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Disparities cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931567/sex-differences-in-risk-factor-management-of-coronary-heart-disease-across-three-regions
#1
Min Zhao, Ilonca Vaartjes, Ian Graham, Diederick Grobbee, Wilko Spiering, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Mark Woodward, Sanne Ae Peters
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences. METHODS: Patients with CHD were recruited from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East between 2012-2013. Adherence to guideline-recommended treatment and lifestyle targets was assessed and summarised as a Cardiovascular Health Index Score (CHIS). Age-adjusted regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for women versus men in risk factor management...
September 20, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929097/integrated-clinical-decision-support-systems-promote-absolute-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-an-important-primary-prevention-measure-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-primary-health-care
#2
Veronica Matthews, Christopher P Burgess, Christine Connors, Elizabeth Moore, David Peiris, David Scrimgeour, Sandra C Thompson, Sarah Larkins, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA) as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC) sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923990/twenty-year-predictors-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-compared-with-coronary-heart-disease-in-the-scottish-heart-health-extended-cohort-shhec
#3
Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Sanne A E Peters, Mark Woodward, Allan D Struthers, Jill J F Belch
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affect different vascular territories. Supplementing baseline findings with assays from stored serum, we compared their 20-year predictors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomly recruited 15 737 disease-free men and women aged 30 to 75 years across Scotland between 1984 and 1995 and followed them through 2009 for death and hospital diagnoses. Of these, 3098 developed coronary heart disease (19...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912752/disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-in-blacks-and-whites-dissecting-racial-paradox-of-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904075/association-between-living-in-food-deserts-and-cardiovascular-risk
#5
Heval M Kelli, Muhammad Hammadah, Hina Ahmed, Yi-An Ko, Matthew Topel, Ayman Samman-Tahhan, Mossab Awad, Keyur Patel, Kareem Mohammed, Laurence S Sperling, Priscilla Pemu, Viola Vaccarino, Tene Lewis, Herman Taylor, Greg Martin, Gary H Gibbons, Arshed A Quyyumi
BACKGROUND: Food deserts (FD), neighborhoods defined as low-income areas with low access to healthy food, are a public health concern. We evaluated the impact of living in FD on cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) with the hypothesis that people living in FD will have an unfavorable CVD risk profile. We further assessed whether the impact of FD on these measures is driven by area income, individual household income, or area access to healthy food. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 1421 subjects residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area who participated in the META-Health study (Morehouse and Emory Team up to Eliminate Health Disparities; n=712) and the Predictive Health study (n=709)...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882087/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-quality-of-care-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ambulatory-settings-a-review
#6
Liming Dong, Oludolapo A Fakeye, Garth Graham, Darrell J Gaskin
Racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes are widely reported, but research has largely focused on differences in quality of inpatient and urgent care to explain these disparate outcomes. The objective of this review is to synthesize recent evidence on racial and ethnic disparities in management of CVD in the ambulatory setting. Database searches yielded 550 articles of which 25 studies met the inclusion criteria. Reviewed studies were categorized into non-interventional studies examining the association between race and receipt of ambulatory CVD services with observational designs, and interventional studies evaluating specific clinical courses of action intended to ameliorate disparities...
