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Junichiro Funahashi, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Tomoo Hirano
Fast repetitive synaptic transmission depends on efficient exocytosis and retrieval of synaptic vesicles around a presynaptic active zone. However, the functional organization of an active zone and regulatory mechanisms of exocytosis, endocytosis and reconstruction of release-competent synaptic vesicles have not been fully elucidated. By developing a novel visualization method, we attempted to identify the location of exocytosis of a single synaptic vesicle within an active zone and examined movement of synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (Syp) after exocytosis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dong-Yun Jiang, Zheng Wu, Cody Tieu Forsyth, Yi Hu, Siu-Pok Yee, Gong Chen
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder characterized by delusion, hallucination, and cognitive deficits. We have previously identified from schizophrenia patients a loss-of-function mutation Arg215 →His215 (R215H) of neuroligin 2 (NLGN2) gene, which encodes a cell adhesion molecule critical for GABAergic synapse formation and function. Here, we generated a novel transgenic mouse line with neuroligin-2 (NL2) R215H mutation. The single point mutation caused a significant loss of NL2 protein in vivo, reduced GABAergic transmission, and impaired hippocampal activation...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Brain
Jamie Horder, Marija M Petrinovic, Maria A Mendez, Andreas Bruns, Toru Takumi, Will Spooren, Gareth J Barker, Basil Künnecke, Declan G Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental syndrome with a high human and economic burden. The pathophysiology of ASD is largely unclear, thus hampering development of pharmacological treatments for the core symptoms of the disorder. Abnormalities in glutamate and GABA signaling have been hypothesized to underlie ASD symptoms, and may form a therapeutic target, but it is not known whether these abnormalities are recapitulated in humans with ASD, as well as in rodent models of the disorder...
May 25, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Xiu-Miao Li, Dan Huang, Qing Yu, Jin Yao, Jian Yang
Intensified oxidative stress can cause severe damage to human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The potential effect of neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) against the process is studied here. Our results show that NLGN3 efficiently inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced death and apoptosis in human RPE cells and RGCs. H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in retinal cells were alleviated by NLGN3. NLGN3 activated nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling, enabling Nrf2 protein stabilization, nuclear translocation and expression of key anti-oxidant enzymes (HO1, NOQ1 and GCLC) in RPE cells and RGCs...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rui Liu, Xing-Ping Qin, Yang Zhuang, Ya Zhang, Hua-Bao Liao, Jun-Chun Tang, Meng-Xian Pan, Fei-Fei Zeng, Yang Lei, Rui-Xue Lei, Shu Wang, An-Chun Liu, Juan Chen, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Dan Zhao, Song-Lin Wu, Ren-Zhong Liu, Ze-Fen Wang, Qi Wan
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive glioma in the brain. Recurrence of GBM is almost inevitable within a short term after tumor resection. In a retrospective study of 386 cases of GBM collected between 2013 and 2016, we found that recurrence of GBM mainly occurs in the deep brain regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and corpus callosum. But the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not clear. Previous studies suggest that neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is necessary for GBM growth. Our results show that the levels of NLGN3 in the cortex are higher than those in the deep regions in a normal human brain, and similar patterns are also found in a normal mouse brain...
May 18, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Dianne F Newbury, Nuala H Simpson, Paul A Thompson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Background : The presence of an extra sex chromosome is associated with an increased rate of neurodevelopmental difficulties involving language. Group averages, however, obscure a wide range of outcomes. Hypothesis: The 'double hit' hypothesis proposes that the adverse impact of the extra sex chromosome is amplified when genes that are expressed from the sex chromosomes interact with autosomal variants that usually have only mild effects. Neuroligin-4 genes are expressed from X and Y chromosomes; they play an important role in synaptic development and have been implicated in neurodevelopment...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
D Vallejo, S H Lee, D Lee, C Zhang, C Rapier, S D Chessler, A P Lee
Cell-sized lipid vesicles (CLVs) have shown great promise for therapeutic and artificial cell applications, but their fragility and short shelf life has hindered widespread adoption and commercial viability. We present a method to circumvent the storage limitations of CLVs such as giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and single-compartment multisomes (SCMs) by storing them in a double emulsion precursor form. The double emulsions can be stored for at least 8 months and readily converted into either GUVs or SCMs at any time...
