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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355278/a-metagenomics-approach-to-the-intestinal-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mice-fed-with-oolong-tea-polyphenols
#1
Mei Cheng, Xin Zhang, Jieyu Zhu, Lu Cheng, Jinxuan Cao, Zufang Wu, Peifang Weng, Xiaojie Zheng
To investigate the modulatory effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) on intestinal microbiota, OTP was prepared by column chromatography and its influence on the gut flora structure was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity mouse model. We observed a robust increase in bacterial biodiversity and the abundance of genera known to be butyrate- and acetate-producing bacteria. A large increase in Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed after the administration of OTP for 4 weeks, and the corresponding decrease in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on the intestinal microbiota...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353471/a-strategy-for-association-study-on-intestinal-microbiome-and-brain-metabolome-across-lifespan-of-rats
#2
Tianlu Chen, Yijun You, Guoxiang Xie, Xiaojiao Zheng, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Qing Zhao, Shouli Wang, Huang Fengjie, Cynthia Rajani, Chongchong Wang, Shaoqiu Chen, Yan Ni, Herbert Yu, Youping Deng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Jia
There is increased appreciation for the diverse roles of the microbiome-gut-brain axis on mammalian growth and health throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies demonstrated that gut microbiome and their metabolites were involved extensively in the communication of brain and gut. Association study of brain metabolome and gut microbiome is an active field offering large amount of information on the interaction of microbiome, brain and gut while data size and complicated hierarchical relationships were the major obstacles...
January 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349441/association-between-sn-2-fatty-acid-profiles-of-breast-milk-and-development-of-the-infant-intestinal-microbiome
#3
Tiemin Jiang, Bin Liu, Jufang Li, Xueyan Dong, Man Lin, Minghui Zhang, Junying Zhao, Yaohua Dai, Lijun Chen
Increasing evidence shows that host diet and gut microbes are related. Previous studies have shown the effects of specific dietary fatty acids (FAs) on intestinal microbiota, but little is known about the effect of the stereospecifically numbered sn-2 position in triglycerides (TG) of human milk on the gut microbiome of infants. This study aimed at examining possible effects of sn-2 FAs of human milk on the gut microbial development of breastfeeding babies. Sn-2 FAs and intestinal microbiota were assessed by GC-MS and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#5
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341151/gut-microbiome-influences-on-anastomotic-leak-and-recurrence-rates-following-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#6
REVIEW
S Gaines, C Shao, N Hyman, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer recurrence after a curative resection remains poorly understood. A yet-to-be accounted for variable is the composition and function of the microbiome adjacent to the tumour and its influence on the margins of resection following surgery. METHODS: PubMed was searched for historical as well as current manuscripts dated between 1970 and 2017 using the following keywords: 'colorectal cancer recurrence', 'microbiome', 'anastomotic leak', 'anastomotic failure' and 'mechanical bowel preparation'...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339445/bile-acids-in-glucose-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hagit Shapiro, Aleksandra A Kolodziejczyk, Daniel Halstuch, Eran Elinav
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol-derived metabolites that facilitate the intestinal absorption and transport of dietary lipids. Recently, BAs also emerged as pivotal signaling molecules controlling glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism by binding to the nuclear hormone farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5) in multiple organs, leading to regulation of intestinal incretin secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, inflammation, and gut microbiome configuration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338077/blenderized-enteral-nutrition-diet-study-feasibility-clinical-and-microbiome-outcomes-of-providing-blenderized-feeds-through-a-gastric-tube-in-a-medically-complex-pediatric-population
#9
Kelsey Gallagher, Annika Flint, Marialena Mouzaki, Andrea Carpenter, Beth Haliburton, Louise Bannister, Holly Norgrove, Lisa Hoffman, David Mack, Alain Stintzi, Margaret Marcon
BACKGROUND: Chronically ill children often require feeding via gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes). Commercial formula is most commonly used for enteral feeding; however, caregivers have been requesting blenderized tube feeds (BTFs) as an alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using BTFs in a medically complex pediatric population and assess their impact on clinical outcomes, as well as the microbiota. METHODS: Twenty pediatric participants were included...
