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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820892/maternal-autoimmune-antibodies-alter-the-dendritic-arbor-and-spine-numbers-in-the-infragranular-layers-of-the-cortex
#1
Jeanelle Ariza, Jesus Hurtado, Haille Rogers, Raymond Ikeda, Michael Dill, Craig Steward, Donnay Creary, Judy Van de Water, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
An association between maternal IgG antibodies reactive against proteins in fetal brain and an outcome of autism in the child has been identified. Using a mouse model of prenatal intraventricular administration of autism-specific maternal IgG, we demonstrated that these antibodies produce behavioral alterations similar to those in children with ASD. We previously demonstrated that these antibodies bind to radial glial stem cells (RG) and observed an increase in the number of divisions of translocating RG in the developing cortex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819238/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-upon-ethanol-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-pre-frontal-bdnf-levels-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#2
Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Andrea B Suárez, Lucas Barbosa Hoffmann, André Veloso Rueda, Mariana Rae, Priscila Marianno, Rosana Camarini
Environmental enrichment (EE) provides a non-pharmacological tool to alter drug-induced reward, yet its effects on ethanol-induced reward remain controversial. We analyzed adolescent vs. adult (mice) differences in the influence of EE on ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). The effects of these treatments on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the prefrontal cortex were examined in a separate group of animals. Ethanol-induced CPP was found in adults, and it was similar in EE and in animals reared under standard housing conditions (SC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819117/neuronal-encoding-of-self-and-others-head-rotation-in-the-macaque-dorsal-prefrontal-cortex
#3
M Lanzilotto, M Gerbella, V Perciavalle, C Lucchetti
Following gaze is a crucial skill, in primates, for understanding where and at what others are looking, and often requires head rotation. The neural basis underlying head rotation are deemed to overlap with the parieto-frontal attention/gaze-shift network. Here, we show that a set of neurons in monkey's Brodmann area 9/46dr (BA 9/46dr), which is involved in orienting processes and joint attention, becomes active during self head rotation and that the activity of these neurons cannot be accounted for by saccade-related activity (head-rotation neurons)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817417/brain-processing-of-the-temporal-dimension-of-acute-pain-in-short-term-memory
#4
Mina Khoshnejad, Mathieu Roy, Kristina Martinu, Jen-I Chen, Julien Cohen-Adad, Simon Grondin, Pierre Rainville
The dynamics of noxious sensation shapes pain perception, yet the memory of the temporal dimension of pain remains almost completely unexplored. Here, brain activity during the memory of pain duration was contrasted with that associated with the memory of pain intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed-reproduction task. Participants encoded, maintained during a short delay, and reproduced (1) the 'duration' of pain (i.e. onset-to-offset), (2) the 'dynamics' of pain (i.e. evolution of pain over time), or (3) the intensity of pain (i...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#5
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#6
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813200/brain-microstructural-abnormalities-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-voxel-based-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#7
Hua-Jun Chen, Peng-Fei Liu, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whole-brain microstructural abnormalities and their correlation with cognitive impairment in patients with cirrhosis using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent DKI. Cognition was measured using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy (HE) scores. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate between-group differences in DKI-derived parameters, including mean kurtosis, axial kurtosis, and radial kurtosis...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811367/amplification-of-local-changes-along-the-timescale-processing-hierarchy
#8
Yaara Yeshurun, Mai Nguyen, Uri Hasson
Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811179/lateral-frontal-pole-and-relational-processing-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-profile
#9
Bart Hartogsveld, Bob Bramson, Suhas Vijayakumar, A Dilene van Campen, José P Marques, Karin Roelofs, Ivan Toni, Harold Bekkering, Rogier B Mars
The functional contribution of the lateral prefrontal cortex to behavior has been discussed with reference to several higher-order cognitive domains. In a separate line of research, recent studies have focused on the anatomical organization of this part of the brain. However, these different approaches are rarely combined. Here, we combine previous work using anatomical connectivity that identified a lateral subdivision of the human frontal pole and work that suggested a general role for rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in processing higher-order relations, irrespective of the type of information...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811022/intact-metabolite-profiling-of-mouse-brain-by-probe-electrospray-ionization-triple-quadrupole-tandem-mass-spectrometry-pesi-ms-ms-and-its-potential-use-for-local-distribution-analysis-of-the-brain
