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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903957/medicalisation-smoking-and-e-cigarettes-evidence-and-implications
#1
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885972/protecting-the-confidentiality-and-security-of-personal-health-information-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-in-the-era-of-sdgs-and-big-data
#2
Eduard J Beck, Wayne Gill, Paul R De Lay
BACKGROUND: As increasing amounts of personal information are being collected through a plethora of electronic modalities by statutory and non-statutory organizations, ensuring the confidentiality and security of such information has become a major issue globally. While the use of many of these media can be beneficial to individuals or populations, they can also be open to abuse by individuals or statutory and non-statutory organizations. Recent examples include collection of personal information by national security systems and the development of national programs like the Chinese Social Credit System...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876641/individual-differences-in-personality-in-laying-hens-are-related-to-learning-a-colour-cue-association
#3
Elske N de Haas, Caroline Lee, Carlos E Hernandez, Marc Naguib, T Bas Rodenburg
Personality can influence how animals perceive and learn cues. The behaviour and physiological responses animals show during stressful events is indicative of their personality. Acute induced stress prior to a cognitive test is known to affect the judgement of a stimulus, but personality of an individual could also affect learning of a specific cognitive paradigm. Here, we assessed if adult laying hens' behaviour and physiological responses, as indicators of their personality, were related to their cognitive performance...
November 19, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875482/impact-of-community-health-workers-on-elderly-patients-advance-care-planning-and-health-care-utilization-moving-the-dial
#4
Debra K Litzelman, Thomas S Inui, Wilma J Griffin, Anthony Perkins, Ann H Cottingham, Kathleen M Schmitt-Wendholt, Steven S Ivy
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) is recommended for all persons to ensure that the care they receive aligns with their values and preferences. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an ACP intervention developed to better meet the needs and priorities of persons with chronic diseases, including mild cognitive impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN: A year-long, pre-post intervention using lay community health workers [care coordinator assistants (CCAs)] trained to conduct and document ACP conversations with patients during home health visits with pre-post evaluation...
November 21, 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871241/prevalence-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-associated-risk-factors-of-shigella-and-salmonella-among-food-handlers-in-arba-minch-university-south-ethiopia
#5
Mohammedaman Mama, Getaneh Alemu
BACKGROUND: The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870795/achieving-equity-in-physical-activity-participation-acsm-experience-and-next-steps
#6
Rebecca E Hasson, David R Brown, Joan Dorn, Lisa Barkley, Carol Torgan, Melicia Whitt-Glover, Barbara Ainsworth, NiCole Keith
There is clear and consistent evidence that regular physical activity is an important component of healthy lifestyles, and fundamental to promoting health and preventing disease. Despite the known benefits of physical activity participation, many people in the United States (US) remain inactive. More specifically, physical activity behavior is socially patterned with lower participation rates among women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual minority youth, individuals with less education, persons with physical, mental and cognitive disabilities, individuals > 65 years of age, and those living in the southeast region of the US...
November 19, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862523/chinese-women-health-ambassadors-program-a-process-evaluation
#7
Janet Yuen Ha Wong, Maggie Mee Kie Chan, Kris Yuet Wan Lok, Fei Wan Ngai, Michelle Tsz Ha Pang, Claudia Kor Yee Chan, Jessie Ho Yin Yau, Edmond Pui Hang Choi, Shirley Siu Ming Fong
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess a community-women health ambassadors program and report the areas that were successful and those that required improvement. The objectives were to assess the feasibility, effectiveness, implementation, and sustainability of the program. BACKGROUND: Health promotion for the prevention of chronic diseases has always been the top priority in the health sector. In order to ensure that the relevant health messages are well-received in local communities, a health promotion program must be accessible, acceptable, and culturally relevant...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862114/a-bayesian-model-and-stochastic-exposure-dose-estimation-for-relative-exposure-risk-comparison-involving-asbestos-containing-dropped-ceiling-panel-installation-and-maintenance-tasks
#8
Fred W Boelter, Yulin Xia, Jacob D Persky
Assessing exposures to hazards in order to characterize risk is at the core of occupational hygiene. Our study examined dropped ceiling systems commonly used in schools and commercial buildings and lay-in ceiling panels that may have contained asbestos prior to the mid to late 1970s. However, most ceiling panels and tiles do not contain asbestos. Since asbestos risk relates to dose, we estimated the distribution of eight-hour TWA concentrations and one-year exposures (a one-year dose equivalent) to asbestos fibers (asbestos f/cc-years) for five groups of workers who may encounter dropped ceilings: specialists, generalists, maintenance workers, nonprofessional do-it-yourself (DIY) persons, and other tradespersons who are bystanders to ceiling work...
November 10, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859246/neuroticism-and-extraversion-magnify-discrepancies-between-retrospective-and-concurrent
#9
Jennifer C Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A Hoppmann
OBJECTIVE: Although research often relies on retrospective affect self-reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro-longitudinal study examines personality (neuroticism, extraversion) and emotional salience (peak, recent affect) associations with retrospective-momentary affect report discrepancies over different timeframes. METHOD: 179 adults aged 20-78 (M = 48...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858502/prehospital-providers-perceptions-on-providing-patient-and-family-centered-care
#10
Emily M Ayub, Esther M Sampayo, Manish I Shah, Cara B Doughty
BACKGROUND: A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course...
