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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449804/an-early-sensitive-period-induces-long-lasting-plasticity-in-the-honeybee-nervous-system
#1
Juan P Grosso, Jesica A Barneto, Rodrigo A Velarde, Eduardo A Pagano, Jorge A Zavala, Walter M Farina
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406991/a-new-etiologic-model-for-alzheimers-disease
#2
Kathryn A Schiel
This etiologic model proposes that Alzheimers Disease (AD) arises when an unusually rapid increase in ventricle volume triggers axon stretch that culminates in the physical separation of trans-synaptic proteins. As a result, these proteins, such as neurexin, neuroligin, N-Cadherin and Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP), experience a change in the configuration of their cytoplasmic tail, so that instead of transmitting signals to create and maintain synaptic structure they activate enzymes, and generate molecules, that stimulate neurite growth; for example, the transformation of the N-Cadherin tail dissolves its complex with presenilin and β-catenin triggering activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) and cytoskeletal disruption...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346364/mutations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-neuroligin-like-glit-1-the-apoptosis-pathway-and-the-calcium-chaperone-crt-1-increase-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-after-6-ohda-treatment
#3
Sarah-Lena Offenburger, Elisabeth Jongsma, Anton Gartner
The loss of dopaminergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, the aetiology of which is associated with increased levels of oxidative stress. We used C. elegans to screen for genes that protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and isolated glit-1 (gliotactin (Drosophila neuroligin-like) homologue). Loss of the C. elegans neuroligin-like glit-1 causes increased dopaminergic neurodegeneration after treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), an oxidative-stress inducing drug that is specifically taken up into dopaminergic neurons...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339486/cell-type-specific-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-neuroligin-2-in-depression-and-stress-susceptibility
#4
Mitra Heshmati, Hossein Aleyasin, Caroline Menard, Daniel J Christoffel, Meghan E Flanigan, Madeline L Pfau, Georgia E Hodes, Ashley E Lepack, Lucy K Bicks, Aki Takahashi, Ramesh Chandra, Gustavo Turecki, Mary Kay Lobo, Ian Maze, Sam A Golden, Scott J Russo
Behavioral coping strategies are critical for active resilience to stress and depression; here we describe a role for neuroligin-2 (NLGN-2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Neuroligins (NLGN) are a family of neuronal postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins that are constituents of the excitatory and inhibitory synapse. Importantly, NLGN-3 and NLGN-4 mutations are strongly implicated as candidates underlying the development of neuropsychiatric disorders with social disturbances such as autism, but the role of NLGN-2 in neuropsychiatric disease states is unclear...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323291/neurexin-controls-plasticity-of-a-mature-sexually-dimorphic-neuron
#5
Michael P Hart, Oliver Hobert
During development and adulthood, brain plasticity is evident at several levels, from synaptic structure and function to the outgrowth of dendrites and axons. Whether and how sex impinges on neuronal plasticity is poorly understood. Here we show that the sex-shared GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-releasing DVB neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans displays experience-dependent and sexually dimorphic morphological plasticity, characterized by the stochastic and dynamic addition of multiple neurites in adult males. These added neurites enable synaptic rewiring of the DVB neuron and instruct a functional switch of the neuron that directly modifies a step of male mating behaviour...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321508/thrombospondin-1-secreted-by-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-rescues-neurons-from-synaptic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#6
Dong Hyun Kim, Hoon Lim, Dahm Lee, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Yoon Sun Yang, Jeong Su Oh, Hyun Ho Hwang, Hong Bae Jeon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterised clinically by learning and memory impairments. Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-induced synaptic dysfunction is a pathological process associated with early-stage AD. Here, we show that paracrine action of human umbilical cord blood-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) protects the hippocampus from synaptic-density loss in in vitro and in vivo AD models. To identify paracrine factors underlying this rescue effect, we analysed hUCB-MSCs' secretome co-cultured with Aβ42-treated mouse hippocampal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295931/somatostatin-and-parvalbumin-inhibitory-synapses-onto-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-are-regulated-by-distinct-mechanisms
#7
Meryl E Horn, Roger A Nicoll
Excitation-inhibition balance is critical for optimal brain function, yet the mechanisms underlying the tuning of inhibition from different populations of inhibitory neurons are unclear. Here, we found evidence for two distinct pathways through which excitatory neurons cell-autonomously modulate inhibitory synapses. Synapses from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons onto hippocampal pyramidal neurons are regulated by neuronal firing, signaling through L-type calcium channels. Synapses from somatostatin-expressing interneurons are regulated by NMDA receptors, signaling through R-type calcium channels...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295471/hot-spots-for-protein-partnerships-at-the-surface-of-cholinesterases-and-related-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-hydrolase-fold-proteins-or-domains-a-structural-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Yves Bourne, Pascale Marchot
The hydrolytic enzymes acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase, the cell adhesion molecules neuroligins, and the hormonogenic macromolecule thyroglobulin are a few of the many members of the α/β hydrolase fold superfamily of proteins. Despite their distinctive functions, their canonical subunits, with a molecular surface area of ~20,000 Ų, they share binding patches and determinants for forming homodimers and for accommodating structural subunits or protein partners. Several of these surface regions of high functional relevance have been mapped through structural or mutational studies, while others have been proposed based on biochemical data or molecular docking studies...
