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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207331/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#1
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198145/secular-and-race-ethnic-trends-in-glycemic-outcomes-by-bmi-in-us-adults-the-role-of-waist-circumference
#2
Sandra S Albrecht, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: For the same BMI level, waist circumference (WC) is higher in more recent years. How this impacts diabetes and pre-diabetes prevalence in the US and for different race/ethnic groups is unknown. We examined prevalence differences diabetes and pre-diabetes by BMI over time, investigated whether estimates were attenuated after adjusting for WC, and evaluated implications of these patterns on race/ethnic disparities in glycemic outcomes. METHODS: Data came from 12,614 participants aged 20-74 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994; 2007-2012)...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192447/effect-of-ethnicity-on-hba1c-levels-in-individuals-without-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Gabriela Cavagnolli, Ana Laura Pimentel, Priscila Aparecida Correa Freitas, Jorge Luiz Gross, Joíza Lins Camargo
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Disparities in HbA1c levels have been observed among ethnic groups. Most studies were performed in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), which may interfere with results due to the high variability of glucose levels. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of ethnicity on HbA1c levels in individuals without DM. METHODS: This is a systematic review with meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190954/prevalence-of-pre-pregnancy-obesity-2011-2014
#4
Laura Gregor, Patrick L Remington, Sara Lindberg, Deborah Ehrenthal
IMPORTANCE: Obesity before and during pregnancy increases risk among mothers for poor health outcomes, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in pre-pregnancy obesity rates among women in Wisconsin. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from Wisconsin birth certificates were analyzed. Prevalence of pre-pregnancy obesity (defined as body mass index = 30) among Wisconsin women who gave birth from 2011 through 2014 was compared across demographic and geographic dimensions...
November 2016: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190951/allostatic-load-as-a-complex-clinical-construct-a-case-based-computational-modeling-approach
#5
J Galen Buckwalter, Brian Castellani, Bruce McEwen, Arun S Karlamangla, Albert A Rizzo, Bruce John, Kyle O'Donnell, Teresa Seeman
Allostatic load (AL) is a complex clinical construct, providing a unique window into the cumulative impact of stress. However, due to its inherent complexity, AL presents two major measurement challenges to conventional statistical modeling (the field's dominant methodology): it is comprised of a complex causal network of bioallostatic systems, represented by an even larger set of dynamic biomarkers; and, it is situated within a web of antecedent socioecological systems, linking AL to differences in health outcomes and disparities...
September 2016: Complexity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186442/clinical-determinants-and-treatment-gaps-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-data-from-a-multi-ethnic-regional-health-service
#6
Barak Zafrir, Ayman Jubran, Gil Lavie, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman, Chen Shapira
Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by markedly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk for premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Models of care vary and reflect differing health policies and resources. The availability of electronic databases may enable better identification and assessment of familial hypercholesterolemia in the community. Methods A regional healthcare database was utilized to identify patients with a high probability of familial hypercholesterolemia, clinically defined by age-dependent-peak low-density lipoprotein cholesterol cutoffs and exclusion of secondary causes of severe hypercholesterolemia...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178032/early-life-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-metabolic-health-disparities
#7
Camelia E Hostinar, Kharah M Ross, Edith Chen, Gregory E Miller
OBJECTIVE: A quarter of the world's population suffers from metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS prevalence stratifies by socioeconomic status (SES), such that low SES is associated with higher MetS risk. The present study compared the associations between early-life SES and current SES with MetS. METHODS: Participants (N = 354, ages 15-55, M = 36.5 years, SD = 10.7; 55% female; 72.9% White, 16.9% Asian, 10.2% other) were evaluated for SES and MetS. All were in good health, defined as free of chronic medical illness and acute infectious disease...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164826/cardiovascular-health-disparities-in-underserved-populations
#8
REVIEW
Charles P Mouton, Michael Hayden, Janet H Southerland
African Americans are at increased risk for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes, which contribute to the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The disparities of CVD in underserved populations require targeted attention from primary care clinicians to eliminate. Primary care can provide this targeted care for their patients by assessing cardiovascular risk, addressing blood pressure control, and selecting appropriate intervention strategies. Using community resources is also effective for addressing CVD disparities in the underserved population...
