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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924978/astaxanthin-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease-mechanisms-of-action-therapeutic-merits-and-knowledge-gaps
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Visioli, Christian Artaria
Cardiovascular disease is the main contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Based on its unique chemical features, the xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin is being proposed as a suitable preventive and therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on recent advances in astaxanthin research relevant to cardiovascular health and disease, i.e. its direct antioxidant, indirect antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, renoprotective, lipid-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic activities in vitro and in vivo...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924618/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-health-outcomes-among-american-indians-in-oklahoma-the-thrive-study
#2
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Marianna Wetherill, Jordan Hearod, Tvli Jacob, Alicia L Salvatore, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, Jennifer Spiegel, AnDina Wiley, Carolyn Noonan, Dedra Buchwald
INTRODUCTION: Limited available data document higher prevalences of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and health outcomes among American Indians (AIs) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: As part of a randomized control trial to improve tribal food and physical activity environments, our tribal-academic partnership surveyed a cross-sectional sample of American Indian adults (n = 513) to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, tobacco use, physical activity, and vegetable and fruit intake...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#3
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920944/comparing-obesity-related-health-disparities-among-native-hawaiians-pacific-islanders-asians-and-whites-in-california-reinforcing-the-need-for-data-disaggregation-and-operationalization
#4
Adrian Matias Bacong, Christina Holub, Liki Porotesano
Since the 2000 Census, Asians and Pacific Islanders have been categorized as separate races. Government initiatives have called for greater study of Asian, Native Hawaiian, and other Pacific Islander (NHPI) health outcomes. NHPI often have worse health outcomes than Asians and Whites. Despite this, the lack of operationalization of racial definitions may affect the magnitude of health disparities. This analysis examined how utilizing different sociological race definitions could influence NHPI health outcomes when compared to Asians and Whites...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919240/urban-rural-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-non-communicable-diseases-risk-factors-among-25-74-years-old-citizens-in-yangon-region-myanmar-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Aung Soe Htet, Marius B Bjertness, Lhamo Y Sherpa, Marte Karoline Kjøllesdal, Win Myint Oo, Haakon E Meyer, Hein Stigum, Espen Bjertness
BACKGROUND: Recent societal and political reforms in Myanmar may upturn the socio-economy and, thus, contribute to the country's health transition. Baseline data on urban-rural disparities in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors are not thoroughly described in this country which has been relatively closed for more than five decades. We aim to investigate urban-rural differences in mean values and the prevalence of selected behavioral and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases and 10-years risk in development of coronary heart diseases (CHD)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914710/higher-net-acid-excretion-is-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-kidney-disease-progression-in-patients-with%C3%A2-diabetes
#6
Julia J Scialla, John Asplin, Mirela Dobre, Alex R Chang, James Lash, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Radhakrishna R Kallem, L Lee Hamm, Harold I Feldman, Jing Chen, Lawrence J Appel, Cheryl A M Anderson, Myles Wolf
Higher diet-dependent nonvolatile acid load is associated with faster chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, but most studies have used estimated acid load or measured only components of the gold standard, net acid excretion (NAE). Here we measured NAE as the sum of urine ammonium and titratable acidity in 24-hour urines from a random subset of 980 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. In multivariable models accounting for demographics, comorbidity and kidney function, higher NAE was significantly associated with lower serum bicarbonate (0...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913765/prevalence-of-chronic-conditions-and-multimorbidities-in-a-geographically-defined-geriatric-population-with-diverse-races-and-ethnicities
#7
Eunjung Lim, Krupa Gandhi, James Davis, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of chronic conditions and multimorbidities in the geriatric population of a state with diverse races/ethnicities. METHOD: Fifteen chronic conditions and their dyads and triads were investigated using Hawaii Medicare 2012 data. For each condition, a multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate differences in race/ethnicity, adjusting for subject characteristics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908824/arteriographic-patterns-of-atherosclerosis-and-the-association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-ethnicity-in-chronic-critical-limb-ischemia
#8
Jayer Chung, J Gregory Modrall, Martyn Knowles, Qun Xiang, Lawrence A Lavery, Carlos H Timaran, R James Valentine
BACKGROUND: Disparate outcomes in critical limb ischemia (CLI) persist between ethnicities. The contribution of modifiable factors versus intrinsic biologic differences remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to quantify the associations between ethnicity and anatomic patterns of arterial occlusive disease in CLI, adjusting for known atherosclerotic risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center review of consecutive patients presenting to the vascular surgery service with CLI...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895508/multi-ethnic-differences-in-hba1c-blood-pressure-and-low-density-lipid-cholesterol-control-among-south-africans-living-with-type-2-diabetes-after-a-4-year-follow-up
#9
Yacob Pinchevsky, Varada J Shukla, Neil Butkow, Tobias Chirwa, Frederick Raal
PURPOSE: Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888559/ten-year-all-cause-mortality-and-its-association-with-vision-among-indigenous-australians-within-central-australia-the-central-australian-ocular-health-study
#10
Ebony Liu, Soo K Ng, Shyalle Kahawita, Nicholas H Andrew, Tim Henderson, Jamie E Craig, John Landers
BACKGROUND: No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in central Australia. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study PARTICIPANTS: 1257 (93.0%) out of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow up during a 10-year period...
November 26, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887926/geographic-clustering-of-acute-complications-and-sociodemographic-factors-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#11
Sonia Butalia, Alka B Patel, Jeffrey A Johnson, William A Ghali, Doreen M Rabi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the geographic distribution of acute complications in patients with type 1 diabetes in a large urban centre; and to assess the association between acute complications and community-level sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Adults (aged ≥18 years old) with type 1 diabetes and acute complications were identified between 2004 and 2008 by using a diabetes centre clinical database or discharge abstracts for acute complications (diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia)...
