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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540475/-intestinal-microbiota-in-individualized-therapies
#1
REVIEW
T Witte, D H Pieper, B Heidrich
During recent years, the analysis of the human microbiota has been receiving more and more scientific focus. Deep sequencing analysis enables characterization of microbial communities in different environments without the need of culture-based methods. Hereby, information about microbial communities is increasing enormously. Numerous studies in humans and animal models revealed the important role of the microbiome in emergence and natural course of diseases such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders, e...
May 24, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536569/dietary-high-zinc-oxide-modulates-the-microbiome-of-ileum-and-colon-in-weaned-piglets
#2
Ting Yu, Cui Zhu, Shicheng Chen, Lei Gao, Hang Lv, Ruowei Feng, Qingfeng Zhu, Jinsong Xu, Zhuang Chen, Zongyong Jiang
Dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) at pharmacological level has been widely used to prevent and treat diarrhea in weaning piglets. Despite its importance for promoting animal health and performance, the influence of microbiome profiles in intestinal tracts by ZnO needs to be comprehensively investigated. In this study, we conducted a comparative microbial community analysis in the ileum and colon of piglets fed by either control diet, high ZnO (3,000 mg/kg) supplement or antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) supplement...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527946/the-microbiome-and-hepatobiliary-pancreatic-cancers
#3
Kosuke Mima, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Hideo Baba
The human intestinal microbiome encompasses at least 100 trillion microorganisms that can influence host immunity and disease conditions, including cancer. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancers have been associated with poor prognosis owing to their high level of tumor invasiveness, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional treatment options, such as chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence from animal models suggests that specific microbes and microbial dysbiosis can potentiate hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumor development by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, and producing tumor-promoting metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527760/restoration-of-cefixime-induced-gut-microbiota-changes-by-lactobacillus-cocktails-and-fructooligosaccharides-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Ying Shi, Qixiao Zhai, Dongyao Li, Bingyong Mao, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics have been used to rebuild the antibiotic-induced dysfunction in gut microbiota, but whether the different strains of probiotics result in similar or reverse effects remains unclear. In this study, the different recovery effects of two cocktails (each contains four strains) of Lactobacillus and fructooligosaccharide against cefixime-induced change of gut microbiota were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that the use of cefixime caused a reduction in the diversities of the microbial community and led to significantly decreasing to one preponderant Firmicutes phylum, which was difficult to restore naturally in the short term...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526852/health-benefit-of-vegetable-fruit-juice-based-diet-role-of-microbiome
#5
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Paul Shao, Ru-Po Lee, Jianjun Huang, Austin Ly, Mark Hsu, Qing-Yi Lu, Gail Thames, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to human health. Vegetable/fruit juices provide polyphenols, oligosaccharides, fiber and nitrate (beet juice), which may induce a prebiotic-like effect. Juice-based diets are becoming popular. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence of their health benefits. It was our hypothesis that changes in the intestinal microbiota induced by a juice-based diet play an important role in their health benefits. Twenty healthy adults consumed only vegetable/fruit juices for 3 days followed by 14 days of customary diet...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#6
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520993/effects-of-short-and-long-course-antibiotics-on-the-lower-intestinal-microbiome-as-they-relate-to-traveller-s-diarrhea
#9
Lawrence Clifford McDonald
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have profound and lasting effects on the lower intestinal (gut) microbiome that can both promote resistance and increase susceptibility to colonization and infection; knowledge of these changes is important to the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: Recent data from epidemiologic and modern metagenomics studies were reviewed in regard to how such findings could inform the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507982/the-role-of-carrageenan-and-carboxymethylcellulose-in-the-development-of-intestinal-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
John Vincent Martino, Johan Van Limbergen, Leah E Cahill
Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn's disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) using a polymeric formula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507021/cell-biology-of-tight-junction-barrier-regulation-and-mucosal-disease
#11
Aaron Buckley, Jerrold R Turner
Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. In the intestine, the epithelium establishes a selectively permeable barrier that supports nutrient absorption and waste secretion while preventing intrusion by luminal materials. Intestinal epithelia therefore play a central role in regulating interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, which include dietary antigens, a diverse intestinal microbiome, and pathogens. The paracellular space is sealed by the tight junction, which is maintained by a complex network of protein interactions...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504277/role-of-dietary-onion-in-modifying-the-faecal-bile-acid-content-in-rats-fed-a-high-cholesterol-diet
#12
Diana González-Peña, Lucía Giménez, Begoña de Ancos, Concepción Sánchez-Moreno
The determination of faecal bile patterns offers new opportunities in the search for non-invasive biomarkers of disease status. The objective of this study was to describe the shifts in faecal bile acid (BA) composition induced by feeding a high-cholesterol/cholic acid diet (HC) over 7 weeks of experimental feeding in Wistar rats, and to evaluate the effect of onion included as a functional ingredient (HCO). A HPLC-MS/MS method allowed the detection of 29 bile acids, 10 of which were tentatively identified and 12 confirmed and quantified by means of standards and calibration curves...
