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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#1
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719018/ante-mortem-csf-tau-levels-correlate-with-post-mortem-tau-pathology-in-ftld
#2
D J Irwin, A Lleó, S X Xie, C T McMillan, D Wolk, E B Lee, V M Van Deerlin, L M Shaw, J Q Trojanowski, M Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that 1) antemortem cerebrospinal fluid tau levels correlate with postmortem tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and 2) tauopathy patients have higher phosphorylated-tau levels compared to TDP-43 proteinopathy patients while accounting for Alzheimer's disease co-pathology. METHODS: Patients had autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy (n=31), TDP-43 proteinopathy (n=49), or Alzheimer's disease (n=26) with antemortem cerebrospinal fluid...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718763/a-theory-of-working-memory-without-consciousness-or-sustained-activity
#3
Darinka Trübutschek, Sébastien Marti, Andrés Ojeda, Jean-Rémi King, Yuanyuan Mi, Misha Tsodyks, Stanislas Dehaene
Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#4
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716965/neural-tuning-to-low-level-features-of-speech-throughout-the-perisylvian-cortex
#5
Julia Berezutskaya, Zachary V Freudenburg, Umut Güçlü, Marcel A J van Gerven, Nick F Ramsey
Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus, and how they engage higher-level language processing areas, such as inferior frontal gyrus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714580/differential-failure-to-deactivate-the-default-mode-network-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#6
Elena Rodríguez-Cano, Silvia Alonso-Lana, Salvador Sarró, Paloma Fernández-Corcuera, José M Goikolea, Eduard Vieta, Teresa Maristany, Raymond Salvador, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
OBJECTIVES: Neuroimaging studies have revealed evidence of brain functional abnormalities in bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies to date have compared these two mood disorders directly. METHODS: Matched groups of 26 BDD type I patients, 26 MDD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the n-back working memory task. A whole-brain ANOVA was used to compare the three groups and clusters of significant difference were examined further using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713649/accurate-external-localization-of-the-left-frontal-cortex-in-dogs-by-using-pointer-based-frameless-neuronavigation
#7
Robrecht Dockx, Kathelijne Peremans, Romain Duprat, Lise Vlerick, Nick Van Laeken, Jimmy H Saunders, Ingeborgh Polis, Filip De Vos, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: In humans, non-stereotactic frameless neuronavigation systems are used as a topographical tool for non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). TMS studies in dogs may provide treatment modalities for several neuropsychological disorders in dogs. Nevertheless, an accurate non-invasive localization of a stimulation target has not yet been performed in this species. HYPOTHESIS: This study was primarily put forward to externally locate the left frontal cortex in 18 healthy dogs by means of a human non-stereotactic neuronavigation system...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713328/recovery-from-unrecognized-sleep-loss-accumulated-in-daily-life-improved-mood-regulation-via-prefrontal-suppression-of-amygdala-activity
#8
Yuki Motomura, Shingo Kitamura, Kyoko Nakazaki, Kentaro Oba, Ruri Katsunuma, Yuri Terasawa, Akiko Hida, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Kazuo Mishima
Many modern people suffer from sleep debt that has accumulated in everyday life but is not subjectively noticed [potential sleep debt (PSD)]. Our hypothesis for this study was that resolution of PSD through sleep extension optimizes mood regulation by altering the functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Fifteen healthy male participants underwent an experiment consisting of a baseline (BL) evaluation followed by two successive interventions, namely, a 9-day sleep extension followed by one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#9
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711765/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-response-as-an-early-biomarker-of-cognitive-decline-in-elderly-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Nadia Shigaeff, Edson Amaro, Fabio G M Franco, Alessandro F Jacinto, Gabriela Chiochetta, Maysa S Cendoroglo, Vanessa A Citero
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether potential changes in brain activation patterns of elderly individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) who were cognitively healthy (without mild cognitive impairment or dementia) were associated with cognitive decline in executive function in the short-term. METHOD: We analyzed 43 individuals (23 MetS, 20 controls) using a global geriatric evaluation, a neuropsychological battery, and task-related (attention) fMRI exam. Correlation analysis between the fMRI signal at baseline and cognitive impairment after 1year was based on the voxel-based Pearson coefficient, corrected for multiple comparisons...
July 8, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#11
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Stämpfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710894/short-frontal-plane-fractures-involving-the-dorsoproximal-articular-surface-of-the-proximal-phalanx-description-of-the-injury-and-a-technique-for-repair
#12
I M Wright, G Minshall
BACKGROUND: Chip fractures of the dorsoproximal articular margin of the proximal phalanx are common injuries in racehorses. Large fractures can extend distal to the joint capsule insertion and have been described as dorsal frontal fractures. OBJECTIVES: To report the location and morphology of short frontal plane fractures involving the dorsoproximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx and to describe a technique for repair under arthroscopic and radiographic guidance...