September 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877875/metabolic-syndrome-risks-following-the-great-recession-in-rural-black-young-adults
#7
Gregory E Miller, Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gene H Brody
BACKGROUND: Some of the country's highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are found in lower-income black communities in the rural Southeast. Research suggests these disparities originate in the early decades of life, and partly reflect the influence of broader socioeconomic forces acting on behavioral and biological processes that accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly. Here, we examine metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rural black young adults as a function of their family's economic conditions before and after the Great Recession...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870356/the-childhood-roots-of-cardiovascular-disease-disparities
#8
REVIEW
Donald A Barr
A recent national review of the social determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underscored the growing recognition that poor socioeconomic conditions early in life place children at higher risk for CVD as adults. There is growing evidence that chronic elevation of allostatic load as a consequence of high levels of early childhood stress can trigger early atherosclerotic changes in children independently of behaviors. Elevated levels of circulating cortisol have been documented in children as young as 4 years who were raised in highly stressful circumstances...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862929/socioeconomic-status-and-incidence-of-hospitalization-with-lower-extremity-peripheral-artery-disease-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#9
Priya Vart, Josef Coresh, Lucia Kwak, Shoshana H Ballew, Gerardo Heiss, Kunihiro Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Compared to coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, the relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) is less well established. We examined the association between SES and incidence of hospitalization with PAD and explored whether this association can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors and healthcare access. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 12 517 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1989) with no prior PAD were examined...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859792/how-medicine-has-changed-the-end-of-life-for-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Haider J Warraich, Adrian F Hernandez, Larry A Allen
Advances in medicine have changed how patients experience the end of life. With longer life spans, there has also been an increase in years lived with disability. The clustering of illnesses in the last years of life is particularly pronounced in patients with cardiovascular disease. At the end of life, patients with cardiovascular disease are more symptomatic, less likely to die at home, and less likely to receive high-quality palliative care. Social determinants have created widening disparities in end-of-life care...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856834/disparities-in-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-blacks-the-critical-role-of-medication-adherence
#11
REVIEW
Keith C Ferdinand, Kapil Yadav, Samar A Nasser, Helene D Clayton-Jeter, John Lewin, Dennis R Cryer, Fortunato Fred Senatore
Blacks are two to three times as likely as whites to die of preventable heart disease and stroke. Declines in mortality from heart disease have not eliminated racial disparities. Control and effective treatment of hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, among blacks is less than in whites and remains a challenge. One of the driving forces behind this racial/ethnic disparity is medication nonadherence whose cause is embedded in social determinants. Eight practical approaches to addressing medication adherence with the potential to attenuate disparities were identified and include: (1) patient engagement strategies, (2) consumer-directed health care, (3) patient portals, (4) smart apps and text messages, (5) digital pillboxes, (6) pharmacist-led engagement, (7) cardiac rehabilitation, and (8) cognitive-based behavior...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846803/comprehensive-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-women
#12
REVIEW
Suegene K Lee, Jay Khambhati, Tina Varghese, Eric P Stahl, Sonali Kumar, Pratik B Sandesara, Nanette K Wenger, Laurence S Sperling
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women. Historically, medical research has focused on male patients, and subsequently, there has been decreased awareness of the burden of ASCVD in females until recent years. The biological differences between sexes and differences in societal expectations defined by gender roles contribute to gender differences in ASCVD risk factors. With these differing risk profiles, risk assessment, risk stratification, and primary preventive measures of ASCVD are different in women and men...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845355/improving-population-health-through-an-innovative-collaborative-the-be-there-san-diego-data-for-quality-group
#13
Allen Fremont, Ashley M Kranz, Jessica Phillips, Chandra Garber
In 2012, leaders from disparate health care organizations established a data group aligned around a regional goal of preventing heart attacks and strokes in San Diego. The group---now named the Be There San Diego Data for Quality (DFQ) Group---is a safe venue for medical directors and other quality-improvement leaders to share performance data on quality-of-care measures for diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, as well as insights, lessons learned, and challenges faced by each organization in treating these conditions...
