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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335239/comparing-diet-and-exercise-monitoring-using-smartphone-app-and-paper-diary-a-two-phase-intervention-study
#1
Florence Jimoh, Elizabeth K Lund, Linda J Harvey, Catherine Frost, W James Lay, Mark A Roe, Rachel Berry, Paul M Finglas
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that personalized approaches may be more effective in helping people establish healthier eating patterns and exercise more, and that this approach may be particularly effective in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of a smartphone app (FoodWiz2) in supporting healthy lifestyle choices in adolescence. METHODS: Participants (N=34: 11 male, 23 female) aged 16-19 years in full- or part-time education were recruited from sixth form colleges, schools, and other further education establishments in Norfolk and Suffolk, United Kingdom, between February and May 2015...
January 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329429/how-to-convene-an-international-health-or-development-commission-ten-key-steps
#2
Gavin Yamey, Lawrence H Summers, Dean T Jamison, Jessica Brinton
The Commission on Investing in Health (CIH), an international group of 25 economists and global health experts, published its Global Health 2035 report in The Lancet in December 2013. The report laid out an ambitious investment framework for achieving a "grand convergence" in health-a universal reduction in deaths from infectious diseases and maternal and child health conditions-within a generation. This article captures ten key elements that the CIH found important to its process and successful outcomes. The elements are presented in chronological order, from inception to post-publication activities...
January 10, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323510/consensual-lay-profiles-of-narcissism-and-their-connection-to-the-five-factor-narcissism-inventory
#3
Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam, Lane Siedor, Michael Crowe, W Keith Campbell
Although there is evidence that experts agree on the traits that characterize narcissism, this agreement may be due, in part, to the influence of the operationalizations based on the American Psychiatric Association's series of Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980, 1994, 2013). Because these trait descriptions are important in shaping conceptualizations and serving as empirical criteria for construct validation, we explored their generalizability...
January 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320579/emotional-modelling-and-classification-of-a-large-scale-collection-of-scene-images-in-a-cluster-environment
#4
Jianfang Cao, Yanfei Li, Yun Tian
The development of network technology and the popularization of image capturing devices have led to a rapid increase in the number of digital images available, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to identify a desired image from among the massive number of possible images. Images usually contain rich semantic information, and people usually understand images at a high semantic level. Therefore, achieving the ability to use advanced technology to identify the emotional semantics contained in images to enable emotional semantic image classification remains an urgent issue in various industries...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317073/micro-calibration-of-space-and-motion-by-photoreceptors-synchronized-in-parallel-with-cortical-oscillations-a-unified-theory-of-visual-perception
#5
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Mike Jensen
A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315468/when-do-trauma-patients-lose-temperature-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
S C Eidstuen, O Uleberg, G Vangberg, E Skogvoll
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypothermia in trauma patients is high and rapid recognition is important to prevent further heat loss. Hypothermia is associated with poor patient outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in core body temperature of trauma patients during different treatment phases in the pre-hospital and early in-hospital settings. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study in severely injured patients...
January 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300380/development-and-evaluation-of-a-genomics-training-program-for-community-health-workers-in-texas
#7
Lei-Shih Chen, Shixi Zhao, Donaji Stelzig, Shweta U Dhar, Tanya Eble, Yu-Chen Yeh, Oi-Man Kwok
PurposeGenomics services have the potential to reduce incidence and mortality of diseases by providing individualized, family health history (FHH)-based prevention strategies to clients. These services may benefit from the involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in the provision of FHH-based genomics education and services, as CHWs are frontline public health workers and lay health educators, who share similar ethnicities, languages, socioeconomic statuses, and life experiences with the communities they serve...
January 4, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283035/of-sacraments-sacramentals-and-anthropology-is-anthropological-explanation-sacramental
#8
Harish Naraindas
This paper suggests that what is usually called a cultural misunderstanding of biomedical disease categories may be construed as a biomedical and anthropological misunderstanding of cultural categories. This is premised on the fact that anthropology often functions as an intimate double and handmaiden of biomedicine, in so far as it refuses to countenance the possibility of theurgic aetiologies in the realm of what is called 'mental illness'. Such a refusal displaces native explanations of divine or demonic agency to human agency...
