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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#1
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604793/senior-citizens-as-rescuers-is-reduced-knowledge-the-reason-for-omitted-lay-resuscitation-attempts-results-from-a-representative-survey-with-2004-interviews
#2
Peter Brinkrolf, Andreas Bohn, Roman-Patrik Lukas, Marko Heyse, Thomas Dierschke, Hugo Karel Van Aken, Klaus Hahnenkamp
OBJECTIVE: Resuscitation (CPR) provided by a bystander prior to the arrival of the emergency services is a beneficial factor for surviving a cardiac arrest (CA). Our registry-based data show, that older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Little is known on possible reasons for this finding. We sought to investigate the hypothesis that awareness of CPR measures is lower in older laypersons being a possible reason for less CPR-attempts in senior citizens. METHODS: 1206 datasets on bystander resuscitations actually carried out were analyzed for age-dependent differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597480/public-understanding-of-ebola-risks-mastering-an-unfamiliar-threat
#3
Baruch Fischhoff, Gabrielle Wong-Parodi, Dana Rose Garfin, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
Ebola was the most widely followed news story in the United States in October 2014. Here, we ask what members of the U.S. public learned about the disease, given the often chaotic media environment. Early in 2015, we surveyed a representative sample of 3,447 U.S. residents about their Ebola-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Where possible, we elicited judgments in terms sufficiently precise to allow comparing them to scientific estimates (e.g., the death toll to date and the probability of dying once ill)...
June 8, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594584/attribution-through-the-layperson-s-lens-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-an-inclusive-international-measure-of-beliefs-about-the-causes-of-mental-illness
#4
Brandon A Knettel
Attributions, or beliefs about the causes of mental illness, have traditionally been dichotomized based on their locus, controllability, specificity, and stability. However, scholars have introduced an alternative lay beliefs model identifying attributions related to specific biological, social, and spiritual attributions. This research describes the potential benefits of this alternative model and outlines the validation of a comprehensive, international measure of lay beliefs, the Mental Illness Attribution Questionnaire (MIAQ)...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594201/hypocritical-flip-flop-or-courageous-evolution-when-leaders-change-their-moral-minds
#5
Tamar A Kreps, Kristin Laurin, Anna C Merritt
How do audiences react to leaders who change their opinion after taking moral stances? We propose that people believe moral stances are stronger commitments, compared with pragmatic stances; we therefore explore whether and when audiences believe those commitments can be broken. We find that audiences believe moral commitments should not be broken, and thus that they deride as hypocritical leaders who claim a moral commitment and later change their views. Moreover, they view them as less effective and less worthy of support...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576950/retrospective-case-reports-of-two-central-north-carolina-residents-frequency-of-tick-bites-and-associated-illnesses-2001-2014
#6
Marcia E Herman-Giddens, D Marcus Herman-Giddens
BACKGROUND Tick bites are a source of illness and disease agents that may lead to morbidity and occasional fatalities in North Carolina. Public health interest in tick-borne illness and disease has increased due to continuing discoveries of tick-borne diseases and their increasing geographic spread and disease incidence. There are no data published on lay individuals with cumulative tick bites and associated illnesses over a period of years.METHODS We learned of a married couple living on a central North Carolina property who had used reasonable bite prevention methods, kept attached ticks after removal, and recorded dates and related illness records from 2001-2014...
May 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553675/activityaware-an-app-for-real-time-daily-activity-level-monitoring-on-the-amulet-wrist-worn-device
#7
George Boateng, John A Batsis, Ryan Halter, David Kotz
Physical activity helps reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity. The ability to monitor a person's daily activity level can inform self-management of physical activity and related interventions. For older adults with obesity, the importance of regular, physical activity is critical to reduce the risk of long-term disability. In this work, we present ActivityAware, an application on the Amulet wrist-worn device that measures daily activity levels (sedentary, moderate and vigorous) of individuals, continuously and in real-time...
