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Lay person

Leslie Swartz, Jason Bantjes, Bradley Knight, Greg Wilmot, Wayne Derman
PURPOSE: To describe how athletes with disabilities talk about their experiences of participating in competitive disability sport in South Africa. METHOD: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 athletes with disabilities. Data were analysed via thematic content analysis using an inductive data driven process. RESULTS: Participants described their involvement in competitive sport as a positive experience; they described it as a catalyst for the recasting of identities and reframing an understanding of physical impairment, a context for empowerment and resistance of disablist attitudes, and an arena in which a sense of inclusion and belonging is experienced...
October 19, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Naomi Dailey, Deb Niemeier, Carine Elkhoraibi, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Maurice Pitesky
While pasture-raised poultry comprises a small portion of the commercial poultry industry in North America, these alternative rearing systems have become increasingly popular. As such, it is critical to improve our understanding of husbandry practices and prevalence of zoonotic and epizoonotic diseases in these systems. This research reviews the results of a survey sent to 82 commercial pastured poultry farms in California. While the survey response was low (13.4%), it was enhanced by detailed in-person interviews and farm visits...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Daniel Petras, Louis-Félix Nothias, Robert A Quinn, Theodore Alexandrov, Nuno Bandeira, Amina Bouslimani, Gabriel Castro-Falcón, Liangyu Chen, Tam Dang, Dimitrios J Floros, Vivian Y H Hook, Neha Garg, Nicole Hoffner, Yike Jiang, Clifford A Kapono, Irina Koester, Rob Knight, Christopher A Leber, Tiejun Ling, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Laura-Isobel McCall, Aaron Philip McGrath, Michael J Meehan, Jonathan K Merritt, Robert H Mills, Jamie Morton, Sonia Podvin, Ivan Protsyuk, Trevor Purdy, Kendall Satterfield, Stephen Searles, Sahil Shah, Sarah Shires, Dana Steffen, Margot White, Jelena Todoric, Robert Tuttle, Aneta Wojnicz, Valerie Sapp, Fernando Vargas, Jin Yang, Chao Zhang, Pieter C Dorrestein
The cars we drive, the homes we live in, the restaurants we visit, and the labs and offices we work in are all a part of the modern human habitat. Remarkably, little is known about the diversity of chemicals present in these environments and to what degree molecules from our bodies influence the built environment that surrounds us and vice versa. We therefore set out to visualize the chemical diversity of five built human habitats together with their occupants, to provide a snapshot of the various molecules to which humans are exposed on a daily basis...
October 12, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Valeria Markova, Gro M Sandal
Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
M Prenkert, E Carlsson, M Svantesson, A Anderzén-Carlsson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the variation of conceptions of being ill and hospitalised, from the perspective of health-care-professional-patients. BACKGROUND: Previous literature focuses on either physicians' or nurses' experiences of being a patient, without aiming at determining a variation of ways of understanding that phenomena. Nor have we been able to identify any study reporting other health-care-professionals' experiences. DESIGN: This study has an inductive descriptive design...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
(no author information available yet)
Dentistry - art or science?
September 23, 2016: British Dental Journal
Shawn Liu, Christian Vaillancourt, Ann Kasaboski, Monica Taljaard
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to measure bystander fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality after five minutes of CPR using the continuous chest compression (CCC) versus the 30:2 chest compression to ventilation method in older lay persons, a population most likely to perform CPR on cardiac arrest victims. METHODS: This randomized crossover trial took place at three tertiary care hospitals and a seniors' center. Participants were aged ≥55 years without significant physical limitations (frailty score ≤3/7)...
September 21, 2016: CJEM
Grahame Simpson, Daniella Pfeiffer, Shay Keogh, Brigitte Lane
A necessary step to evaluating practice is the accurate specification of social work interventions. Interventions delivered to 27 families with a relative with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to a specialist inpatient brain injury rehabilitation service were coded (655 hr of social work services). The most frequent interventions were counseling, education, and case management. Services addressed person-oriented (65%; e.g., adjustment to hospital, adjustment to disability, family conflict) and environment-oriented (35%; e...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
Kasey R Boehmer, Suzette Barakat, Sangwoo Ahn, Larry J Prokop, Patricia J Erwin, M Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Chronic conditions are increasingly more common and negatively impact quality of life, disability, morbidity, and mortality. Health coaching has emerged as a possible intervention to help individuals with chronic conditions adopt health supportive behaviors that improve both quality of life and health outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: We planned a systematic review and meta-analysis of the contemporary health coaching literature published in the last decade to evaluate the effect of health coaching on clinically important, disease-specific, functional, and behavioral outcomes...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Susan K Parsons, Iris C Fineberg, Mingqian Lin, Marybeth Singer, May Tang, John K Erban
Disciplinary diversity in team composition is a valuable vehicle for oncology care teams to provide high-quality, person-centered comprehensive care. Such diversity facilitates care that effectively addresses the complex needs (biologic, psychosocial, and spiritual) of the whole person. The concept of professional or disciplinary diversity centers on differences in function, education, and culture, reflecting variety and heterogeneity in the perspectives of team members contributing to care. Thorough understanding of the skills, knowledge, and education related to each team member's professional or lay expertise is critical for members to be able to optimize the team's potential...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
Mehmet Aközer, Emel Aközer
This paper proposes laying the groundwork for principled moral reasoning as a seminal goal of ethics interventions in higher education, and on this basis, makes a case for educating future specialists and professionals with a foundation in philosophical ethics. Identification of such a seminal goal is warranted by (1) the progressive dissociation of scientific practice and ethical deliberation since the onset of a problematic relationship between science and ethics around the mid-19th century, and (2) the extensive mistrust of integrating ethics in science and engineering curricula beyond its "applied," "practical," or "professional" implications...
