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Copd , asthma, ARDS

Yan Zhou, Bo Zhang, Caixia Hao, Xiaoting Huang, Xiaohong Li, Yanhong Huang, Ziqiang Luo
Adipokines, secreted by the adipose tissue, are extensively involved in the regulation and maintenance of various physiological and pathological processes, including insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory activity, neuroendocrine activity, immunity, cancer, homeostasis, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, breeding and bone metabolism, and all functions of the endocrine-reproductive system axis. Omentin is a recently identified adipokine, which has become a research hotspot due to its pleiotropic effects on various diseases...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mengyuan Kan, Maya Shumyatcher, Blanca E Himes
Omics approaches are high-throughput unbiased technologies that provide snapshots of various aspects of biological systems and include: 1) genomics, the measure of DNA variation; 2) transcriptomics, the measure of RNA expression; 3) epigenomics, the measure of DNA alterations not involving sequence variation that influence RNA expression; 4) proteomics, the measure of protein expression or its chemical modifications; and 5) metabolomics, the measure of metabolite levels. Our understanding of pulmonary diseases has increased as a result of applying these omics approaches to characterize patients, uncover mechanisms underlying drug responsiveness, and identify effects of environmental exposures and interventions...
August 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Icíar P López, Elvira Alfaro-Arnedo, Raquel Torrens, María Iñiguez, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Carlos Ruíz-Martínez, José G Pichel
IGF1R (Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor) is a tyrosine kinase with pleiotropic cellular functions. IGF activity maintains human lung homeostasis and is implicated in pulmonary diseases such as cancer, ARDS, COPD, asthma and fibrosis. Here we report that lung transcriptome analysis in mice with a postnatally-induced Igf1r gene deletion showed differentially expressed genes with potentially protective roles related to epigenetics, redox and oxidative stress. After bleomycin-induced lung injury, IGF1R-deficient mice demonstrated improved survival within a week...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rama Malaviya, Jeffrey D Laskin, Debra L Laskin
Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α have been linked to a number of pulmonary inflammatory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sarcoidosis, and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). TNFα plays multiple roles in disease pathology by inducing an accumulation of inflammatory cells, stimulating the generation of inflammatory mediators, and causing oxidative and nitrosative stress, airway hyperresponsiveness and tissue remodeling...
December 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Arun V Kolanjiyil, Clement Kleinstreuer, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pulmonary drug delivery is becoming a favored route for administering drugs to treat both lung and systemic diseases. Examples of lung diseases include asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Special respiratory drugs are administered to the lungs, using an appropriate inhaler device. Next to the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a frequently used device because of the good drug stability and a minimal need for patient coordination...
May 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Dhamotharan Pattarayan, Rajesh K Thimmulappa, Vilwanathan Ravikumar, Subbiah Rajasekaran
Lack of markers of subclinical disease state and clinical phenotype other than pulmonary function test has made the diagnosis and interventions of environmental respiratory diseases a major challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding single stranded RNAs, have emerged as potential disease-modifier in various environmental respiratory diseases. They can also be found in various body fluids and are remarkably stable. Because of their high stability, disease-specific expression, and the ease to detect and quantify them have raised the potential of miRNAs in body fluids to be useful clinical diagnostic biomarkers for lung disease phenotyping...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Fernanda Paula R Santana, Nathalia M Pinheiro, Márcia Isabel B Mernak, Renato F Righetti, Mílton A Martins, João H G Lago, Fernanda D T Q Dos Santos Lopes, Iolanda F L C Tibério, Carla M Prado
Pulmonary inflammation is a hallmark of many respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory syndrome distress (ARDS). Most of these diseases are treated with anti-inflammatory therapy in order to prevent or to reduce the pulmonary inflammation. Herbal medicine-derived natural products have been used in folk medicine and scientific studies to evaluate the value of these compounds have grown in recent years. Many substances derived from plants have the biological effects in vitro and in vivo, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Vaibhav Shrirang Dhawale, Venkateswara Rao Amara, Pinakin Arun Karpe, Vajir Malek, Deep Patel, Kulbhushan Tikoo
Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2weeks...
September 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hua Zhao, Xiaoting Wang, Dawei Liu, Hongmin Zhang, Huaiwu He, Yun Long
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value and potential therapeutic impact of Peking Union Medical College Hospital critical ultrasonic management (PCUM) in the early management of critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: Patients admitted into the ICU of Peking Union Medical College Hospital for ARF were consecutively recruited over a 18-month period. Patients were randomly divided into conventional group and PCUM group (critical care ultrasonic examination was added in addition to conventional examinations)...
December 15, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Gisele P Oliveira, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
Several respiratory diseases feature increased inflammatory response and catabolic activity, which are associated with glutamine depletion; thus, the benefits of exogenous glutamine administration have been evaluated in clinical trials and models of different respiratory diseases. Recent reviews and meta-analyses have focused on the effects and mechanisms of action of glutamine in a general population of critical care patients or in different models of injury. However, little information is available about the role of glutamine in respiratory diseases...
