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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319645/the-atypical-genesis-and-bioavailability-of-the-plant-based-small-rna-mir2911-bulking-up-while-breaking-down
#1
Jian Yang, Natee Kongchan, Cecilia Primo Planta, Joel R Neilson, Kendal D Hirschi
SCOPE: The uptake of dietary plant small RNAs (sRNAs) in consumers remains controversial, which is mainly due to low dietary content in combination with poor fractional absorption. MIR2911, among all the plant sRNAs including microRNAs, has been shown to be one of the most robustly absorbed sRNAs. Here we analyze the unusual abundance and unique genesis of MIR2911 during vegetable processing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using qRT-PCR, the abundance of MIR2911 increased dramatically in macerated tissues while other microRNAs degraded...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304398/characterization-of-the-polyphenol-oxidase-gene-family-reveals-a-novel-microrna-involved-in-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-ppos-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#2
Caili Li, Dongqiao Li, Jiang Li, Fenjuan Shao, Shanfa Lu
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301688/multiplex-single-cell-quantification-of-rare-rna-transcripts-from-protoplasts-in-a-model-plant-system
#3
Ulhas S Kadam, Burkhard Schulz, Joseph M K Irudayaraj
Here we demonstrate multiplex and simultaneous detection of four different rare RNA species from plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and gold nanoprobes at single cell resolution. We show the applicability of nanoparticle-based Raman spectroscopic sensor to study intracellular RNA copies. First, we demonstrate that gold-nanoparticles decorate with Raman probes and carrying specific nucleic acid probe sequences can be uptaken by the protoplasts. We confirm the internalization of gold nanoprobes by TEM, ICP-MS, and fluorescence imaging...
March 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299810/the-role-of-micrornas-in-anopheles-biology-an-emerging-research-field
#4
REVIEW
L Lampe, E A Levashina
In the last years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been established as important post-transcriptional regulators of critical physiological processes in animals and plants. Here, we summarize what is known about miRNA biosynthesis, expression and function in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae with a particular emphasis on the mosquito-parasite interactions. We discuss the important gaps in the current knowledge, including the potential of miRNA manipulation for future vector control strategies.
February 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#5
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292023/green-tea-and-its-anti-angiogenesis-effects
#6
REVIEW
Bahman Rashidi, Mehrnoush Malekzadeh, Mohammad Goodarzi, Aria Masoudifar, Hamed Mirzaei
The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280737/bioinformatics-study-of-structural-patterns-in-plant-microrna-precursors
#7
J Miskiewicz, K Tomczyk, A Mickiewicz, J Sarzynska, M Szachniuk
According to the RNA world theory, RNAs which stored genetic information and catalyzed chemical reactions had their contribution in the formation of current living organisms. In recent years, researchers studied this molecule diversity, i.a. focusing on small non-coding regulatory RNAs. Among them, of particular interest is evolutionarily ancient, 19-24 nt molecule of microRNA (miRNA). It has been already recognized as a regulator of gene expression in eukaryotes. In plants, miRNA plays a key role in the response to stress conditions and it participates in the process of growth and development...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261627/in-silico-identification-of-mirnas-and-their-target-genes-and-analysis-of-gene-co-expression-network-in-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-stigma
#8
Zahra Zinati, Roohollah Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Ali Behpouri
As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway...
December 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259961/microrna-7-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-gene-by-regulating-ilf2-in-pancreatic-carcinoma
#9
Yiliang Bi, Wei Shen, Min Min, Yan Liu
Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2) has been found to be markedly upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma and is involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Thus, ILF2 may be a potential target for therapy. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms of ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that ILF2 functioned as an oncogene and regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes in pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) suppressed ILF2 mRNA expression and the protein level in PANC-1 cells...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253861/small-rna-profiling-and-degradome-analysis-reveal-regulation-of-microrna-in-peanut-embryogenesis-and-early-pod-development
#10
Chao Gao, Pengfei Wang, Shuzhen Zhao, Chuanzhi Zhao, Han Xia, Lei Hou, Zheng Ju, Ye Zhang, Changsheng Li, Xingjun Wang
BACKGROUND: As a typical geocarpic plant, peanut embryogenesis and pod development are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways and controlled by appropriate hormone level. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play indispensable roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, identification and characterization of peanut miRNAs has been described. However, whether miRNAs participate in the regulation of peanut embryogenesis and pod development has yet to be explored...
March 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247088/characterization-of-mir061-and-its-target-genes-in-grapevine-responding-to-exogenous-gibberellic-acid
#11
Mengqi Wang, Xin Sun, Chen Wang, Liwen Cui, Lide Chen, Chaobo Zhang, Lingfei Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as an important growth regulator, are also involved in gibberellic acid (GA) signaling, revealing much relationship between miRNAs and GA in various plant responses. Grape is highly sensitive to GA3, which plays a significant regulatory role in regulation of flower development, berry expansion, berry set, berry ripening, and seedlessness induction; further, it was found that grapevine miR061 (VvmiR061) is a GA3 responsive miRNA. In this study, grapevine REV (VvREV) and HOX32 (VvHOX32), two target genes of VvmiR061, were predicted, verified, and cloned; homologous conservation was analyzed in various plants...
February 28, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241738/response-of-micrornas-to-cold-treatment-in-the-young-spikes-of-common-wheat
#12
Guoqi Song, Rongzhi Zhang, Shujuan Zhang, Yulian Li, Jie Gao, Xiaodong Han, Mingli Chen, Jiao Wang, Wei Li, Genying Li
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses by regulating their target genes. For common wheat, spring frost damage frequently occurs, especially when low temperature coincides with plants at early floral organ differentiation, which may result in significant yield loss. Up to date, the role of miRNAs in wheat response to frost stress is not well understood. RESULTS: We report here the sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes from the young spikes that were treated with cold stress and the comparative analysis with those of the control...