March 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164817/primary-care-issues-in-inner-city-america-and-internationally
#9
REVIEW
Ramon Cancino
Inner-city patient populations are high-risk for poor outcomes, including increased risk of mortality. Barriers to delivering high-quality primary care to inner-city patients include lack of access, poor distribution of primary care providers (PCPs), competing demands, and financial restraints. Health care issues prevalent in this population include obesity, diabetes, cancer screening, asthma, infectious diseases, and obstetric and prenatal care. Population health management and quality improvement (QI) activities must target disparities in care...
March 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162784/considering-disparities-how-do-nurse-practitioner-regulatory-policies-access-to-care-and-health-outcomes-vary-across-four-states
#10
Andréa Sonenberg, Hillary J Knepper
Health disparities persist among morbidity and mortality rates in the United States. Contributing significantly to these disparities are the ability to pay for health care (largely, access to health insurance) and access to, and capacity of, the primary care health workforce. This article examines key determinants of health (DOH) including demographics, public and regulatory policies, health workforce capacity, and primary health outcomes of four states of the United States. The context of this study is the potential association among health care disparities and myriad DOH, among them, the restrictive nurse practitioner (NP) scope of practice (SOP) regulatory environment, which are documented to influence access to care and health outcomes...
November 1, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159650/impact-of-the-new-kidney-allocation-system-on-perioperative-outcomes-and-costs-in-kidney-transplantation
#11
David J Taber, Derek DuBay, John W McGillicuddy, Satish Nadig, Charles F Bratton, Kenneth D Chavin, Prabhakar K Baliga
BACKGROUND: In December 2014, a new kidney allocation system (KAS) was implemented nationwide with the goal of improving longevity matching, increasing access to sensitized patients, and improving racial/ethnic disparities. STUDY DESIGN: National cohort study of US kidney transplantation programs, analyzing hospital-level outcomes (October 2012 to June 2016) using University HealthSystem Consortium data. In-hospital outcomes and costs were analyzed for trends over time using interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144049/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-prevalence-and-care-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138960/high-glucose-alters-the-secretome-of-mechanically-stimulated-osteocyte-like-cells-affecting-osteoclast-precursor-recruitment-and-differentiation
#13
Marta Maycas, María Teresa Portolés, María Concepción Matesanz, Irene Buendía, Javier Linares, María José Feito, Daniel Arcos, María Vallet-Regí, Lilian Plotkin, Pedro Esbrit, Arancha R Gortázar
Diabetes mellitus (DM) induces bone deterioration, while mechanical stimulation promotes osteocyte-driven bone formation. We aimed to evaluate the interaction of acute exposure (24h) to high glucose (HG) with both the pro-survival effect conferred to osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by mechanical stimulation and the interaction of these cells with osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells. We found that 24h of HG (25 mM) pre-exposure prevented both cell survival and ERK and β-catenin nuclear translocation upon mechanical stimulation by fluid flow (FF) (10 min) in both MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 cells...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130944/pediatric-insulin-pump-therapy-reflecting-on-the-first-10-years-of-a-universal-funding-program-in-ontario
#14
Rayzel Shulman, Fiona A Miller, Thérèse A Stukel, Denis Daneman, Astrid Guttmann
We evaluated the universal funding program for pediatric insulin pumps in Ontario by examining the dynamics underlying patterns of pump use and adverse events using population-based health administrative data available at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), supplemented by other data. We found that (1) pump use has increased steadily since 2006 with variation across centres and disparity in use by socioeconomic status; (2) pump discontinuation is uncommon; (3) physicians value pump therapy in numerous ways that provide important insights into patterns of uptake; and (4) the safety profile of pump therapy is, in general, very good; however, individuals of lower socioeconomic status are at an increased risk of acute diabetes complications, most frequently diabetic ketoacidosis...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130810/shift-in-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-from-interferon-to-daa-era-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Naveed Z Janjua, Nazrul Islam, Jason Wong, Eric M Yoshida, Alnoor Ramji, Hasina Samji, Zahid A Butt, Mei Chong, Darrel Cook, Maria Alvarez, Maryam Darvishian, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden
