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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723889/distinct-timescales-of-population-coding-across-cortex
#1
Caroline A Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri, Christopher D Harvey
The cortex represents information across widely varying timescales. For instance, sensory cortex encodes stimuli that fluctuate over few tens of milliseconds, whereas in association cortex behavioural choices can require the maintenance of information over seconds. However, it remains poorly understood whether diverse timescales result mostly from features intrinsic to individual neurons or from neuronal population activity. This question remains unanswered, because the timescales of coding in populations of neurons have not been studied extensively, and population codes have not been compared systematically across cortical regions...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#3
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720781/distinct-top-down-and-bottom-up-brain-connectivity-during-visual-perception-and-imagery
#4
N Dijkstra, P Zeidman, S Ondobaka, M A J van Gerven, K Friston
Research suggests that perception and imagination engage neuronal representations in the same visual areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that differentiate sensory perception from imagination remain unclear. Here, we examine the directed coupling (effective connectivity) between fronto-parietal and visual areas during perception and imagery. We found an increase in bottom-up coupling during perception relative to baseline and an increase in top-down coupling during both perception and imagery, with a much stronger increase during imagery...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715661/cognitive-decline-and-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-across-3-years-in-adults-with-down-syndrome
#5
Sigan L Hartley, Benjamin L Handen, Darlynne Devenny, Iulia Mihaila, Regina Hardison, Patrick J Lao, William E Klunk, Peter Bulova, Sterling C Johnson, Bradley T Christian
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing a unique opportunity to explore the early, preclinical stages of AD neuropathology. We examined change in brain amyloid-β accumulation via the positron emission tomography tracer [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) across 2 data collection cycles, spaced 3 years apart, and decline in cognitive functioning in 58 adults with DS without clinical AD. PiB retention increased in the anterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus cortex, parietal cortex, and anterior ventral striatum...
June 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714714/no-evidence-for-enhancements-to-visual-working-memory-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-to-prefrontal-or-posterior-parietal-cortices
#6
Matthew K Robison, William P McGuirk, Nash Unsworth
The present study examined the relative contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to visual working memory. Evidence from a number of different techniques has led to the theory that the PFC controls access to working memory (i.e., filtering), determining which information is encoded and maintained for later use whereas the parietal cortex determines how much information is held at 1 given time, regardless of relevance (i.e., capacity; McNab & Klingberg, 2008; Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005)...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#8
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711765/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-response-as-an-early-biomarker-of-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Nadia Shigaeff, Edson Amaro, Fabio G M Franco, Alessandro F Jacinto, Gabriela Chiochetta, Maysa S Cendoroglo, Vanessa A Citero
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether potential changes in brain activation patterns of elderly individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were cognitively healthy (without mild cognitive impairment or dementia) were associated with cognitive decline in executive function in the short-term. METHOD: We analyzed 43 individuals (23 MetS, 20 controls) using a global geriatric evaluation, a neuropsychological battery, and task-related (attention) fMRI exam. Correlation analysis between the fMRI signal at baseline and cognitive impairment after 1year was based on the voxel-based Pearson coefficient, corrected for multiple comparisons...
July 8, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#10
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Stämpfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710363/neural-correlates-of-altered-feedback-learning-in-women-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Franziska Ritschel, Daniel Geisler, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Richard Vettermann, Ronald Biemann, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with exaggerated self-control and altered reward-based decision making, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Consistent with the notion of excessive cognitive control, we recently found increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation in acutely ill patients (acAN) on lose-shift trials in a probabilistic reversal learning (PRL) task. However, undernutrition may modulate brain function. In attempt to disentangle trait from state factors, the current fMRI study investigated cognitive control in recovered patients (recAN)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709938/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-brain-glucose-and-ketone-metabolism-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
E Croteau, C A Castellano, M Fortier, C Bocti, T Fulop, N Paquet, S C Cunnane
INTRODUCTION: Deteriorating brain glucose metabolism precedes the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and appears to contribute to its etiology. Ketone bodies, mainly β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the primary alternative brain fuel to glucose. Some reports suggest that brain ketone metabolism is unchanged in AD but, to our knowledge, no such data are available for MCI. OBJECTIVE: To compare brain energy metabolism (glucose and acetoacetate) and some brain morphological characteristics in cognitively healthy older adult controls (CTL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709499/increased-occipital-gyrification-and-development-of-psychotic-disorders-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a%C3%A2-multicenter-study
#13
Daiki Sasabayashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Shinsuke Koike, Hidenori Yamasue, Naoyuki Katagiri, Atsushi Sakuma, Chika Obara, Mihoko Nakamura, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Kyo Noguchi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Masafumi Mizuno, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Anomalies of brain gyrification have been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting its neurodevelopmental pathology. However, it remains elusive whether individuals at risk for psychotic disorders exhibit deviated gyrification patterns, and whether such findings, if present, are predictive of transition to psychotic disorders. METHODS: This multicenter magnetic resonance imaging study investigated brain gyrification and its relationship to later transition to psychotic disorders in a large sample of at-risk mental state (ARMS) individuals...
