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Lay person

Wolfgang George, G Andrè Banat, Johannes J Herrmann, Manuel J Richter
BACKGROUND: Own studies from the years 2013 and 2014 had shown that patients in hospital or inhabitants of nursing home get transferred even in their last, terminal phase of life. METHOD: In order to describe such transfers, a 27-item questionnaire was developed in 2016. This was addressed to employees from hospitals and nursing homes. The questionnaire determines the frequency of the laying (a), preferred periods (b), location (c) and influencing factors (d). 101 hospitals and 65 nursing homes of different sizes, carriers and federal states were included...
October 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Friedrich C Jassil, Alisia Carnemolla, Helen Kingett, Bruce Paton, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Jacqueline Doyle, Stephen Morris, Neville Lewis, Amy Kirk, Andrea Pucci, Kusuma Chaiyasoot, Rachel L Batterham
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Jessica E Martin, Dale A Sandercock, Victoria Sandilands, Julian Sparrey, Laurence Baker, Nick H C Sparks, Dorothy E F McKeegan
Council Regulation (EC) no. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing restricts the use of manual cervical dislocation in poultry on farms in the European Union (EU) to birds weighing up to 3 kg and 70 birds per person per day. However, few studies have examined whether repeated application of manual cervical dislocation has welfare implications and whether these are dependent on individual operator skill or susceptibility to fatigue. We investigated the effects of repeated application (100 birds at a fixed killing rate of 1 bird per 2 min) and multiple operators on two methods of killing of broilers, laying hens, and turkeys in commercial settings...
March 15, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Mariana Alves Weiss, Luiz Dal Sochio Junior, Fernando Bliacheriene, Caitriona Murphy, Vinod Chinappa, Maria Jose Carmona, Clarita B Margarido
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The general public increased search on the Internet for health information, including Anesthesiology, justifies the study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the information available to the lay person in Portuguese on the internet about labor analgesia for the Brazilian population. METHOD: Using the term "labor anesthesia", the first 20 sites found on Google in November 2014 were evaluated by two resident physicians and classified as medical and non-medical...
March 7, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Elodie Pajot, María Teresa Muñoz Sastre, Etienne Mullet
OBJECTIVE: The study mapped French people's views regarding the acceptability of posthumous reproduction. BACKGROUND: Posthumous reproduction - the use of a deceased person's gametes for procreative purposes -is a controversial procedure because it involves a series of ethical issues, namely the surviving partner's rights to procreation, the emotional feelings and financial interests of other family members, and the government's interest in maintaining orderly inheritance rules...
November 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Diane d'Audiffret Van Haecke, Sandrine de Montgolfier
Health professionals have a role to play in assisting patients to communicate genetic information to their relatives. In France, a specific unique legal framework has been implemented concerning this issue. We questioned professionals about their practice and how it has evolved in this new frame. The French law has opted to lay responsibility for disclosure on the person concerned by a positive test result, without totally excluding some responsibility on the part of the professionals involved, in the information to be disclosed and in the transmission of the information if a patient refuses to do it themselves (indirect disclosure)...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Michele Patrizii, Monica Bartucci, Sharon R Pine, Hatem E Sabaawy
Despite substantial effort and resources dedicated to drug discovery and development, new anticancer agents often fail in clinical trials. Among many reasons, the lack of reliable predictive preclinical cancer models is a fundamental one. For decades, immortalized cancer cell cultures have been used to lay the groundwork for cancer biology and the quest for therapeutic responses. However, cell lines do not usually recapitulate cancer heterogeneity or reveal therapeutic resistance cues. With the rapidly evolving exploration of cancer "omics," the scientific community is increasingly investigating whether the employment of short-term patient-derived tumor cell cultures (two- and three-dimensional) and/or patient-derived xenograft models might provide a more representative delineation of the cancer core and its therapeutic response...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mariya Vizireanu, Daniel Hruschka
OBJECTIVE: This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. DESIGN: In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
J Nicholas Dionne-Odom, Richard Taylor, Gabrielle Rocque, Carol Chambless, Thomas Ramsey, Andres Azuero, Nataliya Ivankova, Michelle Y Martin, Marie A Bakitas
CONTEXT: There is a scarcity of early palliative care interventions to support family caregivers of persons with advanced cancer living in the rural Southern U.S.. OBJECTIVE: Adapt the content, format, and delivery of a six session, palliative care, telehealth intervention with monthly follow-up for rural family caregivers to enhance their own self-care and caregiving skills. METHODS: Qualitative formative evaluation consisting of one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with rural-dwelling persons with metastatic cancer (n=18), their primary family caregiver (n=20), and lay patient navigators (n=26) were conducted to elicit feedback on a family caregiver intervention outline based on published evidence-based interventions...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Roberto Cardarelli, Mary Horsley, Lisa Ray, Nancy Maggard, Jennifer Schilling, Sarah Weatherford, Fran Feltner, Kayla Gilliam
This exploratory study aimed to address the effectiveness of a lay-health worker (LHW) model in addressing social needs and readmissions of high-risk patients admitted in a rural community hospital. A quasi-experimental study design assessed implementation of a LHW model for assisting high-risk patients with their post-discharge social needs. Outcome measures included 30-day hospital readmissions rates during a 4-month baseline period compared with a 6-month post-implementation period. The LHW intervention involved assessment and development of a personalized social needs plan for enrolled patients (e...