January 16, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335940/-the-human-intestinal-microbiome-and-why-you-have-to-think-twice-before-prescribing-antibiotics
#10
REVIEW
Andreas Hiergeist, André Gessner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335008/multi-omics-differentially-classify-disease-state-and-treatment-outcome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#11
Gavin M Douglas, Richard Hansen, Casey M A Jones, Katherine A Dunn, André M Comeau, Joseph P Bielawski, Rachel Tayler, Emad M El-Omar, Richard K Russell, Georgina L Hold, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has an unclear etiology, but there is growing evidence of a direct link with a dysbiotic microbiome. Many gut microbes have previously been associated with CD, but these have mainly been confounded with patients' ongoing treatments. Additionally, most analyses of CD patients' microbiomes have focused on microbes in stool samples, which yield different insights than profiling biopsy samples. RESULTS: We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene (16S) and carried out shotgun metagenomics (MGS) from the intestinal biopsies of 20 treatment-naïve CD and 20 control pediatric patients...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#12
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328869/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-fermentable-oligosaccharides-disaccharides-monosaccharides-and-polyols-an-overview
#13
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Ana Luíza de Carvalho Aranão, Pamela Grazielle Correa de Oliveira
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are mainly represented by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and the increase in the incidence tends to follow the rapid industrialization and lifestyle of modern societies. FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) consist of molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and are fermented by bacteria in the colon leading to symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Reduction of the ingestion of FODMAP could reduce the symptoms and improve the quality of life...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325602/bile-acid-metabolism-in-liver-pathobiology
#14
John Y L Chiang, Jessica M Ferrell
Bile acids facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary cholesterol secretion to maintain bile acid homeostasis, which is essential for protecting liver and other tissues and cells from cholesterol and bile acid toxicity. Bile acid metabolism is tightly regulated by bile acid synthesis in the liver and bile acid biotransformation in the intestine. Bile acids are endogenous ligands that activate a complex network of nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 to regulate hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic homeostasis and energy metabolism...
January 11, 2018: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#15
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319931/metaproteomics-of-colonic-microbiota-unveils-discrete-protein-functions-among-colitic-mice-and-control-groups
#16
Clara Moon, Gregory S Stupp, Andrew I Su, Dennis W Wolan
Metaproteomics can greatly assist established high-throughput sequencing methodologies to provide systems biological insights into the alterations of microbial protein functionalities correlated with disease-associated dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we utilized the well-characterized murine T cell transfer model of colitis to find specific changes within the intestinal luminal proteome associated with inflammation. MS proteomic analysis of colonic samples permitted the identification of ∼10,000-12,000 unique peptides that corresponded to 5,610 protein clusters identified across three groups, including the colitic Rag1-/- T cell recipients, isogenic Rag1-/- controls, and wild-type mice...
January 10, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316555/intestinal-dysbiosis-secondary-to-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#17
Yuji Naito, Kaori Kashiwagi, Tomohisa Takagi, Akira Andoh, Ryo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use. SUMMARY: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Meta-analyses showed that PPI use is a potential risk for the development of enteric infections caused by Clostridium difficile, as well as small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, hepatic encephalopathy, and adverse outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease...
January 6, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#18
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311150/correction-irf4-dependent-cd103-cd11b-dendritic-cells-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-regulate-monocyte-and-macrophage-activation-and-intestinal-peristalsis-in-postoperative-ileus
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310579/gene-trait-matching-across-the-bifidobacterium-longum-pan-genome-reveals-considerable-diversity-in-carbohydrate-catabolism-among-human-infant-strains
#20
Silvia Arboleya, Francesca Bottacini, Mary O'Connell-Motherway, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross, Douwe van Sinderen, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum is a common member of the human gut microbiota and is frequently present at high numbers in the gut microbiota of humans throughout life, thus indicative of a close symbiotic host-microbe relationship. Different mechanisms may be responsible for the high competitiveness of this taxon in its human host to allow stable establishment in the complex and dynamic intestinal microbiota environment. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity in a set of 20 B...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
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