July 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707166/altered-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
Hua-Jun Chen, Hai-Long Lin, Qiu-Feng Chen, Peng-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC))...
July 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707157/parcellation-of-macaque-cortex-with-anatomical-connectivity-profiles
#15
Jiaojian Wang, Zhentao Zuo, Sangma Xie, Yifan Miao, Yuanye Ma, Xudong Zhao, Tianzi Jiang
The macaque model has been widely used to investigate the brain mechanisms of specific cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. However, a detailed functional architecture map of the macaque cortex in vivo is still lacking. Here, we aimed to construct a new macaque cortex atlas based on its anatomical connectivity profiles using in vivo diffusion MRI. First, we defined the macaque cortical seed areas using the NeuroMaps atlas. Then, we applied the anatomical connectivity patterns-based parcellation approach to parcellate the macaque cortex into 80 subareas in each hemisphere, which were approximately symmetric between the two hemispheres...
July 13, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706186/twins-methods-quantitatively-explore-the-genetic-impact-on-children-and-adolescents-brain-gray-matter-volume
#16
Xiao-Lu Chen, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Xiao Hou, Xiao Li, Xing-Shun Ma, Xiao-Mei Hu, Hua-Qing Meng, Qian He, Lian-Sheng Zhao, Ying-Cheng Wang, Yi-Xiao Fu, Tao Li
The gray matter volumes of 58 pairs of twins ranging in age from 12 to 18 were measured by MRI to explore the genetic and environmental impacts on gray matter volume in twin children and adolescents. By means of A/C/E structural equation modeling, it was found that the gray matter volume in children and adolescents was jointly affected by genetic (A: 0.89) and environmental factors while genetic factors play a greater role. The gray matter volume in frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and lateral temporal lobe was mainly affected by genetics (A: 0...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#17
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704424/examining-distinct-working-memory-processes-in-children-and-adolescents-using-fmri-results-and-validation-of-a-modified-brown-peterson-paradigm
#18
Vanessa Siffredi, Pierre Barrouillet, Megan Spencer-Smith, Maarten Vaessen, Vicki Anderson, Patrik Vuilleumier
Verbal working memory (WM) comprises different processes (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) that are often compromised in brain diseases, but their neural correlates have not yet been examined in childhood and adolescence. To probe WM processes and associated neural correlates in developmental samples, and obtain comparable effects across different ages and populations, we designed an adapted Brown-Peterson task (verbal encoding and retrieval combined with verbal and visual concurrent tasks during maintenance) to implement during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704292/improvement-of-higher-brain-dysfunction-after-brain-injury-by-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-intensive-rehabilitation-therapy-case-report
#19
Takatoshi Hara, Masahiro Abo, Nobuyuki Sasaki, Naoki Yamada, Masachika Niimi, Mari Kenmoku, Kastuya Kawakami, Reiko Saito
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive cognitive rehabilitation (CR) were administered to two patients with cognitive dysfunction following brain injury. The first case was a 67-year-old man who presented with memory dysfunction, attention dysfunction, and decreased insight following diffuse axonal injury. High-frequency rTMS (10 Hz, 2400 pulses/day) targeting the anterior cingulate using a navigation system and CR were administered for 12 days at 1 year from the onset of injury...
July 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701934/neuronal-intra-individual-variability-masks-response-selection-differences-between-adhd-subtypes-a-need-to-change-perspectives
#20
Annet Bluschke, Witold X Chmielewski, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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