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Disparities cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145355/disparities-in-state-specific-adult-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-united-states-2015
#1
Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Latetia V Moore, Heidi M Blanck, Diane M Harris, Deb Galuska
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall dietary pattern to reduce the risk for diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and obesity (1). Adults should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruits and 2.0-3.0 cups of vegetables per day.* Overall, few adults in each state met intake recommendations according to 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; however, sociodemographic characteristics known to be associated with fruit and vegetable consumption were not examined (2)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138366/lower-repeat-revascularization-rates-among-patients-with-prior-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-are-due-to-lack-of-adequate-target-vessels
#2
Anirudh Kumar, John F Wagener, Daniel Wojdyla, W Schuyler Jones, Manesh R Patel, Sunil V Rao
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) have shown lower repeat revascularization rates in patients who undergo CABG. The reason remains unclear. METHODS: We identified patients with multivessel CAD who received CABG or PCI enrolled in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease (2003 to 2012). We compared the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) between the two groups...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138182/disparities-in-the-quality-of-cardiovascular-care-between-hiv-infected-versus-hiv-uninfected-adults-in-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Joseph A Ladapo, Adam K Richards, Cassandra M DeWitt, Nina T Harawa, Steven Shoptaw, William E Cunningham, John N Mafi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is emerging as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. We compared use of national guideline-recommended cardiovascular care during office visits among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients aged 40 to 79 years in the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2006 to 2013...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135623/patient-ethnicity-predicts-poor-health-access-and-gaps-in-perception-of-personal-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#4
Yeunjung Kim, Kathryn Hogan, Gail D'Onofrio, Sharon Chekijian, Basmah Safdar
BACKGROUND: Focus of health literacy campaigns has centered around raising awareness. It is unknown whether awareness of coronary artery disease risk factors accurately reflects personalization of one's own cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in consecutive patients presenting with chest pain admitted to an observation unit of a tertiary care hospital. A 32-item questionnaire in English or Spanish examined knowledge of coronary artery disease risk factors...
December 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132443/ethnic-differences-in-mental-health-and-race-based-data-collection
#5
Maria Chiu
There is strong evidence of ethnic disparities in chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases; however, less is known about ethnic differences in mental illness and health service utilization. Previous studies have shown that Asians are more likely to avoid or delay seeking help for their mental illness. We conducted a population-based study using Ontario health administrative data to examine ethnic differences in mental illness severity at hospital presentation. We found that Chinese and South Asian psychiatric patients were significantly more likely to be involuntarily admitted and exhibited more aggressive behaviours and psychotic symptoms compared to the general population...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114712/the-australian-burden-of-disease-study-impact-and-causes-of-illness-and-death-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-people-2011
#6
Fadwa Al-Yaman
This study estimates fatal and nonfatal disease burden among Indigenous Australians in 2011 and compares it with non-Indigenous Australians. The study found that there were 284 years lost per 1000 people because of premature death or living with ill health. Most of the disease burden was from chronic diseases (64%), particularly mental and substance-use disorders, injuries, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and respiratory diseases. The burden of disease was higher among males (54%) than females (46%) and higher for fatal (53%) than for nonfatal burden (47%)...
October 11, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111825/healthcare-reform-in-china-challenges-and-opportunities
#7
Marianthi Papagianni, Konstantinos Tziomalos
China, the world's most populous country, has faced rapid epidemiological transitions in the last years. Even though cardiovascular diseases replaced infectious diseases as the leading cause of death, the incidence of the latter is still increasing. Prevention and management of chronic and communicable diseases is complicated by poverty and substantial social and healthcare disparities across the different regions and across different population subgroups within regions. Accordingly, the successful implementation of healthcare reforms requires careful planning and coordinated efforts from multiple stakeholders...