December 2017: Technology
Wei Pan, Guang-Fen Zhang, Hui-Hui Li, Mu-Huo Ji, Zhi-Qiang Zhou, Kuan-Yu Li, Jian-Jun Yang
Depression is present in a large proportion of patients suffering from chronic pain, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Neuroligins (NLs), as a family of cell-adhesion proteins, are involved in synaptic formation and have been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we studied the alterations in NL1 and NL2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the hippocampus in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, and whether ketamine, a rapid and robust antidepressant, could restore these abnormalities...
July 4, 2018: Neuroreport
Min Wu, Hong-Lei Tian, Xiaobo Liu, John Ho Chun Lai, Shengwang Du, Jun Xia
Normal brain functions depend on the balanced development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying inhibitory synapse formation is limited. Neuroligin-2 (NL2), a transmembrane protein at inhibitory postsynaptic sites, is capable of initiating inhibitory synapse formation. In an effort to search for NL2 binding proteins and the downstream mechanisms responsible for inhibitory synapse development, we identify LHFPL4/GARLH4 as a major NL2 binding partner that is specifically enriched at inhibitory postsynaptic sites...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
Aruna Varshney, Kelli Benedetti, Katherine Watters, Raakhee Shankar, David Tatarakis, Doris Coto Villa, Khristina Magallanes, Venia Agenor, William Wung, Fatima Farah, Nebat Ali, Nghi Le, Jacqueline Pyle, Amber Farooqi, Zanett Kieu, Martina Bremer, Miri VanHoven
During neural circuit formation, most axons are guided to complex environments, coming into contact with multiple potential synaptic partners. However, it is critical that they recognize specific neurons with which to form synapses. Here, we utilize the split GFP-based marker Neuroligin-1 GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners (NLG-1 GRASP) to visualize specific synapses in live animals, and a circuit-specific behavioral assay to probe circuit function. We demonstrate that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) clr-1 is necessary for synaptic partner recognition (SPR) between the PHB sensory neurons and the AVA interneurons in C...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
Bo Zhang, Ozgun Gokce, W Dylan Hale, Nils Brose, Thomas C Südhof
In human patients, loss-of-function mutations of the postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecule neuroligin-4 were repeatedly identified as monogenetic causes of autism. In mice, neuroligin-4 deletions caused autism-related behavioral impairments and subtle changes in synaptic transmission, and neuroligin-4 was found, at least in part, at glycinergic synapses. However, low expression levels precluded a comprehensive analysis of neuroligin-4 localization, and overexpression of neuroligin-4 puzzlingly impaired excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic function...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Qiang-Qiang Xia, Yong-Lan Du, Qian Yang, Meng-Ying Zhang, Yi-Qing Lu, Jing Xu, Shu-Min Duan, Jun Xia, Guoping Feng, Junyu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Neuron
Ruijuan Guo, Huili Li, Xueyang Li, Yuqing Sun, Huihui Miao, Danxu Ma, Fangxiao Hong, Ye Zhang, Yun Guan, Junfa Li, Ming Tian, Yun Wang
Neuroligin 2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule that is mainly located in inhibitory synapses and is crucial in the regulation of synapse function through protein-protein interactions. However, researchers have not clearly determined whether neuroligin 2 is involved in the development of postoperative pain. In the current study, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were used to examine the critical role of neuroligin 2 in postoperative pain hypersensitivity. A small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)-targeting neuroligin 2 was used to inhibit neuroligin 2 expression...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
Margherita Pergolizzi, Laura Bizzozero, Elena Riccitelli, Davide Pascal, Anna Valeria Samarelli, Federico Bussolino, Marco Arese
The synaptic protein Neuroligin 2, similarly to its isoform Neuroligin 1, is produced by endothelial cells, but its activity in the vascular context remains unknown. This study aimed at verifying the hypothesis that Neuroligin 2, in parallel with its extraneuronal involvement in pancreatic beta cells exocytosis, modulated cytokine release from endothelial cells and consequently angiogenesis. We used in vitro approaches to modulate Neuroligin 2 expression and Neuroligin 2 null mice to test our hypotheses. In vitro, upon VEGF stimulation, Neuroligin 2 silencing strongly reduces Angiopoietin 2 release in the medium and increases the endothelial cell retention of Weibel Palade Bodies, the specialized organelles that store Angiopoietin 2 and various other cytokines...