#10
Yumi Hayashi, Kei Zaitsu, Tasuku Murata, Tomomi Ohara, Stéphane Moreau, Maiko Kusano, Hiroshi Tanihata, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Akira Ishii, Tetsuya Ishikawa
Probe electrospray ionization (PESI), which is an ambient ionization technique, enables us to analyze intact endogenous metabolites without sample preparation. In this study, we applied the newly developed method of PESI coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (PESI/MS/MS) to analyze metabolites in mouse brain, where its lipid composition often interfere with MS-based metabolome analysis. As a result, PESI/MS/MS directly detected 25 metabolites in a mouse frontal cortex, and clearly discriminated the metabolic profiles of mice model with energy metabolism disruption from control mice...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809854/in-the-grip-of-worry-cerebral-blood-flow-changes-during-worry-induction-and-reappraisal-in-late-life-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#11
H T Karim, D L Tudorascu, M A Butters, S Walker, H J Aizenstein, C Andreescu
Severe worry includes a complex blend of maladaptive affective and cognitive processes. Contrary to other forms of anxiety, there is no consensus in the field regarding the neural basis of worry. To date, no study has looked at neural patterns associated specifically with in-scanner induction and reappraisal of worry. In this study, we attempt to describe distinct components of the 'neural phenomenology' of worry: induction, maintenance, severity and reappraisal, by using a personalized, in-scanner worry script...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808819/separating-the-idea-from-the-action-a-sloreta-study
#12
Martin Rakusa, Pierpaolo Busan, Piero Paolo Battaglini, Janez Zidar
Simple imaginary movements activate similar cortical and subcortical areas to actual movements, chiefly in the sensory-motor network. However, only a few studies also examined the imagery of more skilful movements such as reaching. Ten volunteers performed reaching movements or imagined the same movements. EEG was simultaneously recorded and analysed with sLORETA, which compared the preparation for actual and imagined reaching with respect to their baseline and between tasks. Major differences between them were found at three time intervals after target presentation, always in favour of the actual reaching condition...
August 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808785/conserved-dna-methylation-combined-with-differential-frontal-cortex-and-cerebellar-expression-distinguishes-c9orf72-associated-and-sporadic-als-and-implicates-serpina1-in-disease
#13
Mark T W Ebbert, Christian A Ross, Luc J Pregent, Rebecca J Lank, Cheng Zhang, Rebecca B Katzman, Karen Jansen-West, Yuping Song, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Carla Palmucci, Pamela Desaro, Amelia E Robertson, Ana M Caputo, Dennis W Dickson, Kevin B Boylan, Rosa Rademakers, Tamas Ordog, Hu Li, Veronique V Belzil
We previously found C9orf72-associated (c9ALS) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) brain transcriptomes comprise thousands of defects, among which, some are likely key contributors to ALS pathogenesis. We have now generated complementary methylome data and combine these two data sets to perform a comprehensive "multi-omic" analysis to clarify the molecular mechanisms initiating RNA misregulation in ALS. We found that c9ALS and sALS patients have generally distinct but overlapping methylome profiles, and that the c9ALS- and sALS-affected genes and pathways have similar biological functions, indicating conserved pathobiology in disease...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808023/prefrontal-cortex-modulates-posterior-alpha-oscillations-during-top-down-guided-visual-perception
#14
Randolph F Helfrich, Melody Huang, Guy Wilson, Robert T Knight
Conscious visual perception is proposed to arise from the selective synchronization of functionally specialized but widely distributed cortical areas. It has been suggested that different frequency bands index distinct canonical computations. Here, we probed visual perception on a fine-grained temporal scale to study the oscillatory dynamics supporting prefrontal-dependent sensory processing. We tested whether a predictive context that was embedded in a rapid visual stream modulated the perception of a subsequent near-threshold target...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807619/neuroplasticity-related-mechanisms-underlying-the-antidepressant-like-effects-of%C3%A2-traditional-herbal-medicines
#15
REVIEW
Yafit Hirshler, Ravid Doron
Traditional herbal medicine can offer efficacious and safe alternative pharmacotherapies for depression. The ability of an herbal medicine to produce neuroadaptive processes, that enhance neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in response to chronic stress, may point to its antidepressant potential. We suggest that among many investigated herbal medicines, those that can enhance neuroplasticity may have stronger therapeutic potential. The current article presents a summary of traditional herbal medicines, which are thought to exert antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress models via neuroplasticity enhancement...
