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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432493/effect-of-pharmacological-modulation-of-activity-of-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-on-their-gene-expression-after-excitotoxic-damage-in-hippocampal-neurons
#1
E V Pershina, M V Kapralova, V I Arkhipov
Microinjection of kainic acid into rat hippocampus causes excitotoxic neuronal damage predominantly in the CA3 and CA1 fields. These lesions can be significantly reduced by simultaneous administration of MPEP, a negative allosteric modulator of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, and LY354740, an agonist of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors. The decrease in neuronal death in the hippocampus during pharmacological modulation was paralleled by adaptive changes in gene expression. In the hippocampus, gene expression of type 5 postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor was close to the control level, and in the frontal cortex expression of the gene of α1-subunit of the GABAA receptor returned to normal...
April 22, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#2
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431987/patterns-of-brain-and-cardiovascular-activation-while-solving-rule-discovery-and-rule-application-numeric-tasks
#3
Tytus Sosnowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Małgorzata Wordecha, Anna Kępkowicz, Adrianna Majewska, Aleksandra Pstrągowska, Tomasz Oleksy, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka
It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430044/syntactic-complexity-and-frequency-in-the-neurocognitive-language-system
#4
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429498/separate-neural-systems-for-behavioral-change-and-for-emotional-responses-to-failure-during-behavioral-inhibition
#5
Wanlu Deng, Edmund T Rolls, Xiaoxi Ji, Trevor W Robbins, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Buechel, Sylvane Desrivières, Patricia Conrod, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Herve Lemaitre, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Jianfeng Feng
To analyze the involvement of different brain regions in behavioral inhibition and impulsiveness, differences in activation were investigated in fMRI data from a response inhibition task, the stop-signal task, in 1709 participants. First, areas activated more in stop-success (SS) than stop-failure (SF) included the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) extending into the inferior frontal gyrus (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, BA 47/12), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Second, the anterior cingulate and anterior insula (AI) were activated more on failure trials, specifically in SF versus SS...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428769/individualized-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-in-chronic-tinnitus
#6
Peter M Kreuzer, Timm B Poeppl, Rainer Rupprecht, Veronika Vielsmeier, Astrid Lehner, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal and temporo-parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus have shown significant but only moderate effectiveness with high interindividual variability in treatment response. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the general feasibility of an individualized fronto-temporal rTMS protocol and to explore what criteria are needed for a more detailed evaluation in randomized clinical studies. METHODS: During the first session of a 2-week rTMS protocol, we applied different rTMS protocols to the left and right temporo-parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 25 tinnitus patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428746/expression-of-d-amino-acid-oxidase-dao-daao-and-d-amino-acid-oxidase-activator-daoa-g72-during-development-and-aging-in-the-human-post-mortem-brain
#7
Vinita Jagannath, Zoya Marinova, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt
In the brain, D-amino acid oxidase (DAO/DAAO) mainly oxidizes D-serine, a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, DAO can regulate the function of NMDA receptors via D-serine breakdown. Furthermore, DAO activator (DAOA)/G72 has been reported as both DAOA and repressor. The co-expression of DAO and DAOA genes and proteins in the human brain is not yet elucidated. The aim of this study was to understand the regional and age span distribution of DAO and DAOA (mRNA and protein) in a concomitant manner...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427932/reciprocal-changes-in-noradrenaline-and-gaba-levels-in-discrete-brain-regions-upon-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#8
Rachna Mehta, Sudhuman Singh, Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays important role in maintenance of normal brain functions. Neurons containing various neurotransmitters in different brain regions interact to regulate this complex phenomenon in health and diseases. The number of neuronal projections, their firing rates and neurotransmitter levels vary in different brain regions under various conditions leading to normal or altered patho-physio-behavioral states. In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats...