February 21, 2018: Health Education Research
Adrian Furnham, Kelly Petropoulou
BACKGROUND: This study looked at lay theories of how people with sub-clinical personality disorders experience the world of work. AIMS: The aim was to investigate the paradox that subclinical and clinical personality disorders are seen as beneficial for success, rather than a handicap in certain jobs. METHODS: In all, 230 participants read 14 vignettes derived from Oldham and Morris's book describing DSMIII personality disorders for a popular audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Mental Health
Abdullah Alismail, Nicole C Meyer, Waleed Almutairi, Noha S Daher
Introduction: There are over a dozen medical shows airing on television, many of which are during prime time. Researchers have recently become more interested in the role of these shows, and the awareness on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Several cases have been reported where a lay person resuscitated a family member using medical TV shows as a reference. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate college students' perception on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and when to shock using an automated external defibrillator based on their experience of watching medical TV shows...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Brett Schrewe
One of the most exciting yet stressful times in a physician's life is transitioning from supervised training into independent practice. The majority of literature devoted to this topic has focused upon a perceived gap between clinical and non-clinical skills and interventions taken to address it. Building upon recent streams of scholarship in identity formation and adaptation to new contexts, this work uses a Heideggerian perspective to frame an autoethnographical exploration of the author's transition into independent paediatric practice...
February 13, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Amit Baumel, Amanda Tinkelman, Nandita Mathur, John M Kane
BACKGROUND: Peer support is considered to be an important framework of support for mothers experiencing postpartum depression (PPD); however, some barriers exist that may limit its use including peer availability and mothers' lack of time due to child care. OBJECTIVE: This non-randomized study was designed to examine the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary clinical outcomes of using 7 Cups of Tea (7Cups), a digital platform that delivers self-help tools and 24/7 emotional support delivered by trained volunteers, as an adjunct treatment for mothers diagnosed with PPD...
February 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Lay See Khoo, Poh Soon Lai, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Zahari Noor, Mohd Shah Mahmood
Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce...
February 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Soumya J Niranjan, Chao-Hui S Huang, J Nicholas Dionne-Odom, Karina I Halilova, Maria Pisu, Patricia Drentea, Elizabeth A Kvale, Kerri S Bevis, Thomas W Butler, Edward E Partridge, Gabrielle B Rocque
CONTEXT: Respecting Choices is an evidence-based model of facilitating advance care planning (ACP) conversations between health-care professionals and patients. However, the effectiveness of whether lay patient navigators can successfully initiate Respecting Choices ACP conversations is unknown. As part of a large demonstration project (Patient Care Connect [PCC]), a cohort of lay patient navigators underwent Respecting Choices training and were tasked to initiate ACP conversations with Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Palliative Care
Nancy Carter, Ruta K Valaitis, Annie Lam, Janice Feather, Jennifer Nicholl, Laura Cleghorn
BACKGROUND: Systems navigation provided by individuals or teams is emerging as a strategy to reduce barriers to care. Complex clients with health and social support needs in primary care experience fragmentation and gaps in service delivery. There is great diversity in the design of navigation and a lack of consensus on navigation roles and models in primary care. METHODS: We conducted a scoping literature review following established methods to explore the existing evidence on system navigation in primary care...
February 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Patricia Abbott, Tanima Banerjee, Amparo Clara Aruquipa Yujra, Boqin Xie, John Piette
PURPOSE: This study seeks to develop an understanding that can guide development of programs to improve health and care for individuals with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in La Paz, Bolivia, where NCDs are prevalent and primary care systems are weak. This exploratory investigation examines the characteristics of chronic disease patients in the region, key health related behaviors, and their perceptions of the care that they receive. The longer-term goal is to lay groundwork for interventional studies based on the principles of the Chronic Care Model (CCM)...
2018: PloS One
Dario J Englot
Epilepsy surgery has seen numerous technological advances in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in recent years. This has increased the number of patients who may be candidates for intervention and potential improvement in quality of life. However, the expansion of the field also necessitates a broader understanding of how to incorporate both traditional and emerging technologies into the care provided at comprehensive epilepsy centers. This review summarizes both old and new surgical procedures in epilepsy using an example algorithm...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Michelle Grunauer, Caley Mikesell
It is estimated that 6.3 million children who die annually need pediatric palliative care (PPC) and that only about 10% of them receive the attention they need because about 98% of them live in under-resourced settings where PPC is not accessible. The consultative model and the integrated model of care (IMOC) are the most common strategies used to make PPC available to critically ill children. In the consultative model, the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) team, the patient, or their family must request a palliative care (PC) consultation with the external PC team for a PICU patient to be evaluated for special care needs...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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