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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684944/comparing-categorical-and-probabilistic-fingerprint-evidence
#1
Brandon Garrett, Gregory Mitchell, Nicholas Scurich
Fingerprint examiners traditionally express conclusions in categorical terms, opining that impressions do or do not originate from the same source. Recently, probabilistic conclusions have been proposed, with examiners estimating the probability of a match between recovered and known prints. This study presented a nationally representative sample of jury-eligible adults with a hypothetical robbery case in which an examiner opined on the likelihood that a defendant's fingerprints matched latent fingerprints in categorical or probabilistic terms...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684810/associations-between-dairy-cow-inter-service-interval-and-probability-of-conception
#2
J G Remnant, M J Green, J N Huxley, C D Hudson
Recent research has indicated that the interval between inseminations in modern dairy cattle is often longer than the commonly accepted cycle length of 18-24 days. This study analysed 257,396 inseminations in 75,745 cows from 312 herds in England and Wales. The interval between subsequent inseminations in the same cow in the same lactation (inter-service interval, ISI) were calculated and inseminations categorised as successful or unsuccessful depending on whether there was a corresponding calving event. Conception risk was calculated for each individual ISI between 16 and 28 days...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684801/evaluation-of-racial-disparities-in-pediatric-optic-pathway-glioma-incidence-results-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-program-2000-2014
#3
Erin C Peckham-Gregory, Roberto E Montenegro, David A Stevenson, David H Viskochil, Michael E Scheurer, Philip J Lupo, Joshua D Schiffman
BACKGROUND: Racial predilection to pediatric cancer exists; however optic pathway glioma (OPG) risk differences by race/ethnicity are undefined. We estimated differences in OPG incidence across racial/ethnic groups in a multi-state cancer surveillance registry in the United States. METHODS: OPG data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER-18) Program, 2000-2014. Race/ethnicity was categorized as: White; Black; Asian; Other; and Latino/a ("Spanish-Hispanic-Latino")...
April 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684627/bioadhesives-for-internal-medical-applications-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Wenzhen Zhu, Yon Jin Chuah, Dong-An Wang
Bioadhesives such as tissue adhesives, hemostatic agents, and tissue sealants have gained increasing popularity in different areas of clinical operations during the last three decades. Bioadhesives can be categorized into internal and external ones according to their application conditions. External bioadhesives are generally applied in topical medications such as wound closure and epidermal grafting. Internal bioadhesives are mainly used in intracorporal conditions with direct contact to internal environment including tissues, organs and body fluids, such as chronic organ leak repair and bleeding complication reduction...
April 20, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684512/functional-characterization-and-molecular-modeling-of-the-mutations-in-cyp21a2-gene-from-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#5
Ragini Khajuria, Rama Walia, Anil Bhansali, Rajendra Prasad
Steroid 21-Hydroxylase deficiency is an inherited autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of the adrenal steroidogenesis caused due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene in 95% of CAH cases. Notably, the de novo mutations arise at the rate of 3-5%, therefore the functional characterization is of utmost importance for categorization of the novel mutations. Herein, we have functionally characterized the CYP21A2 missense mutations viz., p. F306V and p. H365 N. Notably, both the mutations were harbored by the patients exhibiting the non classical phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684481/trabecular-bone-texture-detected-by-plain-radiography-is-associated-with-mri-defined-osteophytes-in-finger-joints-of-women-without-radiographic-osteoarthritis
#6
M Wolski, P Podsiadlo, G W Stachowiak, M Englund, I K Haugen
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between trabecular bone (TB) texture and MRI-defined osteophytes in finger joints without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) using an augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) method. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, associations of the TB texture and osteophytes were examined in 21 women with mean (standard deviation) age of 69.9 (5.3) from the Oslo Hand OA cohort. The AVOT was applied to distal and proximal TB regions selected on hand radiographs of the subjects...