March 2017: Proc IEEE Int Conf Pervasive Comput Commun Workshops
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543939/symptom-appraisal-help-seeking-and-lay-consultancy-for-symptoms-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
J A Queenan, Benjamin Gottlieb, Deb Feldman-Stewart, Stephen Hall, Jonathan Irish, Patti Groome
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is important in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in order to maximize the effectiveness of the treatments and minimize the debilitation associated with both the cancer and the invasive treatments of advanced disease. Many patients present with advanced disease, and there is little understanding as to why. This study investigated patients' symptom appraisal, help-seeking and lay-consultancy up to the time they first went to see a health care professional (HCP)...
May 23, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529048/laboratory-based-performance-evaluation-of-pima-cd4-t-lymphocyte-count-point-of-care-by-lay-counselors-in-kenya
#9
Clement Zeh, Charles E Rose, Seth Inzaule, Mitesh A Desai, Fredrick Otieno, Felix Humwa, Benta Akoth, Paul Omolo, Robert T Chen, Yenew Kebede, Taraz Samandari
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. METHODS: In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528817/tracing-and-characterizing-the-development-of-transplanted-female-germline-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Changqing Wu, Bo Xu, Xiaoyong Li, Wenzhi Ma, Ping Zhang, Xuejin Chen, Ji Wu
It has long been believed that most female mammalian species lose the ability to generate oocytes in postnatal ovaries. Recent evidence has demonstrated the isolation and culture of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) from adult mice and humans. However, the process and mechanisms of FGSC differentiation in vivo following transplantation have not yet been studied. Here, we isolated and characterized FGSCs from a single EGFP-transgenic mouse, and traced the development and behavior of transplanted FGSCs (F-TFs) in vivo...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521650/-why-worry-about-something-you-can-t-control-negotiated-risk-longevity-and-health-behaviours
#11
Rebecca Llewellyn, Wayne Cunningham, Chrystal Jaye, Jessica Young, Richard Egan, Peter Radue
While we know about lay attitudes towards death and dying, we understand little about the ways people estimate their overall personal risk of life-limiting disease and/or death. This study contributes to the limited literature on lay longevity reckonings, with a particular focus on how these reckonings may influence health behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 young older adults (54-65 years), addressing the core questions of 'What do you think you will die from, and how long do you expect to live?' Participants indicated their longevity estimation was guided by three key frameworks: family history, environment and lifestyle factors and lived experience...
May 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494331/graduate-nurses-evaluation-of-mentorship-development-of-a-new-tool
#12
Lay Hwa Tiew, Catherine S L Koh, Debra K Creedy, W S W Tam
AIM: Develop and test an instrument to measure graduate-nurses' perceptions of a structured mentorship program. BACKGROUND: New graduate nurses may experience difficulties in the transition from student to practitioner. Mentoring is commonly used to support graduates. However, there is a lack of published tools measuring graduate nurses' perceptions of mentorship. As mentoring is resource intensive, development and testing of a validated tool are important to assist in determining program effectiveness...
April 29, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486075/barriers-to-patient-centered-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-care-with-african-american-patients-who-use-drugs-social-construction-of-the-typical-and-ideal-care-visit
#13
Suzanne Carlberg-Racich, Lindsey Roden
BACKGROUND: A successful patient-provider relationship ensures that patients are treated as individuals and receive appropriate care for their unique circumstances. For this to occur, the relationship needs open communication and trust. African American persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) and who smoke crack cocaine are at elevated risks of poor health outcomes and are often lost to care. In addition, providers often experience difficulty serving this population. Although some barriers are documented in the peer-reviewed literature, this study sought to provide in-depth context to the relationship and how it is constructed...