December 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281932/ethically-providing-routine-hiv-testing-services-to-bereaved-populations
#9
Barbara Burmen, Joseph O Mogunde, Daniel Po Kwaro
BACKGROUND: The delivery of public health policies may be in conflict with individualism. OBJECTIVES: To propose measures to ethically provide routine HIV testing services to persons visiting a funeral home. RESEARCH DESIGN: A document analysis of study documents and presentations made to an institutional review board. Participants and research context: Institutional review board members (both lay and professionals) and Study investigators attending an `open session' where study investigators were invited to elaborate on some study procedures...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276492/age-bias-in-selection-decisions-the-role-of-facial-appearance-and-fitness-impressions
#10
Michèle C Kaufmann, Franciska Krings, Leslie A Zebrowitz, Sabine Sczesny
This research examined the impact of facial age appearance on hiring, and impressions of fitness as the underlying mechanism. In two experimental hiring simulations, one with lay persons and one with Human Resource professionals, participants evaluated a chronologically older or younger candidate (as indicated by date of birth and age label) with either younger or older facial age appearance (as indicated by a photograph). In both studies, older-looking candidates received lower hireability ratings, due to less favorable fitness impressions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#11
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#12
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214307/single-word-speech-intelligibility-in-children-and-adults-with-down-syndrome
#13
Alyssa Wild, Houri K Vorperian, Ray D Kent, Daniel M Bolt, Diane Austin
Purpose: A single-word identification test was used to study speech production in children and adults with Down syndrome (DS) to determine the developmental pattern of speech intelligibility with an emphasis on vowels. Method: Speech recordings were collected from 62 participants with DS aged 4-40 years and 25 typically developing participants aged 4-7 years. Panels of 5 adult lay listeners transcribed the speech recordings orthographically, and their responses were scored in comparison with the speakers' target words...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212534/engaging-a-rural-community-in-identifying-determinants-of-low-birth-weight-and-deciding-on-measures-to-improve-low-birth-weight-an-experience-from-a-sri-lankan-study
#14
N D Galmangoda Guruge, M Goonasekara, S D Dharmaratne, M W Gunathunga
BACKGROUND: Involving communities in identifying and addressing determinants of their own health is effective in addressing complex problems, such as low birth weight (LBW). LBW is an important public health problem which has not improved significantly in Sri Lanka in the last 10 years. This study reports the ability of lay persons to identify and address determinants of LBW. METHODS: A health promotion intervention was conducted among 403 mothers registering at 26 antenatal clinics in the district of Anuradhapura, in Sri Lanka...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191074/behavioural-lateralization-in-domestic-pigs-sus-scrofa-variations-between-motor-functions-and-individuals
#15
Charlotte Goursot, Sandra Düpjan, Armin Tuchscherer, Birger Puppe, Lisette M C Leliveld
Motor lateralization is hypothesized to depend on the complexity of the motor function, but it might at the same time reflect hemispheric dominance within an individual across motor functions. We investigated possible motor lateralization patterns in four motor functions of different complexity (snout use in a manipulative task, foot use in two-stepping tasks and tail curling) in the domestic pig, a tetrapod species relevant as farm animal but also as a model in human neuroscience. A significant majority of our sample showed individual biases for manipulation with their snout and for curling their tail...
November 30, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186070/psychology-of-the-embrace-how-body-rhythms-communicate-the-need-to-indulge-or-separate
#16
Sabine C Koch, Helena Rautner
In the context of embodiment research, there has been a growing interest in phenomena of interpersonal resonance. Given that haptic communication is particularly under-researched, we focused on the phenomenon of embracing. When we embrace a dear friend to say good-bye at the end of a great evening, we typically first employ smooth and yielding movements with round transitions between muscular tensing and relaxing (smooth, indulging rhythms), and when the embrace is getting too long, we start to use slight patting (sharp, fighting rhythms with sharp transitions) on the back or the shoulders of the partner in order to indicate that we now want to end the embrace...
November 29, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184519/folk-psychological-interpretation-of-human-vs-humanoid-robot-behavior-exploring-the-intentional-stance-toward-robots
#17
Sam Thellman, Annika Silvervarg, Tom Ziemke
People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182352/patients-perspectives-of-care-management-a-qualitative-study
#18
Ann S O'Malley, Deborah Peikes, Claire Wilson, Rachel Gaddes, Victoria Peebles, Timothy J Day, Janel Jin
OBJECTIVES: Risk-stratified care management is a cornerstone of patient-centered medical home models, but studies on patients' perspectives of care management are scarce. We explored patients' experiences with care management, what they found useful, and what needs improvement. STUDY DESIGN: Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews. METHODS: We interviewed 43 high-risk patients or their caregivers who were receiving care management from 11 practices in CMS' Comprehensive Primary Care initiative, provided by nurse care managers (9 practices) or the physician (2 [solo] practices)...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170895/toward-a-psychology-of-resistance
#19
Jeanette A Lawrence, Agnes E Dodds
Resistance is all around us in contemporary life. It is an everyday phenomenon of personal and cultural life, as the Chaudhary et al. (2017) volume establishes with theoretical analyses and empirical examples from diverse cultural contexts. Resistance functions in the dynamics of person-by-culture encounters when one party takes an opposing position. With the purpose of working towards a unified approach to resistance, the authors in this volume lay down the foundations for a psychology of resistance as an everyday phenomenon...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165538/augmented-reality-sustaining-autonomous-way-finding-in-the-community-for-older-persons-with-cognitive-impairment
#20
K Sejunaite, C Lanza, S Ganders, A Iljaitsch, M W Riepe
BACKGROUND: Impairment of autonomous way-finding subsequent to a multitude of neurodegenerative and other diseases impedes independence of older persons and their everyday activities. OBJECTIVE: It was the goal to use augmented reality to aid autonomous way-finding in a community setting. DESIGN: A spatial map and directional information were shown via head-up display to guide patients from the start zone on the hospital campus to a bakery in the nearby community...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
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