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Michał Witkowski, Magdalena Witkowska, Piotr Smolewski
The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has become a breakthrough in anticoagulant treatment and it is expected to rise significantly in upcoming years. The use of conventional anticoagulants have several limitations: subcutaneous administration of heparin, or close monitoring of INR during application of vitamin K antagonists. In the last decade, target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAC) including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban have been marketed for prophylaxis and treatment...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
William Frank Peacock, Phillip D Levy, Michael G Gonzalez, Martin Than
BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians make treatment decisions in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). They also encounter patients on target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) who require urgent intervention. New approvals and increasing prescriptions for TSOACs (e.g., apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban) for the management of several thromboembolic disorders warrant an evaluation of the impact of these agents in the ED setting...
February 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Amanda M Morrill, Dan Ge, Kristine C Willett
OBJECTIVE: To review current literature for target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) and provide critical analysis for dosing recommendations in special population groups. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted in Medline (1996 to April week 2 2015) and Embase (1980 to 2015 week 16) using key terms dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, kidney diseases, liver diseases, elderly, obesity, and special populations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized controlled trials in English assessing efficacy and safety of TSOACs in healthy adults and special populations were selected for analysis...
September 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Lesley Pahs, Craig Beavers, Patricia Schuler
PURPOSE: Adoption of the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) has been slow; accordingly, lack of guidance for emergent reversal confounded by the need for "direct" reversal agents has contributed significantly to warfarin entrenchment in the medical community. The purpose of this analysis is to provide real-world experiences regarding the management of the hemorrhaging patient secondary to dabigatran and rivaroxaban. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients admitted with a hemorrhage secondary to dabigatran or rivaroxaban were evaluated...
June 2015: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
J Simon, E Hawes, Z Deyo, B Bryant Shilliday
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programmes have been shown to improve appropriate use of warfarin, but few programmes have included the new target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in their protocols. A greater understanding of TSOAC prescribing, monitoring and administration is needed to identify common errors in the current outpatient practice. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of errors related to prescribing, baseline monitoring and patient administration of TSOACs...
May 30, 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Jennifer L Garber, Katie L Willenborg, Anne E Rose
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States. Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent the occurrence of stroke in intermediate-to-high risk patients. Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) have become a favorable alternative; however, recommendations for differentiating between the available TSOACs were lacking within the 2012 CHEST guidelines. The objective of this retrospective, observational study was to identify current anticoagulation prescribing habits in patients admitted with new-onset AF, and evaluate the appropriateness of discharge therapy based on national guidelines...
August 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Terrance R McGovern, Justin J McNamee, Christopher Malabanan, Mohamed A Fouad, Nilesh Patel
Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide patients and healthcare providers with an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The TSOACs are of similar or superior efficacy to warfarin, but unlike VKAs, there are no approved 'antidotes' for rapid reversal of life-threatening bleeding on therapy. We report here the case of an 83-year-old gentleman, who presented to the emergency department with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage and coagulopathy (hemoglobin: 5.3 g/dL and INR: 2.2) while on the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran...
2015: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
A new generation of antithrombotic agents has recently emerged. These provide direct inhibition of either thrombin (factor IIa [FIIa]) or FXa, and are increasingly replacing the classical anticoagulants (heparin and coumarins such as warfarin) in clinical practice for a variety of conditions. These agents have been designated several acronyms, including NOACs, DOACs, and TSOACs, respectively, referring to new (novel; non-vitamin K antagonist) oral anticoagulants, direct oral anticoagulants, and target-specific oral anticoagulants, and currently include dabigatran (FIIa inhibitor), and rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban (FXa inhibitors)...
March 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
David A Garcia
More than 4 years have passed since the first approval of a target-specific oral anticoagulant (TSOAC) in the United States, and the number of clinicians who have prescribed (or considered prescribing) one or more of these medications is increasing. Although these agents may, in properly selected patients, offer advantages over more traditional therapies, their lack of familiarity can be intimidating. Clinicians who are prescribing the TSOACs face a number of management questions not definitively answered by the registration trials...