April 20, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684237/frailty-phenotype-and-healthcare-costs-and-utilization-in-older-women
#7
Kristine E Ensrud, Allyson M Kats, John T Schousboe, Brent C Taylor, Peggy M Cawthon, Teresa A Hillier, Kristine Yaffe, Steve R Cummings, Jane A Cauley, Lisa Langsetmo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of the frailty phenotype with subsequent healthcare costs and utilization. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF)). SETTING: Four U.S. sites. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling women (mean age 80.2) participating in SOF Year 10 (Y10) examination linked with their Medicare claims data (N=2,150). MEASUREMENTS: At Y10, frailty phenotype defined using criteria similar to those used in the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty phenotype and categorized as robust, intermediate stage, or frail...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684222/liver-disease-in-a-residential-cohort-with-elevated-polychlorinated-biphenyl-exposures
#8
Heather B Clair, Christina M Pinkston, Shesh N Rai, Marian Pavuk, Nina D Dutton, Guy Brock, Russell A Prough, K Cameron Falkner, Craig J McClain, Matthew C Cave
Endocrine and metabolism disrupting chemicals (EDCs/MDCs) have been associated with environmental liver diseases including toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH). TASH has previously been characterized by hepatocellular necrosis, disrupted intermediary metabolism, and liver inflammation. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental EDCs/MDCs associated with the genesis and progression of steatohepatitis in animal models and human liver injury in epidemiology studies. The cross-sectional Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS) investigates ortho-substituted PCB exposures and health effects near a former PCB manufacturing complex...
April 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684163/experimental-evolution-of-yeast-for-high-temperature-tolerance
#9
Chih-Jen Huang, Mei-Yeh Lu, Ya-Wen Chang, Wen-Hsiung Li
Thermotolerance is a polygenic trait that contributes to cell survival and growth under unusually high temperatures. Although some genes associated with high temperature growth (Htg+) have been identified, how cells accumulate mutations to achieve prolonged thermotolerance is still mysterious. Here we conducted experimental evolution of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strain with stepwise temperature increases for it to grow at 42 °C. Whole genome resequencing of 14 evolved strains and the parental strain revealed a total of 153 mutations in the evolved strains, including single nucleotide variants, small INDELs, and segmental duplication/deletion events...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684036/malay-sentiment-analysis-based-on-combined-classification-approaches-and-senti-lexicon-algorithm
#10
Ahmed Al-Saffar, Suryanti Awang, Hai Tao, Nazlia Omar, Wafaa Al-Saiagh, Mohammed Al-Bared
Sentiment analysis techniques are increasingly exploited to categorize the opinion text to one or more predefined sentiment classes for the creation and automated maintenance of review-aggregation websites. In this paper, a Malay sentiment analysis classification model is proposed to improve classification performances based on the semantic orientation and machine learning approaches. First, a total of 2,478 Malay sentiment-lexicon phrases and words are assigned with a synonym and stored with the help of more than one Malay native speaker, and the polarity is manually allotted with a score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683915/organized-chaos-in-late-specialization-team-sports-weekly-training-loads-of-elite-adolescent-rugby-union-players
#11
Padraic J Phibbs, Ben Jones, Gregory Roe, Dale B Read, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Jonathon Weakley, Andrew Rock, Kevin Till
Phibbs, PJ, Jones, B, Roe, G, Read, DB, Darrall-Jones, J, Weakley, J, Rock, A, and Till, K. Organized chaos in late specialization team sports: weekly training loads of elite adolescent rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1316-1323, 2018-The aim of this study was to quantify the mean weekly training load (TL) of elite adolescent rugby union players participating in multiple teams and examine the differences between playing positions. Twenty elite male adolescent rugby union players (17.4 ± 0.7 years) were recruited from a regional academy and categorized by playing position: forwards (n = 10) and backs (n = 10)...
May 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683885/sentiment-analysis-of-web-sites-related-to-vaginal-mesh-use-in-pelvic-reconstructive-surgery
#12
Deslyn T G Hobson, Kate V Meriwether, Sean L Francis, Casey L Kinman, J Ryan Stewart
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to utilize sentiment analysis to describe online opinions toward vaginal mesh. We hypothesized that sentiment in legal Web sites would be more negative than that in medical and reference Web sites. METHODS: We generated a list of relevant key words related to vaginal mesh and searched Web sites using the Google search engine. Each unique uniform resource locator (URL) was sorted into 1 of 6 categories: "medical", "legal", "news/media", "patient generated", "reference", or "unrelated"...