December 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281813/loss-of-synapse-repressor-mdga1-enhances-perisomatic-inhibition-confers-resistance-to-network-excitation-and-impairs-cognitive-function
#9
Steven A Connor, Ina Ammendrup-Johnsen, Yasushi Kishimoto, Parisa Karimi Tari, Vedrana Cvetkovska, Takashi Harada, Daiki Ojima, Tohru Yamamoto, Yu Tian Wang, Ann Marie Craig
Synaptopathies contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders are linked to mutations in synaptic organizing molecules, including postsynaptic neuroligins, presynaptic neurexins, and MDGAs, which regulate their interaction. The role of MDGA1 in suppressing inhibitory versus excitatory synapses is controversial based on in vitro studies. We show that genetic deletion of MDGA1 in vivo elevates hippocampal CA1 inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density and transmission. Furthermore, MDGA1 is selectively expressed by pyramidal neurons and regulates perisomatic, but not distal dendritic, inhibitory synapses...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278843/nlgn1-and-nlgn2-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-their-role-in-memory-consolidation-and-strengthening
#10
REVIEW
Aaron Katzman, Cristina M Alberini
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for memory formation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Clinical and animal model studies have shown that changes in PFC excitation and inhibition are important for cognitive functions as well as related disorders. Here, we discuss recent findings revealing the roles of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) and NLGN2 in the PFC in memory formation and modulation of memory strength. We propose that shifts in NLGN1 and NLGN2 expression in specific excitatory and inhibitory neuronal subpopulations in response to experience regulate the dynamic processes of memory consolidation and strengthening...
December 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278729/stroke-promotes-survival-of-nearby-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-by-decreasing-their-activation-of-caspase-3-while-not-affecting-their-differentiation
#11
Nina Kosi, Ivan Alić, Iva Salamon, Dinko Mitrečić
Although transplantation of stem cells improves recovery of the nervous tissue, little is known about the influence of different brain regions on transplanted cells. After we confirmed that cells with uniform differentiation potential can be generated in independent experiments, one million of neural stem cells isolated from B6.Cg-Tg(Thy1-YFP)16Jrs/J mouse embryos were transplanted into the brain 24 hours after induction of stroke. The lateral ventricles, the corpus callosum and the striatum were tested. Two and four weeks after the transplantation, the cells transplanted in all three regions have been attracted to the ischemic core...
December 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274996/cortical-control-of-aggression-gaba-signalling-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#12
Amanda Jager, Houshang Amiri, Natalia Bielczyk, Sabrina van Heukelum, Arend Heerschap, Armaz Aschrafi, Geert Poelmans, Jan K Buitelaar, Tamas Kozicz, Jeffrey C Glennon
Reduced top-down control by cortical areas is assumed to underlie pathological forms of aggression. While the precise underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive, it seems that balancing the excitatory and inhibitory tones of cortical brain areas has a role in aggression control. The molecular mechanisms underpinning aggression control were examined in the BALB/cJ mouse model. First, these mice were extensively phenotyped for aggression and anxiety in comparison to BALB/cByJ controls. Microarray data was then used to construct a molecular landscape, based on the mRNAs that were differentially expressed in the brains of BALB/cJ mice...