February 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238061/mirnas-major-modulators-for-crop-growth-and-development-under-abiotic-stresses
#13
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Shah Fahad, Muhammad Aqeel, Usman Ali, Amanullah, Sumera Anwar, Shahbaz Khan Baloch, Madiha Zainab
Cumulatively, biotic and abiotic stresses of various magnitudes can decrease the production of crops by 70%. miRNAs have emerged as a genetic tool with enormous potential that can be exploited to understand stress tolerance at the molecular level and eventually regulate stress in crops. Plant miRNA targets frequently fit into diverse families of TFs that control the expression of genes related to a certain trait. As key machinery in gene regulatory networks, it is agreed that a broad understanding of miRNAs will greatly increase our understanding of plant responses to environmental stresses...
February 25, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235889/accumulation-of-micrornas-differentially-modulated-by-drought-is-affected-by-grafting-in-grapevine
#14
Chiara Pagliarani, Marco Vitali, Manuela Ferrero, Nicola Vitulo, Marco Incarbone, Claudio Lovisolo, Giorgio Valle, Andrea Schubert
Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is routinely grafted and rootstocks inducing drought tolerance represent a source for adapting vineyards to climate change in temperate areas. Our goal was to investigate drought stress effects on miRNA abundance in a drought-resistant grapevine rootstock, M4 (Vitis vinifera X Vitis berlandieri), compared with a commercial cultivar, Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), by using their auto- and reciprocal grafts. RNA extracted from roots and leaves of droughted and irrigated plants of different graft combinations was used to prepare cDNA libraries for small RNA sequencing, and to analyse miRNAs by Real Time PCR (RT-qPCR)...
February 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235420/altered-expression-profiles-of-microrna-families-during-de-etiolation-of-maize-and-rice-leaves
#15
Jiajia Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Yaling Wang, Xinyu Liu, Xin-Guang Zhu
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plants. Although many miRNA families are sequentially and functionally conserved across plant kingdoms (Dezulian et al. in Genome Biol 13, 2005), they still differ in many aspects such as family size, average length, genomic loci etc. (Unver et al. in Int J Plant Genomics, 2009). RESULTS: In this study, we investigated changes of miRNA expression profiles during greening process of etiolated seedlings of Oryza sativa (C3) and Zea mays (C4) to explore conserved and species-specific characteristics of miRNAs between these two species...
February 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231321/argonaute10-promotes-the-degradation-of-mir165-6-through-the-sdn1-and-sdn2-exonucleases-in-arabidopsis
#16
Yu Yu, Lijuan Ji, Brandon H Le, Jixian Zhai, Jiayi Chen, Elizabeth Luscher, Lei Gao, Chunyan Liu, Xiaofeng Cao, Beixin Mo, Jinbiao Ma, Blake C Meyers, Xuemei Chen
The degradation of small RNAs in plants and animals is associated with small RNA 3' truncation and 3' uridylation and thus relies on exonucleases and nucleotidyl transferases. ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins associate with small RNAs in vivo and are essential for not only the activities but also the stability of small RNAs. AGO1 is the microRNA (miRNA) effector in Arabidopsis, and its closest homolog, AGO10, maintains stem cell homeostasis in meristems by sequestration of miR165/6, a conserved miRNA acting through AGO1...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229965/atmbd6-a-methyl-cpg-binding-domain-protein-maintains-gene-silencing-in-arabidopsis-by-interacting-with-rna-binding-proteins
#17
Adwaita Prasad Parida, Amrapali Sharma, Arun Kumar Sharma
DNA methylation, mediated by double-stranded RNA, is a conserved epigenetic phenomenon that protects a genome from transposons, silences unwanted genes and has a paramount function in plant or animal development. Methyl CpG binding domain proteins are members of a class of proteins that bind to methylated DNA. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 methyl CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins, but the molecular/biological functions of most of these proteins are still not clear. In the present study, we identified four proteins that interact with AtMBD6...
March 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229383/mirna-based-heavy-metal-homeostasis-and-plant-growth
#18
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel
Plants have been naturally gifted with mechanisms to adjust under very high or low nutrient concentrations. Heavy metal toxicity is considered as a major growth and yield-limiting factor for plants. This stress includes essential as well as non-essential metals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known for mediating post-transcriptional regulation by cleaving transcripts or translational inhibition. It is commonly agreed that an extensive understanding of plant miRNAs will significantly help in the induction of tolerance against environmental stresses...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228536/a-viral-satellite-dna-vector-tylccnv-for-functional-analysis-of-mirnas-and-sirnas-in-plants
#19
Zheng Ju, Dongyan Cao, Chao Gao, Jinhua Zuo, Baiqiang Zhai, Shan Li, Hongliang Zhu, Daqi Fu, Yunbo Luo, Benzhong Zhu
With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we reported a new small RNAs overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225779/combined-small-rna-and-degradome-sequencing-reveals-complex-microrna-regulation-of-catechin-biosynthesis-in-tea-camellia-sinensis
#20
Ping Sun, Chunzhen Cheng, Yuling Lin, Qiufang Zhu, Jinke Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs playing crucial regulatory roles in plants. Tea, a globally popular non-alcoholic drink, is rich in health-enhancing catechins. In this study, 69 conserved and 47 novel miRNAs targeting 644 genes were identified by high-throughout sequencing. Predicted target genes of miRNAs were mainly involved in plant growth, signal transduction, morphogenesis and defense. To further identify targets of tea miRNAs, degradome sequencing and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5'cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were applied...
2017: PloS One
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