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Scott G Garland, Christina E DeRemer, Steven M Smith, John G Gums
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor betrixaban for extended-duration prophylaxis of acute medically ill patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE/PubMed (January 1990 to October 2017) search was conducted using the following keywords: betrixaban, PRT054021, FXa inhibitor, novel oral anticoagulant, NOAC, direct oral anticoagulant, DOAC, and target specific oral anticoagulant, TSOAC...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Caitlin M Gibson, Amanda N Basto, Meredith L Howard
OBJECTIVE: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recommended for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban represent possible alternatives to warfarin in the setting of cardioversion. A literature review was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of DOAC use pericardioversion. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed and MEDLINE search through August 2017 was conducted using the following search terms alone or in various combinations: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban, DOAC, NOAC, TSOAC, cardioversion...
March 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Leonardo Pasalic, Jennifer Curnow, Giuseppe Lippi
BACKGROUND: The Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) represent a new generation of antithrombotic agents, providing direct inhibition of either thrombin (factor IIa; FIIa) or activated factor X (FXa). Around the globe, their use is progressively rising, as these new agents replace the historical anticoagulants (heparin and vitamin K antagonists including warfarin) for various clinical conditions in medical practice. Other acronyms used to designate DOACs include TSOAC (target specific oral anticoagulants) and NOAC (novel; or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants)...
April 17, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
Merav Cohen, Hadar Nevo, Dan Hershko, Alexander Becker
Rivaroxaban is a member of the novel target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) family of drugs recently approved for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism events. A major drawback of the drug is its potential for causing severe hemorrhagic events, which may be difficult to treat in an emergency setting due to lack of effective antidote. Here, we describe a case of acute gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage leading to complete colon obstruction in a patient treated with rivaroxaban. Summary and Key Messages: The case presented here demonstrates a chain of events originating from an unprovoked intramural bleeding in a patient using rivaroxaban, leading to an organized giant clot formation, and to complete colon obstruction...
2017: Pharmacology
Tanya R Riley, Mary L Gauthier-Lewis, Chelsea K Sanchez, Janine S Douglas
PURPOSE: The available clinical data on target-specific oral anticoagulant (TSOAC) reversal agents that are currently in development or have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are reviewed. SUMMARY: The development of TSOACs such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban has presented benefits and new challenges. One of the main challenges associated with the use of TSOACs is the lack of suitable agent-specific reversal agents. Several treatment options for the management of life-threatening bleeding events associated with TSOAC use, such as fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates, and recombinant coagulation factor VIIa, have been used, with inconsistent results...
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Michał Witkowski, Magdalena Witkowska, Piotr Smolewski
The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has become a breakthrough in anticoagulant treatment and it is expected to rise significantly in upcoming years. The use of conventional anticoagulants have several limitations: subcutaneous administration of heparin, or close monitoring of INR during application of vitamin K antagonists. In the last decade, target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOAC) including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban have been marketed for prophylaxis and treatment...
February 8, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
William Frank Peacock, Phillip D Levy, Michael G Gonzalez, Martin Than
BACKGROUND: Emergency physicians make treatment decisions in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). They also encounter patients on target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) who require urgent intervention. New approvals and increasing prescriptions for TSOACs (e.g., apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban) for the management of several thromboembolic disorders warrant an evaluation of the impact of these agents in the ED setting...
February 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Amanda M Morrill, Dan Ge, Kristine C Willett
OBJECTIVE: To review current literature for target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) and provide critical analysis for dosing recommendations in special population groups. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted in Medline (1996 to April week 2 2015) and Embase (1980 to 2015 week 16) using key terms dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, kidney diseases, liver diseases, elderly, obesity, and special populations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized controlled trials in English assessing efficacy and safety of TSOACs in healthy adults and special populations were selected for analysis...
September 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Lesley Pahs, Craig Beavers, Patricia Schuler
PURPOSE: Adoption of the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) has been slow; accordingly, lack of guidance for emergent reversal confounded by the need for "direct" reversal agents has contributed significantly to warfarin entrenchment in the medical community. The purpose of this analysis is to provide real-world experiences regarding the management of the hemorrhaging patient secondary to dabigatran and rivaroxaban. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients admitted with a hemorrhage secondary to dabigatran or rivaroxaban were evaluated...