December 20, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244827/neuroligin-4x-overexpression-in-human-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-poor-relapse-free-survival
#13
Henry J Henderson, Balasubramanyam Karanam, Rajeev Samant, Komal Vig, Shree R Singh, Clayton Yates, Deepa Bedi
The molecular mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis still remain unclear to date. It is a heterogeneous disease featuring several different phenotypes with consistently different biological characteristics. Neuroligins are neural cell adhesion molecules that have been implicated in heterotopic cell adhesion. In humans, alterations in neuroligin genes are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases. Until recently, neuroligins have been shown to be abundantly expressed in blood vessels and also play a role implicated in the growth of glioma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230184/neuroligin-2-r215h-mutant-mice-manifest-anxiety-increased-prepulse-inhibition-and-impaired-spatial-learning-and-memory
#14
Chia-Hsiang Chen, Pin-Wei Lee, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Pi-Kai Chang
Neuroligin 2 (NLGN2) is a postsynaptic adhesion protein that plays an essential role in synaptogenesis and function of inhibitory neuron. We previously identified a missense mutation R215H of the NLGN2 in a patient with schizophrenia. This missense mutation was shown to be pathogenic in several cell-based assays. The objective of this study was to better understand the behavioral consequences of this mutation in vivo. We generated a line of transgenic mice carrying this mutation using a recombinant-based method...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229842/male-homosexuality-and-maternal-immune-responsivity-to-the-y-linked-protein-nlgn4y
#15
Anthony F Bogaert, Malvina N Skorska, Chao Wang, José Gabrie, Adam J MacNeil, Mark R Hoffarth, Doug P VanderLaan, Kenneth J Zucker, Ray Blanchard
We conducted a direct test of an immunological explanation of the finding that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This explanation posits that some mothers develop antibodies against a Y-linked protein important in male brain development, and that this effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation, altering brain structures underlying sexual orientation in their later-born sons. Immune assays targeting two Y-linked proteins important in brain development-protocadherin 11 Y-linked (PCDH11Y) and neuroligin 4 Y-linked (NLGN4Y; isoforms 1 and 2)-were developed...
January 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229705/proteolytic-processing-of-neurexins-by-presenilins-sustains-synaptic-vesicle-release
#16
Emilia Servián-Morilla, Estefanía Robles-Lanuza, Ana C Sánchez-Hidalgo, Rafael J Camacho-Garcia, Juan A Paez-Gomez, Fabiola Mavillard, Carlos A Saura, Amalia Martinez-Mir, Francisco G Scholl
Proteolytic processing of synaptic adhesion components can accommodate the function of synapses to activity-dependent changes. The adhesion system formed by Neurexins (Nrxns) and Neuroligins (Nlgns) bi-directionally orchestrate the function of pre- and postsynaptic terminals. Previous studies have shown that Presenilins (PS), components of the gamma-secretase complex frequently mutated in familial Alzheimer's disease, clear from glutamatergic terminals the accumulation of Neurexin C-terminal fragments (Nrxn-CTF) generated by ectodomain shedding...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212945/refining-the-roles-of-neuroligins-in-synapse-development-and-function-a-reductionist-conditional-knock-out-approach
#17
Hunter S Shaw, Christopher K Salmon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166241/two-classes-of-secreted-synaptic-organizers-in-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Michisuke Yuzaki
Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of preand/ or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed extracellular scaffolding proteins (ESPs) because they are components of the synaptic extracellular matrix and serve as a scaffold at the synaptic cleft...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123130/binding-of-mycotoxins-to-proteins-involved-in-neuronal-plasticity-a-combined-in-silico-wet-investigation
#19
Bernardina Scafuri, Antonio Varriale, Angelo Facchiano, Sabato D'Auria, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Anna Marabotti
We have applied a combined computational procedure based on inverse and direct docking in order to identify putative protein targets of a panel of mycotoxins and xenobiotic compounds that can contaminate food and that are known to have several detrimental effects on human health. This procedure allowed us to identify a panel of human proteins as possible targets for aflatoxins, gliotoxin, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol. Steady-state fluorescence and microscale thermophoresis experiments allowed us to confirm the binding of some of these mycotoxins to acetylcholinesterase and X-linked neuroligin 4, two proteins involved in synapse activity and, particularly for the second protein, neuronal plasticity and development...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120426/astrocytic-neuroligins-control-astrocyte-morphogenesis-and-synaptogenesis
#20
Jeff A Stogsdill, Juan Ramirez, Di Liu, Yong Ho Kim, Katherine T Baldwin, Eray Enustun, Tiffany Ejikeme, Ru-Rong Ji, Cagla Eroglu
Astrocytes are complex glial cells with numerous fine cellular processes that infiltrate the neuropil and interact with synapses. The mechanisms that control the establishment of astrocyte morphology are unknown, and it is unclear whether impairing astrocytic infiltration of the neuropil alters synaptic connectivity. Here we show that astrocyte morphogenesis in the mouse cortex depends on direct contact with neuronal processes and occurs in parallel with the growth and activity of synaptic circuits. The neuroligin family cell adhesion proteins NL1, NL2, and NL3, which are expressed by cortical astrocytes, control astrocyte morphogenesis through interactions with neuronal neurexins...
November 8, 2017: Nature
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