May 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498996/protective-factors-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-against-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-recipients-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Yeon Joo Lee, Esther S Arguello, Robert R Jenq, Eric Littmann, Grace J Kim, Liza C Miller, Lilan Ling, Cesar Figueroa, Elizabeth Robilotti, Miguel-Angel Perales, Juliet N Barker, Sergio Giralt, Marcel R M van den Brink, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that confer protection against CDI after engraftment. Methods: Feces collected from adult recipients allo-HSCT at engraftment were analyzed; 16S ribosomal RNA genes were sequenced and analyzed from each sample...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498878/the-malleable-gut-microbiome-of-juvenile-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-diet-dependent-shifts-of-bacterial-community-structures
#14
Stéphanie Céline Michl, Jenni-Marie Ratten, Matt Beyer, Mario Hasler, Julie LaRoche, Carsten Schulz
Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498297/gastrointestinal-colonization-of-candida-albicans-increases-serum-1%C3%A2-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-without-candidemia-and-worsens-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-sepsis-in-murine-model
#15
Wimonrat Panpetch, Naraporn Somboonna, Dewi Embong Bulan, Jiraphorn Issara-Amphorn, Navaporn Worasilchai, Malcolm Finkelman, Ariya Chindamporn, Tanapat Palaga, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
The role of intestinal Candida albicans in bacterial sepsis, in the absence of candidemia, was investigated in murine models. Live C. albicans or normal saline solution (NSS) was administered orally once, followed by 5 days of daily oral antibiotic-mixtures (ATB). Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was then performed to induce sepsis.Fecal Candida was detected by culture only in models with Candida administration. Oral Candida administration with/without ATB enhanced gut-pathogenic bacteria as determined by microbiome analysis...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497760/the-intestinal-microbiome-and-paediatric-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Daniel H Leung, Dean Yimlamai
The intestinal microbiome has been the intense focus of recent study, but how the microbiota affects connected organs, such as the liver, has not been fully elucidated. The microbiome regulates intestinal permeability and helps to metabolise the human diet into small molecules, thus directly affecting liver health. Several studies have linked intestinal dysbiosis to the severity and progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, total parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, and cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease...
June 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489672/starved-guts-morphologic-and-functional-intestinal-changes-in-malnutrition
#17
Suzanna Attia, Marjon Feenstra, Nathan Swain, Melina Cuesta, Robert Bandsma
Malnutrition contributes significantly to death and illness worldwide and especially to the deaths of children less than five years of age. The relation between intestinal changes in malnutrition and morbidity and mortality has not been well characterized; however, recent research indicates that the functional and morphologic changes of the intestine secondary to malnutrition itself contribute significantly to these negative clinical outcomes and may be potent targets of intervention. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge of experimental and clinically observed changes in the intestine from malnutrition pre-clinical models and human studies...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482064/gut-liver-axis-and-sterile-signals-in-the-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#18
Gyongyi Szabo, Jan Petrasek
Background: Innate immunity plays a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Understanding the inter-relationship of signals from within and outside of the liver that trigger liver inflammation is pivotal for development of novel therapeutic targets of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Aim: The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in the field of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Methods: A detailed literature review was performed using the PubMed database published between January 1980 and December 2016...
May 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473000/tracking-microbial-colonization-in-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-experiments-via-genome-resolved-metagenomics
#19
Sonny T M Lee, Stacy A Kahn, Tom O Delmont, Alon Shaiber, Özcan C Esen, Nathaniel A Hubert, Hilary G Morrison, Dionysios A Antonopoulos, David T Rubin, A Murat Eren
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and shows promise for treating other medical conditions associated with intestinal dysbioses. However, we lack a sufficient understanding of which microbial populations successfully colonize the recipient gut, and the widely used approaches to study the microbial ecology of FMT experiments fail to provide enough resolution to identify populations that are likely responsible for FMT-derived benefits...
May 4, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467461/16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-and-healthy-reference-ranges-for-28-clinically-relevant-microbial-taxa-from-the-human-gut-microbiome
#20
Daniel E Almonacid, Laurens Kraal, Francisco J Ossandon, Yelena V Budovskaya, Juan Pablo Cardenas, Elisabeth M Bik, Audrey D Goddard, Jessica Richman, Zachary S Apte
Changes in the relative abundances of many intestinal microorganisms, both those that naturally occur in the human gut microbiome and those that are considered pathogens, have been associated with a range of diseases. To more accurately diagnose health conditions, medical practitioners could benefit from a molecular, culture-independent assay for the quantification of these microorganisms in the context of a healthy reference range. Here we present the targeted sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene of clinically relevant gut microorganisms as a method to provide a gut screening test that could assist in the clinical diagnosis of certain health conditions...
2017: PloS One
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