We evaluated the shift in the characteristics of people who received interferon-based Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments and those who received recently introduced direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes 1.5 million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990-2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalization, cancer, prescription drugs and mortality data. This analysis included all patients who filled at least one prescription for HCV treatment until July 31, 2015...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127850/the-emerging-role-of-metformin-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Susan G Gray, Treasure McGuire, Neale Cohen, Peter J Little
Metformin use during pregnancy is controversial and there is disparity in the acceptance of metformin treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Australia. Despite short term maternal and neonatal safety, the placental transfer of metformin during GDM treatment and absence of long term safety data in offspring has regulators and prescribers cautious about its use. To determine the current role in GDM management, this literature review describes the physiological changes that occur in GDM and other forms of diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), and international changes in guidelines for GDM diagnosis...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124259/reducing-the-prevalence-of-dysglycemia-is-the-time-ripe-to-test-the-effectiveness-of-intervention-in-high-risk-individuals-with-elevated-1%C3%A2-h-post-load-glucose-levels
#17
Michael Bergman, Ram Jagannathan, Martin Buysschaert, Jose Luis Medina, Mary Ann Sevick, Karin Katz, Brenda Dorcely, Jesse Roth, Angela Chetrit, Rachel Dankner
Identifying the earliest time point on the prediabetic continuum is critical to avoid progressive deterioration in β-cell function. Progressively rising glucose levels even within the "normal range" occur considerably late in the evolution to diabetes thus presenting an important opportunity for earlier diagnosis, treatment, and possible reversal. An elevated 1 h postprandial glucose level, not detected by current diagnostic standards, may provide an opportunity for the early identification of those at risk...
January 25, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121741/effect-of-early-everolimus-facilitated-reduction-of-tacrolimus-on-efficacy-and-renal-function-in-de-novo-liver-transplant-recipients-24-month-results-for-the-north-american-subpopulation
#18
William C Chapman, Robert S Brown, Kenneth D Chavin, Debra Sudan, Baburao Koneru, Guido Junge, Gaohong Dong, Dharmesh Patel, Lewis Teperman, John J Fung
BACKGROUND: A recent randomized phase III study of 719 de novo liver transplant recipients showed that early everolimus plus reduced-dose tacrolimus (EVR + rTAC) led to significantly better kidney function than standard TAC (TAC-C), without compromising efficacy. In that study, patients from North America (n = 211) had increased risk factors for posttransplant renal insufficiency at study start, relative to patients from Europe and rest of world (eg, worse renal function, more diabetes, older age)...
February 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119195/sleep-duration-and-smoking-are-associated-with-coronary-heart-disease-among-us-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-gender-differences
#19
Lixin Li, Shaoqing Gong, Chun Xu, Joseph Yi Zhou, Ke-Sheng Wang
AIMS: The associations of moderate alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and tobacco smoking with coronary heart disease (CHD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are not clearly clarified. The aims of the study were to evaluate the associations of lifestyle factors, hypertension, obesity, depression and sleep duration with CHD development among patients with T2D, and particularly, to examine the gender differences in risk factors for CHD. METHODS: A total of 2335 T2D adults were selected from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118125/a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis-of-health-education-disparities-in-patients-with-diabetes-using-data-from-the-national-ambulatory-medical-care-survey
#20
Janelle D Branoff, Michael R Jiroutek, Chloe R Kelly, Sadia Huma, Beth S Sutton
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between receipt of diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight loss education in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes with various demographic and socioeconomic variables using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for the years 2008 to 2011. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study design included patients ≥ 18 years of age with diabetes in the NAMCS between 2008 and 2011, inclusive...
February 2017: Diabetes Educator
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