June 2015: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
J Simon, E Hawes, Z Deyo, B Bryant Shilliday
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacist-managed anticoagulation programmes have been shown to improve appropriate use of warfarin, but few programmes have included the new target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in their protocols. A greater understanding of TSOAC prescribing, monitoring and administration is needed to identify common errors in the current outpatient practice. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of errors related to prescribing, baseline monitoring and patient administration of TSOACs...
May 30, 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Jennifer L Garber, Katie L Willenborg, Anne E Rose
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States. Traditionally, warfarin has been used to prevent the occurrence of stroke in intermediate-to-high risk patients. Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) have become a favorable alternative; however, recommendations for differentiating between the available TSOACs were lacking within the 2012 CHEST guidelines. The objective of this retrospective, observational study was to identify current anticoagulation prescribing habits in patients admitted with new-onset AF, and evaluate the appropriateness of discharge therapy based on national guidelines...
August 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Terrance R McGovern, Justin J McNamee, Christopher Malabanan, Mohamed A Fouad, Nilesh Patel
Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide patients and healthcare providers with an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The TSOACs are of similar or superior efficacy to warfarin, but unlike VKAs, there are no approved 'antidotes' for rapid reversal of life-threatening bleeding on therapy. We report here the case of an 83-year-old gentleman, who presented to the emergency department with severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage and coagulopathy (hemoglobin: 5.3 g/dL and INR: 2.2) while on the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran...
2015: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
A new generation of antithrombotic agents has recently emerged. These provide direct inhibition of either thrombin (factor IIa [FIIa]) or FXa, and are increasingly replacing the classical anticoagulants (heparin and coumarins such as warfarin) in clinical practice for a variety of conditions. These agents have been designated several acronyms, including NOACs, DOACs, and TSOACs, respectively, referring to new (novel; non-vitamin K antagonist) oral anticoagulants, direct oral anticoagulants, and target-specific oral anticoagulants, and currently include dabigatran (FIIa inhibitor), and rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban (FXa inhibitors)...
March 2015: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
David A Garcia
More than 4 years have passed since the first approval of a target-specific oral anticoagulant (TSOAC) in the United States, and the number of clinicians who have prescribed (or considered prescribing) one or more of these medications is increasing. Although these agents may, in properly selected patients, offer advantages over more traditional therapies, their lack of familiarity can be intimidating. Clinicians who are prescribing the TSOACs face a number of management questions not definitively answered by the registration trials...
December 5, 2014: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Michael Levine, Joshua N Goldstein
The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are a widely used class of agent to prevent thromboembolism. In recent years, numerous alternatives to VKAs have been developed, the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs), which are available in clinical practice. Currently available agents target thrombin and factor Xa. The most significant side effect of these agents, as with VKAs, is the development of bleeding complications. In this review, the risks of major bleeding complications with the TSOACs will be discussed...
December 5, 2014: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Yoonsun Mo, Felix K Yam
Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been the only orally available anticoagulant for > 60 years. During the past decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) for the prophylaxis and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. These new agents have several advantages over warfarin including more predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, fewer food and drug interactions, and lack of need for routine coagulation monitoring...
February 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Sandeep Devabhakthuni, Connie H Yoon, Kathleen J Pincus
Anticoagulation therapy is often indicated for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite advances in anticoagulant management with parenteral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists, limitations to their use still exists, leading to investigation of alternative anticoagulants such as factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. To date, 3 target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) are Food and Drug Administration approved; several other agents are currently in development to optimize VTE management and minimize bleeding risks...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Charles E Mahan
Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF...
April 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Deborah M Siegal
Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are approved for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in several clinical settings. Bleeding is the major complication of anticoagulant therapy, including TSOACs, and anticoagulant reversal strategies are highly desired for the management of anticoagulant-associated major bleeding in addition to maximum supportive care and procedural/surgical intervention. Unlike VKAs for which vitamin K and coagulation factor replacement with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) can restore hemostasis, there are no clinically available agents proven to reverse TSOAC anticoagulant effect and ameliorate TSOAC-related major bleeding...
April 2015: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Courtney A Lyle, Robert F Sidonio, Neil A Goldenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) can affect children of all ages, requiring considerable pharmacologic intervention and is often associated with significant morbidity. Current research efforts are directed toward the development of risk-stratified VTE prevention strategies employing pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis, the optimization of conventional anticoagulation, and the investigation of the safety and efficacy of target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) in children...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
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