December 5, 2014: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Michael Levine, Joshua N Goldstein
The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are a widely used class of agent to prevent thromboembolism. In recent years, numerous alternatives to VKAs have been developed, the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs), which are available in clinical practice. Currently available agents target thrombin and factor Xa. The most significant side effect of these agents, as with VKAs, is the development of bleeding complications. In this review, the risks of major bleeding complications with the TSOACs will be discussed...
December 5, 2014: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Yoonsun Mo, Felix K Yam
Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been the only orally available anticoagulant for > 60 years. During the past decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) for the prophylaxis and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. These new agents have several advantages over warfarin including more predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, fewer food and drug interactions, and lack of need for routine coagulation monitoring...
February 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Sandeep Devabhakthuni, Connie H Yoon, Kathleen J Pincus
Anticoagulation therapy is often indicated for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite advances in anticoagulant management with parenteral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists, limitations to their use still exists, leading to investigation of alternative anticoagulants such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. To date, 3 target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) are Food and Drug Administration approved; several other agents are currently in development to optimize VTE management and minimize bleeding risks...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Charles E Mahan
Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF...
April 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Deborah M Siegal
Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are approved for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in several clinical settings. Bleeding is the major complication of anticoagulant therapy, including TSOACs, and anticoagulant reversal strategies are highly desired for the management of anticoagulant-associated major bleeding in addition to maximum supportive care and procedural/surgical intervention. Unlike VKAs for which vitamin K and coagulation factor replacement with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) can restore hemostasis, there are no clinically available agents proven to reverse TSOAC anticoagulant effect and ameliorate TSOAC-related major bleeding...
April 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Courtney A Lyle, Robert F Sidonio, Neil A Goldenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) can affect children of all ages, requiring considerable pharmacologic intervention and is often associated with significant morbidity. Current research efforts are directed toward the development of risk-stratified VTE prevention strategies employing pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, the optimization of conventional anticoagulation, and the investigation of the safety and efficacy of target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in children...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Steven Deitelzweig, Alpesh Amin
As a class, the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) are at least as effective as warfarin, often with superior safety for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prevention of recurrent VTE. Currently, dabigatran, the direct thrombin inhibitor, along with rivaroxaban and apixaban, direct factor Xa inhibitors, has been approved in multiple countries for these indications. Edoxaban, which has received approval for the abovementioned indications in Japan, has demonstrated efficacy and safety comparable to or better than warfarin in Phase III clinical trials and is under further regulatory consideration...
2015: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Scott W Yates
Three target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs)-dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban-have been approved by the FDA to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; however, no agents are currently approved to reverse the anticoagulant effects of these TSOACs in cases of active bleeding. This review discusses the benefits and risks of these TSOACs from a clinician's perspective, with a focus on the interruption of treatment for either elective or emergent surgery, monitoring, and reversal of anticoagulation...
December 2014: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
W Frank Peacock
The therapeutic landscape for anticoagulation management is undergoing a shift from the use of traditional anticlotting agents such as heparins and warfarin as the only options to the growing adoption of newer target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) with novel mechanisms of action. Dabigatran, the first TSOAC approved for use in the United States, is a direct competitive inhibitor of thrombin. It has predictable kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 12 to 17 hours in healthy volunteers. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are selective inhibitors of factor Xa, and also display first-order kinetics...
October 2014: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Estella M Davis, Erin M Uhlmeyer, David P Schmidt, Greg L Schardt
The direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) that have emerged onto the market for use in some indications similar to those for warfarin; in addition, edoxaban is seeking FDA approval. Similar indications include reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation for all 3 agents, for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis that may lead to pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing hip or knee surgery for rivaroxaban and apixaban, and for the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism...
December 2014: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Charles V Pollack
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease spectrum that ranges from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) to pulmonary embolism (PE). Rapid diagnosis and treatment of VTE by emergency care providers are critical for decreasing patient mortality, morbidity, and the incidence of recurrent events. Recent American College of Chest Physicians guidelines recommend initial treatment with unfractionated heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, or fondaparinux overlapped with warfarin for a minimum of 5 days for the treatment of VTE in most cases...
December 2014: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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