November 7, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081905/obesity-paradox-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-intervention-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Nirav Patel, Ossama Elsaid, Abhishek Shenoy, Abhishek Sharma, Samy I McFarlane
There is strong relationship exist between obesity and cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (CAD). However, better outcomes noted in obese patients undergoing percutaneous cardiovascular interventions for CAD, a phenomenon known as the obesity paradox. In this review, we performed extensive search for obesity paradox in obese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and discussed possible mechanism and disparities in different race and sex.
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061565/cardiovascular-health-in-african-americans-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#9
REVIEW
Mercedes R Carnethon, Jia Pu, George Howard, Michelle A Albert, Cheryl A M Anderson, Alain G Bertoni, Mahasin S Mujahid, Latha Palaniappan, Herman A Taylor, Monte Willis, Clyde W Yancy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management...
October 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046921/pioglitazone-reduces-cold-induced-brown-fat-glucose-uptake-despite-induction-of-browning-in-cultured-human-adipocytes-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-humans
#10
Rebecca K C Loh, Melissa F Formosa, Nina Eikelis, David A Bertovic, Mitchell J Anderson, Shane A Barwood, Shane Nanayakkara, Neale D Cohen, Andre La Gerche, Anne T Reutens, Kenneth S Yap, Thomas W Barber, Gavin W Lambert, Martin H Cherk, Stephen J Duffy, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrew L Carey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is a possible therapeutic strategy to increase energy expenditure and glucose and lipid clearance to ameliorate obesity and associated comorbidities. The thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of glucose-lowering drugs increase BAT browning in preclinical experimental models but whether these actions extend to humans in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on adipocyte browning and adaptive thermogenesis in humans...
October 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045334/blood-pressure-parameters-and-morbid-and-mortal-outcomes-in-nondialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Carl P Walther, Aravind Chandra, Sankar D Navaneethan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observational and interventional studies provide conflicting evidence regarding optimal blood pressure (BP) control in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent publications provide additional information to inform therapeutic decision-making. RECENT FINDINGS: Targeting SBP to less than 120 mmHg, versus less than 140 mmHg, decreased cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in persons with nondiabetic CKD. A meta-analysis of trials testing blood pressure management among nondialysis-dependent CKD patients (15 924 total patients) found more intensive therapies generally reduced mortality in all subgroups...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040542/high-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-protection-in-higher-but-not-in-lower-socioeconomic-groups-prospective-findings-from-the-moli-sani-study
#12
Marialaura Bonaccio, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, George Pounis, Simona Costanzo, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
Background: It is uncertain whether the cardiovascular benefits associated with Mediterranean diet (MD) may differ across socioeconomic groups. Methods: Prospective analysis on 18991 men and women aged ≥35 years from the general population of the Moli-sani cohort (Italy). Adherence to MD was appraised by the Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Household income (euros/year) and educational level were used as indicators of socioeconomic status. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazard models...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036280/invited-commentary-sex-race-differences-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-achieving-the-promise-of-sex-and-race-subgroup-analyses-in-epidemiologic-research
#13
Nathalie Moise, Alain G Bertoni
Diabetes confers a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in women than men. The reasons for these sex differences, such as poorer cardiovascular risk factor profiles, have received considerable attention. However, a recent report on sex-diabetes interactions on cardiovascular disease identified that few if any prior studies have confirmed these sex-differences in blacks, despite known diabetes-related disparities. In the current issue of the Journal, George et al. (2017) find marginally significant multiplicative sex by diabetes interactions in blacks but not whites after adjustments for traditional and behavioral risk factors, competing risk and change in diabetes status over time...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035106/does-the-hispanic-health-advantage-extend-to-better-management-of-hypertension-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status-sociobehavioral-factors-and-health-care-access
#14
Emily Bacon, Fernando Riosmena, Richard G Rogers