July 15, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710667/parkinson-s-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-severe-cortical-thinning-antedates-dementia
#13
Carmen Gasca-Salas, Daniel García-Lorenzo, David Garcia-Garcia, Pedro Clavero, José A Obeso, Stephane Lehericy, María C Rodríguez-Oroz
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a risk factor for dementia and thus, it is of interest to elucidate if specific patterns of atrophy in PD-MCI patients are associated with a higher risk of developing dementia. We aim to define pattern(s) of regional atrophy in PD-MCI patients who developed dementia during 31 months of follow-up using cortical thickness analysis Twenty-three PD-MCI patients and 18 controls underwent brain MRI and completed a neuropsychological examination at baseline, PD-MCI patients were followed after a 31 month follow-up in order to assess their progression to dementia...
July 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710363/neural-correlates-of-altered-feedback-learning-in-women-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Franziska Ritschel, Daniel Geisler, Joseph A King, Fabio Bernardoni, Maria Seidel, Ilka Boehm, Richard Vettermann, Ronald Biemann, Veit Roessner, Michael N Smolka, Stefan Ehrlich
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with exaggerated self-control and altered reward-based decision making, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Consistent with the notion of excessive cognitive control, we recently found increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation in acutely ill patients (acAN) on lose-shift trials in a probabilistic reversal learning (PRL) task. However, undernutrition may modulate brain function. In attempt to disentangle trait from state factors, the current fMRI study investigated cognitive control in recovered patients (recAN)...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709999/tdcs-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-disrupts-control-of-interference-in-memory-a-retrieval-induced-forgetting-study
#15
Davide F Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Gianmarco Altoè, Giovanni Galfano
Retrieving information from episodic memory may result in later inaccessibility of related but task-irrelevant information. This phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting, is thought to represent a specific instance of broader cognitive control mechanisms, that would come into play during memory retrieval, whenever non-target competing memories interfere with recall of target items. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown an association between these mechanisms and the activity of the right Prefrontal Cortex...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709938/a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-brain-glucose-and-ketone-metabolism-in-cognitively-healthy-older-adults-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
E Croteau, C A Castellano, M Fortier, C Bocti, T Fulop, N Paquet, S C Cunnane
INTRODUCTION: Deteriorating brain glucose metabolism precedes the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and appears to contribute to its etiology. Ketone bodies, mainly β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the primary alternative brain fuel to glucose. Some reports suggest that brain ketone metabolism is unchanged in AD but, to our knowledge, no such data are available for MCI. OBJECTIVE: To compare brain energy metabolism (glucose and acetoacetate) and some brain morphological characteristics in cognitively healthy older adult controls (CTL), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD...
July 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709847/topographical-projections-from-the-nucleus-basalis-magnocellularis-meynert-to-the-frontal-cortex-a-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-study-in-rats
#17
Kazuaki Nagasaka, Yumiko Watanabe, Ichiro Takashima
BACKGROUND: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis/Meynert (NBM) has been explored as a new target for deep brain stimulation for neurological disorders. Although anatomical studies suggest the existence of cholinergic topographical projections of the NBM, it is still unknown whether NBM subregions differentially activate the frontal cortex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topography between the NBM and frontal cortex. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied to the anterior and posterior sites of the NBM in rats, and the evoked frontal activity was investigated using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging...
July 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709499/increased-occipital-gyrification-and-development-of-psychotic-disorders-in-individuals-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-a%C3%A2-multicenter-study
#18
Daiki Sasabayashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Shinsuke Koike, Hidenori Yamasue, Naoyuki Katagiri, Atsushi Sakuma, Chika Obara, Mihoko Nakamura, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Kyo Noguchi, Kazunori Matsumoto, Masafumi Mizuno, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Anomalies of brain gyrification have been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting its neurodevelopmental pathology. However, it remains elusive whether individuals at risk for psychotic disorders exhibit deviated gyrification patterns, and whether such findings, if present, are predictive of transition to psychotic disorders. METHODS: This multicenter magnetic resonance imaging study investigated brain gyrification and its relationship to later transition to psychotic disorders in a large sample of at-risk mental state (ARMS) individuals...
July 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709121/spatiotemporal-propagation-patterns-of-generalized-ictal-spikes-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#19
Vasileios Kokkinos, Andreas M Koupparis, Michalis Koutroumanidis, George K Kostopoulos
OBJECTIVE: This work investigates the spatial distribution in time of generalized ictal spikes in the typical absences of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). METHODS: We studied twelve children with CAE, who had more than two typical absences during their routine video-EEG. Seizures were identified, and ictal spikes were marked over the maximum electronegative peak, clustered, waveform-averaged and spatiotemporaly analyzed in 2D electrode space. RESULTS: Consistency of spatiotemporal patterns of ictal spikes was high between the absences of the same child, but low between children...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707717/an-autopsied-case-of-corticobasal-degeneration-presenting-with-frontotemporal-dementia-followed-by-myoclonus
#20
Yasushi Iwasaki, Keiko Mori, Masumi Ito, Maya Mimuro, Mari Yoshida
A Japanese woman developed frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-like symptoms of abnormal behavior, such as stereotyped behavior and disinhibition. The patient developed these symptoms at the age of 59 years, although aphasia symptoms were not apparent at early disease stages. Progressive parkinsonism was dominant on the left side, and conspicuous myoclonus was recognized in the late disease stage. MRI indicated severe, right side-dominant frontotemporal lobe atrophy with white matter degeneration. Brainstem and cerebellar atrophy were also observed...
July 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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