August 26, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Esther D T Jaspers, Rik G M Pieters
This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects...
September 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Zhao Huang, Linguang Ma, Canhua Huang, Qifu Li, Edouard C Nice
Over the past decades, substantial advances have been made in both the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of many cancers because of the impressive development of novel proteomic strategies. However, it remains difficult to standardize proteomic approaches. In addition, the heterogeneity of proteins in distinct tissues results in incomplete population of the whole proteome, which inevitably limits its clinical practice. As one of the most complex proteomes in the human body, the plasma proteome contains secreted proteins originating from multiple organs and tissues, making it a favorable matrix for comprehensive biomarker discovery...
August 23, 2016: Proteomics
Balihar Sanghera
This paper examines how charitable giving offers an example of lay morality, reflecting people's capacity for fellow-feeling, moral sentiments, personal reflexivity, ethical dispositions, moral norms and moral discourses. Lay morality refers to how people should treat others and be treated by them, matters that are important for their subjective and objective well-being. It is a first person evaluative relation to the world (about things that matter to people). While the paper is sympathetic to the 'moral boundaries' approach, which seeks to address the neglect of moral evaluations in sociology, it reveals this approach to have some shortcomings...
May 2016: Sociological Review
Fei-Yan Wang, Lan Luo, Sha-Sha Zhao, Hua-Ping Wei, Li Wang, Zhen-Yang Gu, Li-Xun Guan, Nan Yang, Zhe Gao, Li-Li Wang, Chun-Ji Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression profile of lncRNA NONHSAT040475 in peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy persons. METHODS: The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 10 healthy volunteers, the CD3(+) T cells,CD19(+) B cells,CD56(+) NK cells and granulocytes were purified and sorted by flow cytometry. Then, the expression of lncRNA NONHSAT040475 in peripheral blood leukocyte subsets was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: the expression levels of lncRNA NONHSAT040475 were various in lymphocyte subsets, its expression in B lymphocytes was significantly higher, as compared with T lymphocytes, while the expressions of lncRNA NONHSAT040475 in NK cells and granulocytes were relative low(P<0...
August 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Bevin Croft, Kaipeng Wang, Benjamin Cichocki, Anne Weaver, Kevin Mahoney
Self-direction has emerged worldwide as a promising practice for persons with serious mental health conditions and as a means toward creating more person-centered service systems. In self-direction, service users control an individualized budget, purchasing goods or services that can help them achieve personal recovery goals. This Open Forum describes an international learning exchange meeting, held in September 2015, in which experts in self-direction and mental health from seven nations convened for sharing best practices, discussing challenges, and laying the groundwork for a learning community to support the continued development of self-direction...
August 15, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Shahana Parveen, M Saiful Islam, Momtaz Begum, Mahbub-Ul Alam, Hossain M S Sazzad, Rebeca Sultana, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, M Jahangir Hossain, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. METHODS: We explored residents' beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person...
2016: BMC Public Health
Vincenzo Zanardo, Catia Gabrieli, Francesca Volpe, Francesca Savio, Gianluca Straface, Gino Soldera
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the Lüscher color test (LCT), a psychological instrument based on theory that colors are selected in unconscious way and that the color sensory perception of color is objective and universal. The research has involved 24 Ethiopian women, which delivered at the Getche Health Center in Gurage. It seemed to be relevant for the majority of Ethiopian women identify the rejected color (58.66%), the grey, than the favourite color, the yellow 33.33%). The yellow color suggests that they better express their personality in a physical context, while the grey color indicates that they want to live this experience intensely...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Howard Thomas Hurst, Jonathan Sinclair, Stephen Atkins, Lee Rylands, John Metcalfe
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min(-1)) and velocity (km · h(-1)) were recorded for the whole lap and during ascent and descent sections...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mette Rosenlund Sørensen, Lotte Holm
It has been suggested that optimistic self-assessments of unhealthy diets constitute a barrier to the promotion of healthier eating practices. In order to discuss possible reasons for such optimistic assessments, knowledge about the considerations underlying self-assessments of unhealthy diets is needed. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore this issue by comparing considerations underlying the assessments of people who overestimate the healthiness of their unhealthy diets with those of people who express more realistic assessments...
July 25, 2016: Appetite
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