April 20, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683875/characteristics-of-inpatient-units-associated-with-sustained-hand-hygiene-compliance
#13
Jonathan D Wolfe, Henry J Domenico, Gerald B Hickson, Deede Wang, Marilyn Dubree, Nancye Feistritzer, Nancy Wells, Thomas R Talbot
OBJECTIVES: Following institution of a hand hygiene (HH) program at an academic medical center, HH compliance increased from 58% to 92% for 3 years. Some inpatient units modeled early, sustained increases, and others exhibited protracted improvement rates. We examined the association between patterns of HH compliance improvement and unit characteristics. METHODS: Adult inpatient units (N = 35) were categorized into the following three tiers based on their pattern of HH compliance: early adopters, nonsustained and late adopters, and laggards...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683840/enhancing-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-practices-via-an-educational-intervention
#14
Rebecca Newman, Tasleem Katchi, Michael Karass, Melissa Gennarelli, Jason Goutis, Alina Kifayat, Shantanu Solanki, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Leanne Forman, Christopher Nabors
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV involves using antiretroviral drugs to prevent individuals at high risk from acquiring HIV infection. Most practicing primary care providers believe PrEP to be safe and effective, but less than half have prescribed or referred for PrEP. Attitudes and prescribing patterns among house officers have not been well described previously. STUDY QUESTION: Can an educational intervention enhance HIV PrEP practices among internal medicine house officers? STUDY DESIGN: This study relied on a pretest/posttest design...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683792/decision-making-for-healthcare-resource-allocation-joint-v-separate-decisions-on-interacting-interventions
#15
Helen Dakin, Alastair Gray
Standard guidance for allocating healthcare resources based on cost-effectiveness recommends using different decision rules for independent and mutually exclusive alternatives, although there is some confusion around the definition of "mutually exclusive." This paper reviews the definitions used in the literature and shows that interactions (i.e., non-additive effects, whereby the effect of giving 2 interventions simultaneously does not equal the sum of their individual effects) are the defining feature of mutually exclusive alternatives: treatments cannot be considered independent if the costs and/or benefits of one treatment are affected by the other treatment...
May 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683723/model-fit-and-item-factor-analysis-overfactoring-underfactoring-and-a-program-to-guide-interpretation
#16
D Angus Clark, Ryan P Bowles
In exploratory item factor analysis (IFA), researchers may use model fit statistics and commonly invoked fit thresholds to help determine the dimensionality of an assessment. However, these indices and thresholds may mislead as they were developed in a confirmatory framework for models with continuous, not categorical, indicators. The present study used Monte Carlo simulation methods to investigate the ability of popular model fit statistics (chi-square, root mean square error of approximation, the comparative fit index, and the Tucker-Lewis index) and their standard cutoff values to detect the optimal number of latent dimensions underlying sets of dichotomous items...
April 23, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683019/retirement-leisure-activity-engagement-and-cognition-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#17
Yura Lee, Iris Chi, Lawrence A Palinkas
OBJECTIVE: Retirement is a salient later-life transition that may influence cognition. Leisure activities can help individuals better adjust to life after significant life transitions. This study examined the role of leisure activity engagement in the relationship between retirement and cognition. METHOD: A path analysis ( N = 2,827) was conducted using three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2004, 2006, 2008) and its supplementary Consumption and Activities Mail Survey, to test the association between retirement (categorized as remained working, transitioned to retirement, remained retired) and cognition (memory, working memory, attention, and processing speed) via leisure (mental, physical, social, household) activity engagement...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682922/parental-alcohol-drinking-habit-as-a-predictor-of-alcohol-use-among-secondary-school-students-in-barbados
#18
Sarah N Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Daniel C Oshi, Patrice Whitehorne Smith, Tana F Ricketts Roomes, Ijeoma A Meka, Steve Weaver, Tania Rae, Gabrielle Mitchell, Ashley Belinfante, Chinwendu F Agu
Background: In Barbados and the wider Caribbean region, alcohol is widely consumed by adolescents and young people, including those in secondary schools. The high prevalence of alcohol use, and its potential adverse effects are a source of concern to policy makers and the general population, which calls for better understanding of the drivers of this problem. This study thus aimed at investigating whether parental alcohol drinking habit is a predictor of alcohol use among secondary school students in the country...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682852/novel-in-silico-multivariate-mapping-of-intrinsic-and-anticorrelated-connectivity-to-neurocognitive-functional-maps-supports-the-maturational-hypothesis-of-adhd
#19
Nina de Lacy, Ian Kodish, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun
From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#20
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
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