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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777439/fecal-and-mucosa-associated-intestinal-microbiota-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#3
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767727/effects-of-long-term-intake-of-a-yogurt-fermented-with-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus-2038-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-1131-on-mice
#5
Yuki Usui, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Naoki Takemura, Yasuo Ouchi, Hiroko Ohmiya, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Satomi Koyama, Satoko Hagiwara, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Seiya Imoto, Gérard Eberl, Yukio Asami, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu
The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767701/microbiome-mediated-effects-of-the-mediterranean-diet-on-inflammation
#6
Melisa A Bailey, Hannah D Holscher
The Mediterranean diet pattern is increasingly associated with improved metabolic health. Two mechanisms by which consuming a Mediterranean diet pattern may contribute to improved metabolic health are modulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia. Metabolic endotoxemia, defined as a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of bacterial endotoxin, has been proposed as a cause of inflammation during metabolic dysfunction. As the largest source of endotoxins in the human body, the GI microbiota represents a crucial area for research on strategies for reducing endotoxemia...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766049/interleukin-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice-have-an-altered-gut-microbiota-leading-to-protection-from-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#7
Moran Nunberg, Nir Werbner, Hadar Neuman, Marina Bersudsky, Alex Braiman, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Meirav Ben Izhak, Yoram Louzoun, Ron N Apte, Elena Voronov, Omry Koren
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine, with as-yet-unclear etiologies, affecting over a million people in the United States alone. With the emergence of microbiome research, numerous studies have shown a connection between shifts in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and patterns of IBD development. In a previous study, we showed that interleukin 1α (IL-1α) deficiency in IL-1α knockout (KO) mice results in moderate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice, characterized by reduced inflammation and complete healing, as shown by parameters of weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histology, and cytokine expression...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#8
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763437/postnatal-colonization-with-human-infant-type-bifidobacterium-species-alters-behavior-of-adult-gnotobiotic-mice
#9
Berkley Luk, Surabi Veeraragavan, Melinda Engevik, Miriam Balderas, Angela Major, Jessica Runge, Ruth Ann Luna, James Versalovic
Accumulating studies have defined a role for the intestinal microbiota in modulation of host behavior. Research using gnotobiotic mice emphasizes that early microbial colonization with a complex microbiota (conventionalization) can rescue some of the behavioral abnormalities observed in mice that grow to adulthood completely devoid of bacteria (germ-free mice). However, the human infant and adult microbiomes vary greatly, and effects of the neonatal microbiome on neurodevelopment are currently not well understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762542/correction-vitetta-l-et-al-adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes-vaccines-2017-5-50
#10
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper due to a typesetting error in the conclusion of this article which was recently published in Vaccines.
May 15, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#11
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761590/the-interaction-of-anti-diabetic-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-and-gut-bacteria-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#12
Kemin Tan, Christine Tesar, Rosemarie Wilton, Robert P Jedrzejczak, Andrzej Joachimiak
Carbohydrate hydrolyzing α-glucosidases are commonly found in microorganisms present in the human intestine microbiome. We have previously reported crystal structures of an α-glucosidase from the human gut bacterium Blaubia (Ruminococcus) obeum (Ro-αG1) and its substrate preference/specificity switch. This novel member of the GH31 family is a structural homolog of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) with a highly conserved active site that is predicted to be common in Ro-αG1 homologs among other species that colonize the human gut...
