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intestinal microbiome

Lee E Morrow, Paul Wischmeyer
Clinicians have traditionally dichotomized bacteria as friendly commensals or harmful pathogens. However, the line separating the two has become blurred with the recognition that the intestinal microbiome is a complex entity wherein species can shift sides - from friend to foe and back again - based on crucial factors in their local environment. Significant disruptions in the homeostasis of the microbiome, a phenomenon called 'dysbiosis,' is increasingly associated with a host of untoward effects. Intensive care unit patients are at high risk for dysbiosis given high rates of antibiotic use, acute changes in diet, and the stress of critical illness...
October 19, 2016: Chest
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Sonja C Sawh, Santosh Deshpande, Sandy Jansen, Christopher J Reynaert, Philip M Jones
CONTEXT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The microbiome of the preterm gut may regulate the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotics may positively contribute to mucosal integrity, potentially reducing the risk of NEC in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of NEC in premature infants. DATA SOURCES: Structured searches were performed in: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all via Ovid, from 2013 to January 2015)...
2016: PeerJ
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Aran Singanayagam, Andrew I Ritchie, Sebastian L Johnston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Stephanie M Dillon, Daniel N Frank, Cara C Wilson
HIV-1 infection is associated with substantial damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract resulting in structural impairment of the epithelial barrier and a disruption of intestinal homeostasis. The accompanying translocation of microbial products and potentially microbes themselves from the lumen into systemic circulation has been linked to immune activation, inflammation, and HIV-1 disease progression. The importance of microbial translocation in the setting of HIV-1 infection has led to a recent focus on understanding how the communities of microbes that make up the intestinal microbiome are altered during HIV-1 infection and how they interact with mucosal immune cells to contribute to inflammation...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Seungbum Kim, Gary Wang, Gilberto Lobaton, Eric Li, Tao Yang, Mohan Raizada
OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbial dysbiosis is linked to high blood pressure in patients. This was associated with decreases in butyrate- and acetate- producing microbial populations. Thus, our objective in this study was to investigate the hypothesis that infusion of butyrate would impact dysbiosis, gut immunity and attenuate hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: C57B6 mice were divided into 4 groups; Saline infused, Angiotensin II (750ng/kg/min) infused, Ang II infused and butyrate treated (0...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yanlei Yu, Yin Chen, Paiyz Mikael, Fuming Zhang, Apryll M Stalcup, Rebecca German, Francois Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a member of a family of molecules called glycosaminoglycans, is biosynthesized in mucosal mast cells. This important anticoagulant polysaccharide is primarily produced by extraction of the mast cell-rich intestinal mucosa of hogs. There is concern about our continued ability to supply sufficient heparin to support the worldwide growth of advanced medical procedures from the static population of adult hogs used as food animals. While the intestinal mucosa of adult pigs is rich in anticoagulant heparin (containing a few hundred milligrams per animal), little is known about how the content of heparin changes with animal age...
October 15, 2016: Glycobiology
Chiara Valsecchi, Sara Carlotta Tagliacarne, Annamaria Castellazzi
Intestinal microbiota is composed by symbiotic innocuous bacteria and potential pathogens also called pathobionts. The human gut normally hosts roughly 1014 bacterial organisms of up to 1000 different species. The genome size of this microbial organ, collectively named microbiome, exceeds the size of the human nuclear genome by 2 orders of magnitude.
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Sophie Thiemann, Nathiana Smit, Till Strowig
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse ecosystem containing thousands of microbial species, whose metabolic activity affects many aspects of human physiology. Large-scale surveys have demonstrated that an individual's microbiota composition is shaped by factors such as diet and the use of medications, including antibiotics. Loss of overall diversity and in some cases loss of single groups of bacteria as a consequence of antibiotic treatment in humans has been associated with enhanced susceptibility toward gastrointestinal infections and with enhanced weight gain and obesity in young children...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Cynthia Buness, Keith D Lindor, Tamir Miloh
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), a rare progressive liver disease characterized by cholestasis and bile duct fibrosis, has no accepted, effective therapy known to delay or arrest its progression. We report a 15 year old female patient diagnosed with PSC and moderate chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC) who achieved normalization of her liver enzymes and bile ducts, and resolution of her UC symptoms with colonic mucosal healing, after treatment with a single drug therapy of the antibiotic oral vancomycin...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Yingying Hong, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Jiayi Zhang, Clayton K Collings, Ketaki Bhide, Kyle Schmidt, Paul D Ebner
Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of phage therapy in reducing foodborne pathogen carriage in food animals. Fewer studies have focused on host reactions, especially in terms of phage-mediated acute immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Here we administered E. coli O157:H7 phages in low (single dose of 10(5) PFU) or high (single dose of 10(7) PFU) quantities to mice. While there were time points at which cytokine levels in different treatment groups differed from one another, all cytokine levels remained within normal ranges for mice regardless of treatment...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
David Berry
Modification of the intestinal microbiome is an emerging target to improve health and prevent or treat a number of diseases. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Maldonado-Gómez et al. (2016) uncover the basic principles that govern the successful establishment and persistence of an exogenously introduced gut bacterium.
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, David T Bolick, Joy Leng, Greg L Medlock, Glynis L Kolling, Jason A Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteropathy, which is linked to undernutrition and chronic infections, affects the physical and mental growth of children in developing areas worldwide. Key to understanding how these factors combine to shape developmental outcomes is to first understand the effects of nutritional deficiencies on the mammalian system including the effect on the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: We dissected the nutritional components of environmental enteropathy by analyzing the specific metabolic and gut-microbiota changes that occur in weaned-mouse models of zinc or protein deficiency compared with well-nourished controls...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stefania Boccia, Ida Torre, Lidia Santarpia, Carmela Iervolino, Concetta Del Piano, Anna Puggina, Roberta Pastorino, Miroslav Dragic, Rosarita Amore, Tonia Borriello, Raffaele Palladino, Francesca Pennino, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal bacterial flora plays a central role in human intestinal health and disease. Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), a clinical condition deriving from extensive bowel resections, influence intestinal microbiota (IM) composition in order to reach a new metabolic balance. Little is known about IM in adult patients after wide intestinal resections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal samples from 12 SBS patients and 16 controls were analyzed in their microbial profile by using both culture-dependent method and quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Rosamond Rhodes
The human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that live on and in the human organism's skin, mucosa, and intestinal tract. Re-examining commonly accepted ethical standards from the perspective of this new area of research provides an opportunity to reassess our current thinking about research regulations as well as the importance of some principles and distinctions. In this commentary, I explain ethical issues illuminated by research on the human microbiome related to personal identity, privacy, property, research ethics, public health, and biobanks...
October 12, 2016: BMC Medicine
Mamatha Bhat, Bianca M Arendt, Venkat Bhat, Eberhard L Renner, Atul Humar, Johane P Allard
The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
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