Hispanics in the United States (and foreign-born Hispanics in particular) have relatively favorable health given their lower socioeconomic status compared to, for example, non-Hispanic whites. This phenomenon is often called the Hispanic health paradox (HHP). This study examines whether the previously documented HHP in hypertension prevalence extends to its management using clinical and self-reported measures from the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Multivariate models adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and sociobehavioral characteristics show an advantage among foreign-born Mexicans in hypertension prevalence relative to non-Hispanic whites (adjusted OR = 0...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035103/racial-disparities-in-the-association-between-alcohol-use-disorders-and-health-in-black-and-white-women
#15
Yusuf Ransome, Denise C Carty, Courtney D Cogburn, David R Williams
Adverse health attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) is more pronounced among black than white women. We investigated whether socioeconomic status (education and income), health care factors (insurance, alcoholism treatment), or psychosocial stressors (stressful life events, racial discrimination, alcoholism stigma) could account for black-white differences in the association between AUD and physical and functional health among current women drinkers 25 years and older (N = 8,877) in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031281/double-disparities-in-the-health-care-for-people-with-schizophrenia-of-an-ethnic-national-minority
#16
Gilad Gal, Hanan Munitz, Itzhak Levav
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown health care disparities among persons of minority status, including in countries with universal health care. Yet, a dearth of studies have addressed disparities resulting from the combined effect of two minority status groups: severe mental illness and ethnic-national sector filiation. This study aimed to compare the differential health care of Jewish- and Arab-Israelis with schizophrenia in a country with a universal health insurance. METHOD: This study builds on a large case-control epidemiological sample (N = 50,499) of Jewish- (92...
October 15, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029617/association-of-red-cell-distribution-width-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-specific-mortality-in-african-american-and-white-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Salman M Tajuddin, Mike A Nalls, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
BACKGROUND: While the mortality rate is declining in the United States, the life expectancy gap among different population groups suggests a need to identify biomarkers to improve early identification of individuals at risk. Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is an emerging biomarker of chronic disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. However, little is known about its association with mortality risk in younger adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between RDW and overall and cause-specific mortality risk, and to identify novel determinants of RDW level...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025574/genetics-of-no-deficiency
#18
REVIEW
Kirsten Leineweber, Sven Moosmang, Dan Paulson
The nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway plays a key role in regulating cardiovascular homeostasis, and genetic variants allocated to NO-cGMP pathway genes, leading to NO-cGMP deficiency, may influence the prevalence or course of cardiovascular disease. NO-cGMP deficiency can be caused by nitric oxide synthase substrate deficiency, substrate competition, defects, or uncoupling; endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase; decreased cGMP production; or increased cGMP degradation. This review presents evidence supporting the role of NO-cGMP deficiency in cardiovascular disease, including findings from genetic association studies for particular polymorphisms, haplotypes, and racial disparities...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016151/associations-between-immigrant-status-and-pharmacological-treatments-for-diabetes-in-u-s-adults
#19
Loretta Hsueh, Elizabeth A Vrany, Jay S Patel, Nicole A Hollingshead, Adam T Hirsh, Mary de Groot, Jesse C Stewart
OBJECTIVES: Although treatment disparities in diabetes have been documented along racial/ethnic lines, it is unclear if immigrant groups in the United States experience similar treatment disparities. Our objective was to determine whether immigrant status is associated with differences in pharmacological treatment of diabetes in a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. We were specifically interested in differences in treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and insulin...
October 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982671/cohort-study-of-ecg-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-trajectories-ethnic-disparities-associations-with-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-clinical-utility
#20
Carlos Iribarren, Alfred D Round, Meng Lu, Peter M Okin, Edward J McNulty
BACKGROUND: ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a well-known predictor of cardiovascular disease. However, no prior study has characterized patterns of presence/absence of ECG LVH ("ECG LVH trajectories") across the adult lifespan in both sexes and across ethnicities. We examined: (1) correlates of ECG LVH trajectories; (2) the association of ECG LVH trajectories with incident coronary heart disease, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and heart failure; and (3) reclassification of cardiovascular disease risk using ECG LVH trajectories...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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