May 15, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761483/epithelial-barrier-dysfunctions-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-skin-gut-lung-model-linking-microbiome-alteration-and-immune-dysregulation
#13
REVIEW
T H Zhu, T R Zhu, K A Tran, R K Sivamani, V Y Shi
Atopic dermatitis is a systemic disorder characterized by abnormal barrier function across multiple organ sites. Initial disruption in the skin epidermal barrier permits allergen sensitization and colonization by pathogens. This induces TH 2 inflammatory response and a thymic stromal lymphopoietin mediated pathway that further promotes barrier breakdown at distant sites including the intestinal and respiratory tract. Clinically, atopic dermatitis can progress from skin disease to food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and later asthma, a phenomenon commonly known as the atopic march...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760169/dysbiosis-of-maternal-and-neonatal-microbiota-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Jinfeng Wang, Jiayong Zheng, Wenyu Shi, Nan Du, Xiaomin Xu, Yanming Zhang, Peifeng Ji, Fengyi Zhang, Zhen Jia, Yeping Wang, Zhi Zheng, Hongping Zhang, Fangqing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The initial colonisation of the human microbiota and the impact of maternal health on neonatal microbiota at birth remain largely unknown. The aim of our study is to investigate the possible dysbiosis of maternal and neonatal microbiota associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to estimate the potential risks of the microbial shift to neonates. DESIGN: Pregnant women and neonates suffering from GDM were enrolled and 581 maternal (oral, intestinal and vaginal) and 248 neonatal (oral, pharyngeal, meconium and amniotic fluid) samples were collected...
May 14, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756133/biology-of-teeth-and-implants-host-factors-pathology-regeneration-and-the-role-of-stem-cells
#15
F-Michael Eggert, Liran Levin
In chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis, cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved directly in the lesions within the tissues of the patient. Absence of a periodontal ligament around implants does not prevent a biologic process similar to that of periodontitis from affecting osseointegration. Our first focus is on factors in the biology of individuals that are responsible for the susceptibility of such individuals to chronic periodontitis and to peri-implantitis. Genetic factors are of significant importance in susceptibility to these diseases...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753324/the-effect-of-the-timing-of-exposure-to-campylobacter-jejuni-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-inflammatory-responses-of-broiler-chickens
#16
Phillippa L Connerton, Philip J Richards, Geraldine M Lafontaine, Peter M O'Kane, Nacheervan Ghaffar, Nicola J Cummings, Darren L Smith, Neville M Fish, Ian F Connerton
BACKGROUND: Campylobacters are an unwelcome member of the poultry gut microbiota in terms of food safety. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiota, inflammatory responses, and zootechnical parameters of broiler chickens not exposed to Campylobacter jejuni with those exposed either early at 6 days old or at the age commercial broiler chicken flocks are frequently observed to become colonized at 20 days old. RESULTS: Birds infected with Campylobacter at 20 days became cecal colonized within 2 days of exposure, whereas birds infected at 6 days of age did not show complete colonization of the sample cohort until 9 days post-infection...
May 12, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751733/intestinal-absorption-of-fructose
#17
Ronaldo P Ferraris, Jun-Yong Choe, Chirag R Patel
Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the main mediator of intestinal fructose absorption...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751049/increased-butyrate-priming-in-the-gut-stalls-microbiome-associated-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-hepatic-metabolic-reprogramming-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#18
Ratanesh Kumar Seth, Diana Kimono, Firas Alhasson, Sutapa Sarkar, Muayad Albadrani, Stephen K Lasley, Ronnie Horner, Patricia Janulecewicz, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Kimberly Sullivan, Saurabh Chatterjee
Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI)...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750790/fecal-microbiome-of-periparturient-dairy-cattle-and-associations-with-the-onset-of-salmonella-shedding
#19
Lohendy Muñoz-Vargas, Stephen O Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750437/green-tea-liquid-consumption-alters-the-human-intestinal-and-oral-microbiome
#20
Xiaojie Yuan, Yong Long, Zhaohua Ji, Jie Gao, Ting Fu, Min Yan, Lei Zhang, Haixia Su, Weilu Zhang, Xiaohui Wen, Zhongshu Pu, Hui Chen, Yufei Wang, Xu Gu, Binyuan Yan, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Zhongjun Shao
SCOPE: GTPs exerts anti-CRC activity. The intestinal microbiota and intestinal colonization by bacteria of oral origin has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. GT modulates the composition of mouse gut microbiota harmonious with anticancer activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GTL consumption on the gut and oral microbiome in healthy volunteers (n = 12). METHODS AND RESULTS: 16S sequencing and PICRUSt analysis of both fecal and saliva samples (collected before intervention, after 2 weeks of GTL (400 ml/day) and after a washout period of one week) in healthy volunteers showed changes in microbial diversity and core microbiota and difference in clear classification (PLS-DA)...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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