kenji Hashimoto
Accumulating evidence suggests a role of the ephrin receptor EphA4 and the downstream protein ephexin1 in synaptic plasticity, which is implicated in depression. We examined whether EphA4-ephexin1 signaling plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression, and the antidepressant-like effect of EphA4 inhibitor rhynchophylline. We found increased ratios of p-EphA4/EphA4 and p-ephexin1/ephexin1 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of susceptible mice after social defeat stress...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768460/a-stranger-in-my-brain-neural-representation-for-unfamiliar-persons-using-fmri-repetition-suppression
#20
Elien Heleven, Siham Boukhlal, Frank Van Overwalle
Prior neuroimaging research demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) houses neural representations for traits and familiar persons that possess these traits. But do such neural representations also exist for people we do not know? We hypothesized that knowledge about unknown persons is encoded in "generic" mentalizing representations as opposed to "specific" representations for well-known individuals. Neural representations for unfamiliar persons were investigated by fMRI repetition suppression, which is a rapid suppression of fMRI responses upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus signaling the neural representation of this stimulus...
August 2, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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