August 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#16
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805574/nonmotor-symptoms-in-vascular-and-other-secondary-parkinsonism
#17
Oleg S Levin, Achcha Sh Chimagomedova, Natalia A Skripkina, Elena A Lyashenko, Olga V Babkina
Vascular parkinsonism (VP) is a relatively frequent variant of secondary parkinsonism caused by ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions of basal ganglia, midbrain, or their links with frontal cortex. According to different investigations, various forms of cerebrovascular disease cause 1%-15% of parkinsonism cases. Nonmotor symptoms are frequently found in VP and may negatively influence on quality of life. However, nonmotor symptoms such as hallucinations, orthostatic hypotension, REM-sleep behavior disorder, and anosmia are rarely revealed in VP, which may be noted to another diagnosis or mixed pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804744/reduced-rich-club-connectivity-is-related-to-disability-in-primary-progressive-ms
#18
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Sibylle Hodecker, Bastian Cheng, Nadine Wanke, Kim Lea Young, Claus Hilgetag, Christian Gerloff, Christoph Heesen, Götz Thomalla, Susanne Siemonsen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the structural connectivity of the brain's rich-club organization is altered in patients with primary progressive MS and whether such changes to this fundamental network feature are associated with disability measures. METHODS: We recruited 37 patients with primary progressive MS and 21 healthy controls for an observational cohort study. Structural connectomes were reconstructed based on diffusion-weighted imaging data using probabilistic tractography and analyzed with graph theory...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804598/a-rigorous-method-to-enrich-for-exosomes-from-brain-tissue
#19
Laura J Vella, Benjamin J Scicluna, Lesley Cheng, Emma G Bawden, Colin L Masters, Ching-Seng Ang, Nicholas Willamson, Catriona McLean, Kevin J Barnham, Andrew F Hill
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are released by all cells, including those of the nervous system. Capable of delivering lipid, protein and nucleic acids to both nearby and distal cells, exosomes have been hypothesized to play a role in progression of many diseases of the nervous system. To date, most analyses on the role of these vesicles in the healthy and diseased state have relied on studying vesicles from in vitro sources, such as conditioned cell culture media, or body fluids. Here we have taken a critical approach to the enrichment and characterization of exosomes from human frontal cortex...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803854/dissociation-between-the-neural-correlates-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-the-striatum-and-hippocampus-across-study-convergence
#20
Danielle R King, Marianne de Chastelaine, Rachael L Elward, Tracy H Wang, Michael D Rugg
In tests of recognition memory, neural activity in the striatum has consistently been reported to differ according to the study status of the test item. A full understanding of the functional significance of striatal 'retrieval success' effects is impeded by a paucity of evidence concerning whether the effects differ according to the nature of the memory signal supporting the recognition judgment (recollection vs. familiarity). Here, we address this issue through an analysis of retrieval-related striatal activity in three independent fMRI studies (total N=88)...
August 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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