November 23, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887677/outcome-disparities-between-african-americans-and-caucasians-in-contemporary-kidney-transplant-recipients
#12
David J Taber, Leonard E Egede, Prabhakar K Baliga
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in African-American (AA) kidney transplant have persisted for nearly 40 years, with limited data available on the scope of this issue in the contemporary era of transplantation. METHODS: Descriptive retrospective cohort study of US registry data including adult solitary kidney transplants between Jan 1, 2005 to Dec 31, 2009. RESULTS: 60,695 recipients were included; 41,426 Caucasians (68%) and 19,269 AAs (32%)...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885590/payment-reform-needed-to-address-health-disparities-of-undiagnosed-diabetic-retinopathy-in-the-city-of-chicago
#13
Dustin D French, Jess J Behrens, Kathryn L Jackson, Abel N Kho, Theresa L Walunas, Charlesnika T Evans, Michael Mbagwu, Curtis E Margo, Paul J Bryar
INTRODUCTION: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has expanded health coverage for thousands of Illinois residents. Expanded coverage, however, does not guarantee appropriate health care. Diabetes and its ocular complications serve as an example of how providers in underserved urban areas may not be able to keep up with new demand for labor- and technology-intensive health care unless changes in reimbursement policies are instituted. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical encounter information from the Chicago HealthLNK Data Repository (HDR), an assembly of non-duplicated and de-identified patient medical records...
November 24, 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884846/real-world-evidence-studies-into-treatment-adherence-thresholds-for-intervention-and-disparities-in-treatment-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-uk
#14
Andrew McGovern, William Hinton, Ana Correa, Neil Munro, Martin Whyte, Simon de Lusignan
PURPOSE: The University of Surrey-Lilly Real World Evidence (RWE) diabetes cohort has been established to provide insights into the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are 3 areas of study due to be conducted to provide insights into T2DM management: exploration of medication adherence, thresholds for changing diabetes therapies, and ethnicity-related or socioeconomic-related disparities in management. This paper describes the identification of a cohort of people with T2DM which will be used for these analyses, through a case finding algorithm, and describes the characteristics of the identified cohort...
November 24, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871283/improving-the-quality-of-primary-care-by-allocating-performance-based-targets-in-a-diverse-insured-population
#15
Ronit Peled, Avi Porath, Rachel Wilf-Miron
BACKGROUND: Primary Care Health organizations, operating under universal coverage and a regulated package of benefits, compete mainly over quality of care. Monitoring, primary care clinical performance, has been repeatedly proven effective in improving the quality of care. In 2004, Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS), the second largest Israeli HMO, launched its Performance Measurement System (PMS) based on clinical quality indicators. A unique module was built in the PMS to adjust for case mix while tailoring targets to the local units...
November 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863843/score2-report-2-study-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#16
Ingrid U Scott, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Michael S Ip, Barbara A Blodi, Neal L Oden, Maria Figueroa, Pravin U Dugel
PURPOSE: To describe the design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Study of COmparative Treatments for REtinal Vein Occlusion 2 (SCORE2) and to compare with cohorts from other retinal vein occlusion trials. DESIGN: Phase III prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to assess whether intravitreal bevacizumab is noninferior to intravitreal aflibercept for treatment of decreased vision attributable to macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO)...
November 15, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857997/a-critical-examination-of-the-use-of-trained-health-coaches-to-decrease-the-metabolic-syndrome-for-participants-of-a-community-based-diabetes-prevention-and-management-program
#17
Brandon Lucke-Wold, Samantha Shawley, John Spencer Ingels, Jonathan Stewart, Ranjita Misra
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge...
2016: Journal of Healthcare Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856464/longitudinal-association-among-sickle-cell-trait-fitness-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-african-americans-in-cardia
#18
Robert I Liem, Cheeling Chan, Thanh-Huyen T Vu, Myriam Fornage, Alexis A Thompson, Kiang Liu, Mercedes R Carnethon
The contribution of sickle cell trait (SCT) to racial disparities in cardiopulmonary fitness is not known despite concerns that SCT is associated with exertion-related sudden death. We evaluated the association of SCT status with cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in fitness and risk of hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome over 25 years among 1,995 African Americans (56% women, 18 to 30 years old) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Overall, the prevalence of SCT was 6...
November 16, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855140/disparities-in-the-prevalence-of-diagnosed-diabetes-united-states-1999-2002-and-2011-2014
#19
Gloria L Beckles, Chiu-Fang Chou
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly in the United States since the mid-1990s. By 2014, an estimated 29.1 million persons, or 9.3% of the total population, had received a diagnosis of diabetes (1). Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among non-Hispanic black (black), Hispanic, and poorly educated adults continues to increase but has leveled off among non-Hispanic whites (whites) and persons with higher education (2). During 2004-2010, CDC reported marked racial/ethnic and socioeconomic position disparities in diabetes prevalence and increases in the magnitude of these disparities over time (3)...
November 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852329/time-trends-in-adult-chronic-disease-inequalities-by-education-in-brazil-1998-2013
#20
Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Flavia C D Andrade
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic differences in health in Brazil are largely driven by differences in educational attainment. In this paper, we assess whether educational gradients in chronic disease prevalence have narrowed in Brazil from 1998 to 2013, a period of a booming economy accompanied by major investments in public health in the country. METHODS: Individual-level data came from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey and the 2013 National Health Survey...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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