June 2017: Rand Health Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839941/factors-associated-with-high-cardiovascular-risk-in-a-primarily-african-american-urban-hiv-infected-population
#14
Shashwatee Bagchi, Shana Ab Burrowes, Lori E Fantry, Mian B Hossain, Gemechis H Tollera, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, C David Pauza, Michael Miller, Mona Baumgarten, Robert R Redfield
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a high-risk patient population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: One-hundred patients at an inner city HIV clinic in 2008 were reviewed. The atherosclerotic vascular disease risk score was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equation. Chi-square test was performed to identify associations of potential risk factors with elevated atherosclerotic vascular disease risk...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822714/cardiovascular-disease-leads-to-a-new-algorithm-for-diabetes-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Valentina Rodriguez, Matthew C Weiss, Howard Weintraub, Ira J Goldberg, Arthur Schwartzbard
Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure (HF). This increase occurs despite optimal lipid-lowering therapies. We reviewed clinical trials of diabetes treatments and their effects on circulating plasma lipoproteins and CVD. Several earlier studies failed to demonstrate clear CVD benefit from diabetes therapies. In addition, triglyceride-reducing agents did not reduce overall CVD in large clinical trials although these trials were not conducted in cohorts selected as hypertriglyceridemic...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811927/premature-deaths-among-individuals-with-severe-mental-illness-after-discharge-from-long-term-hospitalisation-in-japan-a-naturalistic-observation-during-a-24-year-period
#16
Shinsuke Kondo, Yousuke Kumakura, Akiko Kanehara, Daisuke Nagato, Taro Ueda, Tsuneo Matsuoka, Yukiko Tao, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Premature death in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) in countries without nationally collected data, including Japan, is structurally underreported. AIMS: To elucidate excess mortality among individuals with SMI in Japan. METHOD: We retrospectively investigated all deaths among users of a non-clinical community-based mental health service provider in suburban Tokyo from 1992 to 2015. RESULTS: During the study period, 45 individuals died among 254 qualified registrants...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810418/preventing-cardiovascular-disease-participant-perspectives-of-the-faith-program
#17
LaPrincess C Brewer, Eleshia J Morrison, Joyce E Balls-Berry, Patrick Dean, Kandace Lackore, Sarah Jenkins, Consuelo Cohen, Jacqueline Johnson, Frances Ellis, D C Mangum, Sharonne N Hayes, Christi Patten
Striking cardiovascular health disparities exist among African-Americans in Minnesota compared to Whites; however, community-based interventions to address cardiovascular disease risk are lacking. This study explored participant perceptions of a culturally tailored, cardiovascular disease prevention program developed using a community-based participatory research process. Research participation perceptions, program benefits, and program satisfaction/acceptability were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807739/community-based-participatory-research-to-design-a-faith-enhanced-diabetes-prevention-program-the-better-me-within-randomized-trial
#18
Heather Kitzman, Leilani Dodgen, Abdullah Mamun, J Lee Slater, George King, Donna Slater, Alene King, Surendra Mandapati, Mark DeHaven
Reducing obesity positively impacts diabetes and cardiovascular risk; however, evidence-based lifestyle programs, such as the diabetes prevention program (DPP), show reduced effectiveness in African American (AA) women. In addition to an attenuated response to lifestyle programs, AA women also demonstrate high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To address these disparities, enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women need to be developed and evaluated with culturally relevant and rigorous study designs...
August 12, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805969/study-of-young-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-design-and-rationale-of-the-young-mi-registry
#19
Avinainder Singh, Bradley Collins, Arman Qamar, Ankur Gupta, Amber Fatima, Sanjay Divakaran, Josh Klein, Jon Hainer, Petr Jarolim, Ravi V Shah, Khurram Nasir, Marcelo F Di Carli, Deepak L Bhatt, Ron Blankstein
The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective study examining a cohort of young adults age ≤ 50 years with a first-time myocardial infarction. The study will use the robust electronic health records of 2 large academic medical centers, as well as detailed chart review of all patients, to generate high-quality longitudinal data regarding the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients who experience a myocardial infarction at a young age. Our findings will provide important insights regarding prevention, risk stratification, treatment, and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in this understudied population, as well as identify disparities which, if addressed, can lead to further improvement in patient outcomes...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804635/analyzing-cardiovascular-treatment-guidelines-application-to-women-and-minority-populations
#20
REVIEW
Garth Graham, Yang-Yu Karen Xiao, Terry Taylor, Amber Boehm
Despite nearly 30 years of treatment guidelines for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors and a parallel growth in the understanding of cardiovascular disease disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, such disparities persist. The goals of this review are to consider the possible role of three factors: the one-size-fits-all approach of most treatment guidelines, adoption of guideline-recommended treatments in clinical practice, and patient adherence to recommended practice, especially the relationship between adherence and patient perceptions...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
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