April 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427841/localized-shape-abnormalities-in-the-thalamus-and-pallidum-are-associated-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Linglin Yang, Hong Li, Lujia Zhu, Xinfeng Yu, Bo Jin, Cong Chen, Shan Wang, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Zhong Chen, Shuang Wang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a common type of drug-resistant epilepsy and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) have devastating consequences for patients' safety and quality of life. To probe the mechanism underlying the genesis of sGTCS, we investigated the structural differences between patients with and without sGTCS in a cohort of mTLE with radiologically defined unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis of cortex and vertex-wise shape analysis of subcortical structures (the basal ganglia and thalamus) on MRI of 39 patients (21 with and 18 without sGTCS)...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427203/regional-structural-impairments-outside-lesions-are-associated-with-verbal-short-term-memory-deficits-in-chronic-subcortical-stroke
#10
Qingqing Diao, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Jingliang Cheng, Tong Han, Xuejun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the neural mechanisms of verbal short-term memory (VSTM) impairment in subcortical stroke by evaluating the contributions of lesion and remote grey matter volume (GMV) reduction. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between lesions and VSTM. In stroke patients with left lesions, GMV reductions in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with VSTM impairment...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425061/gray-matter-and-white-matter-changes-in-non-demented-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-or-without-cognitive-impairment-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-tract-based-spatial-statistics-whole-brain-analysis
#11
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Franz Riederer, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Georgios Velonakis, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Georgios Argiropoulos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, Thomas Zambelis, Athanasios Athanasakos, Panagiotis Toulas, Konstantinos Vadikolias, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Spyros Kollias, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#12
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424611/modafinil-induced-changes-in-functional-connectivity-in-the-cortex-and-cerebellum-of-healthy-elderly-subjects
#13
Miriam Punzi, Tommaso Gili, Laura Petrosini, Carlo Caltagirone, Gianfranco Spalletta, Stefano L Sensi
In the past few years, cognitive enhancing drugs (CEDs) have gained growing interest and the focus of investigations aimed at exploring their use to potentiate the cognitive performances of healthy individuals. Most of this exploratory CED-related research has been performed on young adults. However, CEDs may also help to maintain optimal brain functioning or compensate for subtle and or subclinical deficits associated with brain aging or early-stage dementia. In this study, we assessed effects on resting state brain activity in a group of healthy elderly subjects undergoing acute administration of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424572/functional-sensitivity-of-2d-simultaneous-multi-slice-echo-planar-imaging-effects-of-acceleration-on-g-factor-and-physiological-noise
#14
Nick Todd, Oliver Josephs, Peter Zeidman, Guillaume Flandin, Steen Moeller, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Accelerated data acquisition with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging for functional MRI studies leads to interacting and opposing effects that influence the sensitivity to blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Image signal to noise ratio (SNR) is decreased with higher SMS acceleration factors and shorter repetition times (TR) due to g-factor noise penalties and saturation of longitudinal magnetization. However, the lower image SNR is counteracted by greater statistical power from more samples per unit time and a higher temporal Nyquist frequency that allows for better removal of spurious non-BOLD high frequency signal content...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424423/the-antidepressant-like-effect-of-trans-astaxanthin-involves-the-serotonergic-system
#15
Xi Jiang, Keqi Zhu, Quanyi Xu, Guokang Wang, Jiajia Zhang, Rongrong Cao, Jiang Ye, Xuefeng Yu
The antidepressant-like effect of trans-astaxanthin, a compound present rich in algae, was evaluated through behavioral and neurochemical methods. Results showed that trans-astaxanthin treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in force swim test and tail suspension test, but did not influence locomotor activity. Trans-astaxanthin treatment did not effectively antagonize hypothermia and ptosis induced by reserpine. However, pre-treatment with para-chlorophenylalanine abolished the anti-immobility effect of trans-astaxanthin in force swim and tail suspension test...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424401/-the-map-of-auditory-function
#16
So Fujimoto, Yutaka Komura
Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are located in the superior temporal gyrus and regarded as auditory cortices. The fundamental function in audition is frequency analysis; however, the findings on tonotopy maps of the human auditory cortex were not unified until recently when they were compared to the findings on inputs and outputs of the monkey auditory cortex. The auditory cortex shows plasticity after conditioned learning and surgery of cochlear implant. It is also involved in speech perception, music appreciation, and auditory hallucination in schizophrenia through interactions with other brain areas, such as the thalamus, frontal cortex, and limbic systems...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424389/-brodmann-areas-8-and-9-including-the-frontal-eye-field
#17
Masataka Watanabe
Based on cytoarchitectonic analyses, Brodmann assigned numbers 8 and 9 to certain areas of the dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in humans and monkeys. Petrides and Pandya re-analyzed the cytoarchitectures of the human and monkey PFCs, and proposed slightly different brain maps for both species. They assigned numbers 8, 9 and 9/46 to the areas that were originally named areas 8 and 9. Areas 8 and 9 have both lateral and medial regions respectively. The lateral area 8 is important for conditional discrimination learning...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424387/-cortical-areas-for-controlling-voluntary-movements
#18
Yoshihisa Nakayama, Eiji Hoshi
The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423876/effects-of-confinement-on-physiological-and-psychological-response-and-expression-of-il-6-and-bdnf-mrna-in-primiparous-and-multiparous-weaning-sows
#19
Mingyue Zhang, Xiang Li, Jianhong Li, Hanqing Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jun Bao
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods: Sows (Large White) that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows) were compared. PLR parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed...
March 25, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422138/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-of-heroin-users-and-its-relationship-with-anxiety-a-pilot-fnirs-study
#20
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Drug addiction is widely linked to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is essential for regulating reward-related behaviors, emotional responses, and anxiety. Over the past two decades, neuroimaging has provided significant contributions revealing functional and structural alternations in the brains of drug addicts. However, the underlying neural mechanism in the OFC and its correlates with drug addiction and anxiety still require further elucidation. We first presented a pilot investigation to examine local networks in OFC regions through resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) from eight abstinent addicts in a heroin-dependent group (HD) and seven subjects in a control group (CG)...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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