April 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Guosheng Xiao, He Chen, Natalia Krasteva, Qizhan Liu, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: So far, how the animals evade the environmental nanomaterials is still largely unclear. In this study, we employed in vivo assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the aversive behavior of nematodes to graphene oxide (GO) and the underlying neuronal basis. RESULTS: In this assay model, we detected the significant aversive behavior of nematodes to GO at concentrations more than 50 mg/L. Loss-of-function mutation of nlg-1 encoding a neuroligin with the function in connecting pre- and post-synaptic neurons suppressed the aversive behavior of nematodes to GO...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Lydia Hannou, Erika Bélanger-Nelson, Emma K O'Callaghan, Julien Dufort-Gervais, Maria Neus Ballester Roig, Pierre-Gabriel Roy, Jean-Martin Beaulieu, Nicolas Cermakian, Valérie Mongrain
NEUROLIGIN-1 (NLGN1) is a postsynaptic adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission. It has been associated with several features of sleep and psychiatric disorders. Our previous work suggested that transcription of the Nlgn1 gene could be regulated by the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 because they bind to the Nlgn1 gene promoter in vivo. However, whether CLOCK/BMAL1 can directly activate Nlgn1 transcription is not yet known. We thus aimed to verify whether CLOCK/BMAL1, as well as their homologs NPAS2 and BMAL2, can activate transcription via the Nlgn1 promoter by using luciferase assays in COS-7 cells...
April 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Peter Jedlicka, Julia Muellerleile, Stephan W Schwarzacher
The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a role in spatial learning and memory and is thought to encode differences between similar environments. The integrity of excitatory and inhibitory transmission and a fine balance between them is essential for efficient processing of information. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of crucial molecular players at excitatory and inhibitory inputs is critical for understanding the dentate gyrus function. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies unraveling molecular mechanisms of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission, long-term synaptic plasticity, and dentate granule cell excitability in the hippocampus of live animals...
2018: Neural Plasticity
P-T Hsueh, H-H Lin, H-H Wang, C-L Liu, W-F Ni, J-K Liu, H-H Chang, D-S Sun, Y-S Chen, Y-L Chen
The murine maternal immune activation (MIA) offspring model enables longitudinal studies to explore aberrant social behaviors similar to those observed in humans. High levels of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been found in the plasma and/or brains of psychiatric patients. We hypothesized that upregulation of the systemic or brain immune response has an augmenting effect by potentially increasing the interplay between the neuronal and immune systems during the growth of the MIA offspring...
April 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Yanhong Li, Hui Liu, Yubin Dong
By performing a basic case-control study among a Chinese population, the aims of this study were to explore if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within neurexin and neuroligin were associated with susceptibility to Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Eleven SNPs within neurexin and neuroligin were selected in this basic case-control study, and this study recruited 210 children with HD and 187 healthy children. The t-test and Χ2 test were used to find the difference between case and control in their clinical variables...
June 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Qiang-Qiang Xia, Yong-Lan Du, Qian Yang, Meng-Ying Zhang, Yi-Qing Lu, Jing Xu, Shu-Min Duan, Jun Xia, Guoping Feng, Junyu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: Neuron
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