April 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486054/beyond-the-page-a-process-review-of-using-ethnodrama-to-disseminate-research-findings
#14
Jamilah Taylor, Emily Namey, Annette Carrington Johnson, Greg Guest
Public health researchers are charged with communicating study findings to appropriate audiences. Dissemination activities typically target the academic research community. However, as participatory research grows, researchers are increasingly exploring innovative dissemination techniques to reach broader audiences, particularly research participants and their communities. One technique is ethnodrama/ethnotheatre, a written or live performance based on study findings. Though used effectively in social change programs, dramas are seldom used to distribute research findings exclusively...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481266/inspection-and-reconstruction-of-metal-roof-deformation-under-wind-pressure-based-on-bend-sensors
#15
Liman Yang, Langfu Cui, Yunhua Li, Chao An
Metal roof sheathings are widely employed in large-span buildings because of their light weight, high strength and corrosion resistance. However, their severe working environment may lead to deformation, leakage and wind-lift, etc. Thus, predicting these damages in advance and taking maintenance measures accordingly has become important to avoid economic losses and personal injuries. Conventionally, the health monitoring of metal roofs mainly relies on manual inspection, which unavoidably compromises the working efficiency and cannot diagnose and predict possible failures in time...
May 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462943/media-reporting-of-protect-a-disconnect-in-information-dissemination
#16
M E Westerman, B Bhindi, R Choo, M T Gettman, R J Karnes, L Klotz, S A Boorjian
BACKGROUND: Given the central role of the media in disseminating information to the public, we analyzed news coverage of the recent publication from ProtecT to assess views on treatment, the level of detail presented and degree of bias. METHODS: We applied a predefined search strategy to identify all news articles reporting on ProtecT within 30 days of its publication. Articles were independently assessed by two urologists and two lay persons using five-point Likert scales...
May 2, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461754/a-qualitative-study-examining-health-literacy-and-chronic-illness-self-management-in-hispanic-and-non-hispanic-older-adults
#17
Robin J Jacobs, Raymond L Ownby, Amarilis Acevedo, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde
PURPOSE: Chronic illness and low levels of health literacy affect health outcomes for many individuals, particularly older adults and racial/ethnic minorities. This study sought to understand the knowledge, strengths, and areas of need regarding self-management of chronic illness in order to lay the groundwork for content development of an intervention to increase health literacy and maximize patient engagement in chronic disease self-care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish and English with 25 older adults with various chronic illnesses...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459189/-counting-votes-in-public-responses-to-scientific-disputes
#18
Branden B Johnson
Publicized disputes between groups of scientists may force lay choices about groups' credibility. One possible, little studied, credibility cue is vote-counting (proportions of scientists on either side): for example, "97%" of climate scientists believe in anthropogenic climate change. An online sample of 2600 Americans read a mock article about a scientific dispute, in a 13 (proportions: 100%-0%, 99%-1%, … 50%-50%, … 1%-99%, 0%-100% for Positions A and B, respectively) × 8 (scenarios: for example, dietary salt, dark matter) between-person experiment...
April 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442924/a-framework-for-measuring-self-management-effectiveness-and-health-care-use-among-pediatric-asthma-patients-and-families
#19
REVIEW
Pavani Rangachari
Asthma is associated with substantial health care expenditures, including an estimated US$56 billion per year in direct costs. A recurring theme in the asthma management literature is that costly asthma symptoms, including hospitalizations and multiple emergency department (ED)/outpatient visits, can often be prevented through patient/family adherence to the national (National Institutes of Health Expert Panel Report-3) guidelines for effective self-management of asthma, specifically 1) medication adherence and 2) environmental trigger avoidance, as outlined in the patient's personalized Asthma-Action Plan...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433519/patients-use-and-evaluation-of-an-online-system-to-annotate-radiology-reports-with-lay-language-definitions
#20
Tessa S Cook, Seong Cheol Oh, Charles E Kahn
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing availability of personal health portals has made it easier for patients to obtain their imaging results online. However, the radiology report typically is designed to communicate findings and recommendations to the referring clinician, and may contain many terms unfamiliar to lay readers. We sought to evaluate a web-based interface that presented reports of knee MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) examinations with annotations that included patient-oriented definitions, anatomic illustrations, and hyperlinks to additional information...
April 19, 2017: Academic Radiology
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