February 4, 2016: Nutrients
Javier Milara, Esteban Morcillo, Daniel Monleon, Herman Tenor, Julio Cortijo
Fibrotic remodeling is a process common to chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Based on preclinical studies phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors may exhibit beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling properties for the treatment of these respiratory disorders. Effects of PDE4 inhibitors on changes in the lung metabolome in models of pulmonary fibrotic remodeling have not yet been explored. This work studies the effects of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast on changes in the lung metabolome in the common murine model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolic profiling of intact lung tissue...
2015: PloS One
Yung-Fong Tsai, Tsong-Long Hwang
INTRODUCTION: The proteolytic activity of neutrophil elastase (NE) not only destroys pathogens but also degrades host matrix tissues by generating a localized protease-antiprotease imbalance. In humans, NE is well known to be involved in various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, asthma, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and cystic fibrosis. The regulation of NE activity is thought to represent a promising therapeutic approach, and NE is considered as an important target for the development of novel selective inhibitors to treat these diseases...
2015: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Daniel A Lichtenstein
This review article describes two protocols adapted from lung ultrasound: the bedside lung ultrasound in emergency (BLUE)-protocol for the immediate diagnosis of acute respiratory failure and the fluid administration limited by lung sonography (FALLS)-protocol for the management of acute circulatory failure. These applications require the mastery of 10 signs indicating normal lung surface (bat sign, lung sliding, A-lines), pleural effusions (quad and sinusoid sign), lung consolidations (fractal and tissue-like sign), interstitial syndrome (lung rockets), and pneumothorax (stratosphere sign and the lung point)...
June 2015: Chest
Joyce Lee, Behzad Yeganeh, Leonardo Ermini, Martin Post
Sphingolipids are a diverse class of signaling molecules implicated in many important aspects of cellular biology, including growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Autophagy and apoptosis are fundamental physiological processes essential for the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. There is great interest into the investigation of sphingolipids and their roles in regulating these key physiological processes as well as the manifestation of several disease states. With what is known to date, the entire scope of sphingolipid signaling is too broad, and a single review would hardly scratch the surface...
May 2015: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Ashley Y Metcalf, James K Stoller, Timothy D Fry, Marco Habermann
BACKGROUND: Organizational factors associated with adoption and use of respiratory care protocols have received little attention. This study examines patterns of protocol use and features of a hospital and providers that are associated with respiratory care protocol use. METHODS: Forty-four hospitals and their health-care providers responded to an online survey regarding perceived outcomes of protocol use and their level of support for using protocols. Hospital features (ie, size, teaching status, and use of information systems) were also assessed...
May 2015: Respiratory Care
Freny J Nirappil, Ana Maheshwari, Joel Andrews, Greg S Martin, Annette M Esper, Sushma K Cribbs
PURPOSE: We determined the prevalence of risk factors for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), outcomes of critical illness, and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients. We hypothesized that in an urban county hospital, HIV-1-infected patients with ARDS would have a higher mortality than their HIV-1-uninfected counterparts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were enrolled between 2006 and 2012. Baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, illness severity, causes of ARDS, and clinical outcomes were obtained...
February 2015: Journal of Critical Care
Anders Bastiansen
Within the last decade the use of non-invasive ventilation has expanded. This article reviews the studies on non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma and neuromuscular disease. Its beneficial effect has primarily been found in exacerbations of COPD where it reduces mortality with a number needed to treat of ten when added to standard medical treatment. No other conclusive evidence of the superiority of non-invasive ventilation compared to other modalities has been shown...
May 26, 2014: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Christopher Mallow, Warren Isakow
SESSION TITLE: Diagnostic Procedures and Interventions PostersSESSION TYPE: Original Investigation PosterPRESENTED ON: Wednesday, October 29, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMPURPOSE: Point of Care Bedside Ultrasound is now widely utilized as a rapid technique to evaluate patients with a range of acute pulmonary emergencies, including acute pneumothorax. We attempted to identify patient related risk factors for absent lung slide in Medical ICU patients with respiratory failure who did not have pneumothoraces, to help define appropriate use of this technology in the future...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Frank Dusemund, Joannis Chronis, Florent Baty, Werner Christian Albrich, Martin Hugo Brutsche
BACKGROUND: The impact of chronic lung diseases on outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not well established. We aimed to investigate the outcome of adult CAP-patients with underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma or interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a case-control study. METHODS: We used a nationwide database including all hospitalisations in Switzerland from 2002 to 2010. Endpoints were the incidence of lung abscess, parapneumonic pleural effusion, empyema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, in-hospital mortality and length of stay...
2014: Swiss Medical Weekly
Simon G Royce, Yuben Moodley, Chrishan S Samuel
Inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine release, epithelial damage, airway/lung remodelling and fibrosis are central features of inflammatory lung disorders, which include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Although the lung has some ability to repair itself from acute injury, in the presence of ongoing pathological stimuli and/or insults that lead to chronic disease, it no longer retains the capacity to heal, resulting in fibrosis, the final common pathway that causes an irreversible loss of lung function...
March 2014: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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