November 18, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852723/regional-versus-general-anesthesia-for-promoting-independence-after-hip-fracture-regain-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-international-multicentre-trial
#11
Mark D Neuman, Susan S Ellenberg, Frederick E Sieber, Jay S Magaziner, Rui Feng, Jeffrey L Carson
INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures occur 1.6 million times each year worldwide, with substantial associated mortality and losses of independence. At present, anaesthesia care for hip fracture surgery varies widely within and between countries, with general anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia representing the 2 most common approaches. Limited randomised evidence exists regarding potential short-term or long-term differences in outcomes between patients receiving spinal or general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849124/people-with-dementia-and-carer-preferences-for-home-support-services-in-early-stage-dementia
#12
Helen Chester, Paul Clarkson, Linda Davies, Caroline Sutcliffe, Sue Davies, Alexandra Feast, Jane Hughes, David Challis
OBJECTIVES: To examine people with dementia and carer preferences for home support attributes in early-stage dementia, building on the paucity of evidence in this area. METHOD: Preferences from 44 people with dementia and 103 carers, recruited through memory clinics and an online questionnaire, were assessed with a Discrete Choice Experiment survey, with attributes informed by an evidence synthesis and lay consultation. A conditional logit model was used to estimate preference weights for the attributes within a home support 'package'...
November 16, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833208/is-tube-feeding-futile-in-advanced-dementia
#13
Matthew C Lynch
It is controversial whether tube feeding in people with dementia improves nutritional status or prolongs survival. Guidelines published by several professional societies cite observational studies that have shown no benefit and conclude that tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia should be avoided. However, all studies on tube feeding in dementia have major methodological flaws that invalidate their findings. The present evidence is not sufficient to justify general guidelines. Patients with advanced dementia represent a very heterogeneous group, and evidence demonstrates that some patients with dementia benefit from tube feeding...
August 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833177/dignity-reevaluated-a-theological-examination-of-human-dignity-and-the-role-of-the-church-in-bioethics-and-end-of-life-care
#14
Quentin I T Genuis
Predominant among the terminological ambiguities that plague contemporary bioethics is confusion attending the meaning of the term "human dignity," particularly as it applies to so-called end-of-life discussions. This study surveys current trends in treatment of the concept of dignity, examining relevant thinkers who see dignity as redundant or as capability-dependent. These inadequate views are contrasted with an attitude, based theologically in Mark 5, that understands human dignity to represent an absolute characteristic that is donated graciously to all bearers of imago Dei...
February 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829288/co-occurring-substance-related-and-behavioral-addiction-problems-a-person-centered-lay-epidemiology-approach
#15
Barna Konkolÿ Thege, David C Hodgins, T Cameron Wild
Background and aims The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of single versus multiple addiction problems in a large representative sample and (b) to identify distinct subgroups of people experiencing substance-related and behavioral addiction problems. Methods A random sample of 6,000 respondents from Alberta, Canada, completed survey items assessing self-attributed problems experienced in the past year with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826193/beliefs-and-perception-about-mental-health-issues-a-meta-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
Fahad Riaz Choudhry, Vasudevan Mani, Long Chiau Ming, Tahir Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: Mental health literacy is the beliefs and knowledge about mental health issues and their remedies. Attitudes and beliefs of lay individuals about mental illness are shaped by personal knowledge about mental illness, knowing and interacting with someone living with mental illness, and cultural stereotypes. Mental health issues are increasing and are alarming in almost every part of the world, and hence compiling this review provides an opportunity to understand the different views regarding mental disorders and problems as well as to fill the gap in the published literature by focusing only on the belief system and perception of mental health problems among general population...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821118/the-intensive-care-lifeboat-a-survey-of-lay-attitudes-to-rationing-dilemmas-in-neonatal-intensive-care
#17
C Arora, J Savulescu, H Maslen, M Selgelid, D Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation and treatment of critically ill newborn infants is associated with relatively high mortality, morbidity and cost. Guidelines relating to resuscitation have traditionally focused on the best interests of infants. There are, however, limited resources available in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), meaning that difficult decisions sometimes need to be made. This study explores the intuitions of lay people (non-health professionals) regarding resource allocation decisions in the NICU...
November 8, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814821/direct-interactive-public-education-by-breast-radiologists-about-screening-mammography-impact-on-anxiety-and%C3%A2-empowerment
#18
Jiyon Lee, Lara A Hardesty, Nathan M Kunzler, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
PURPOSE: Anxiety has been called a "harm" of screening mammography. The authors provided direct, interactive education to lay audiences and measured these sessions' impact on anxiety and any increased understanding of breast cancer screening. METHODS: Academic breast radiologist provided seven 1-hour sessions of structured lectures and question-and-answer periods. Lay language and radiologic images were used to discuss disease background, screening guidelines, and areas of debate...
November 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802344/independent-mobility-achieved-through-a-wireless-brain-machine-interface
#19
Camilo Libedinsky, Rosa So, Zhiming Xu, Toe K Kyar, Duncun Ho, Clement Lim, Louiza Chan, Yuanwei Chua, Lei Yao, Jia Hao Cheong, Jung Hyup Lee, Kulkarni Vinayak Vishal, Yongxin Guo, Zhi Ning Chen, Lay K Lim, Peng Li, Lei Liu, Xiaodan Zou, Kai K Ang, Yuan Gao, Wai Hoe Ng, Boon Siew Han, Keefe Chng, Cuntai Guan, Minkyu Je, Shih-Cheng Yen
Individuals with tetraplegia lack independent mobility, making them highly dependent on others to move from one place to another. Here, we describe how two macaques were able to use a wireless integrated system to control a robotic platform, over which they were sitting, to achieve independent mobility using the neuronal activity in their motor cortices. The activity of populations of single neurons was recorded using multiple electrode arrays implanted in the arm region of primary motor cortex, and decoded to achieve brain control of the platform...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799078/determinants-of-female-sexual-orgasms
#20
Osmo Kontula, Anneli Miettinen
BACKGROUND: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. OBJECTIVE: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
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