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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149603/structural-basis-of-mitochondrial-transcription-initiation
#1
Hauke S Hillen, Yaroslav I Morozov, Azadeh Sarfallah, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer
Transcription in human mitochondria is driven by a single-subunit, factor-dependent RNA polymerase (mtRNAP). Despite its critical role in both expression and replication of the mitochondrial genome, transcription initiation by mtRNAP remains poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of human mitochondrial transcription initiation complexes assembled on both light and heavy strand promoters. The structures reveal how transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M assist mtRNAP to achieve promoter-dependent initiation...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143491/fine-needle-aspiration-evaluation-of-pancreatic-lymphoma-a-retrospective-study-of-25-cases-in-a-single-institution
#2
Jiehao Zhou, Howard Wu, Jingmei Lin, Xiaoyan Wang, Shanxiang Zhang, Harvey Cramer, Shaoxiong Chen
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma is crucial for clinical management. We evaluate the role of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma with the aid of flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry on the cell block. METHODS: Cases of pancreatic lymphoma were collected by searching our pathology laboratory information system over a period of 16 years. The clinical findings, cytologic features, and immunophenotypic results were reviewed...
November 16, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142939/negative-staining-for-col4a5-correlates-with-worse-prognosis-and-more-severe-ultrastructural-alterations-in-males-with-alport-syndrome
#3
Samar M Said, Mary E Fidler, Anthony M Valeri, Brooke McCann, Wade Fiedler, Lynn D Cornell, Mariam Priya Alexander, Ahmed M Alkhunaizi, Anne Sullivan, Carl H Cramer, Marie C Hogan, Samih H Nasr
Introduction: Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive hematuric nephropathy with or without sensorineural hearing loss and ocular lesions. Previous studies on AS included mostly children. Methods: To determine the prognostic value of loss of staining for collagen type IV alpha 5 (COL4A5) and its relationship with the ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane alterations, we performed direct immunofluorescence using a mixture of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated and Texas-red conjugated antibodies against COL4A5 and COL4A2, respectively, on renal biopsies of 25 males with AS (including 16 who were diagnosed in adulthood)...
January 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141849/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-oligomenorrhea-and-risk-of-ovarian-cancer-histotypes-evidence-from-the-ovarian-cancer-association-consortium
#4
Holly R Harris, Ana Babic, Penelope M Webb, Christina M Nagle, Susan J Jordan, Harvey A Risch, Mary Anne Rossing, Jennifer A Doherty, Marc T Goodman, Francesmary Modugno, Roberta B Ness, Kirsten B Moysich, Susanne K Kjaer, Estrid Høgdall, Allan Jensen, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Elisa V Bandera, Nicolas Wentzensen, Joanne Kotsopoulos, Steven A Narod, Catherine M Phelan, John R McLaughlin, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Anna H Wu, Kathryn L Terry
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one if its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely been examined by ovarian cancer histotypes which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer (n=13,719) or borderline ovarian disease (n=2,875) and 17,718 controls...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140444/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-different-formulations-of-norovirus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#5
G Leroux-Roels, J P Cramer, P M Mendelman, J Sherwood, R Clemens, A Aerssens, I De Coster, A Borkowski, F Baehner, P Van Damme
Background: We investigated safety and immunogenicity of 1-2 doses of different bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidate (NoV) formulations in healthy 18-64-year-olds. Methods: On Days 1 and 28 participants (n=420) randomized to 14 equal groups received intramuscular control vaccine (hepatitis A) or one of 11 NoV formulations contained varying dosages of GI.1 and GII.4c genotype VLP antigens with Al(OH)3, and 0μg, 15μg or 50μg MPL. Immunogenicity was assessed on Days 1, 28, 56, 208 and 393...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137055/efficacy-of-tai-chi-and-qigong-for-the-prevention-of-stroke-and-stroke-risk-factors-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#6
Romy Lauche, Wenbo Peng, Caleb Ferguson, Holger Cramer, Jane Frawley, Jon Adams, David Sibbritt
BACKGROUND: This review aims to summarize the evidence of Tai Chi and qigong interventions for the primary prevention of stroke, including the effects on populations with major stroke risk factors. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on January 16, 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Chi or qigong for stroke prevention and stroke risk factors were included...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136088/abcd1-dysfunction-alters-white-matter-microvascular-perfusion
#7
Arne Lauer, Xiao Da, Mikkel Bo Hansen, Gregoire Boulouis, Yangming Ou, Xuezhu Cai, Afonso Liberato Celso Pedrotti, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Paul Caruso, Douglas L Hayden, Natalia Rost, Kim Mouridsen, Florian S Eichler, Bruce Rosen, Patricia L Musolino
Cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which lead to a rapidly progressive cerebral inflammatory demyelination in up to 60% of affected males. Selective brain endothelial dysfunction and increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier suggest that white matter microvascular dysfunction contributes to the conversion to cerebral disease. Applying a vascular model to conventional dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we demonstrate that lack of ABCD1 function causes increased capillary flow heterogeneity in asymptomatic hemizygotes predominantly in the white matter regions and developmental stages with the highest probability for conversion to cerebral disease...
November 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130590/quantification-of-gaba-glutamate-and-glutamine-in-a-single-measurement-at-3%C3%A2-t-using-gaba-edited-mega-press
#8
Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Adriana Anton, Emilia Michou, JeYoung Jung, Laura M Parkes, Stephen R Williams
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu), major neurotransmitters in the brain, are recycled through glutamine (Gln). All three metabolites can be measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo, although GABA measurement at 3 T requires an extra editing acquisition, such as Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS). In a GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS spectrum, Glu and Gln co-edit with GABA, providing the possibility to measure all three in one acquisition. In this study, we investigated the reliability of the composite Glu + Gln (Glx) peak estimation and the possibility of Glu and Gln separation in GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS spectra...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129233/low-fermentable-oligo-di-mono-saccharides-and-polyol-diet-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Dania Schumann, Petra Klose, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos, Jost Langhorst, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effects of a low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet (LFD) on the severity of symptoms, quality of life, and safety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were screened through January 19, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LFD to other diets were included if they assessed symptoms of IBS or abdominal pain in patients with IBS...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129073/stage-dependence-cell-origin-independence-and-prognostic-capacity-of-serum-glycan-fucosylation-%C3%AE-1-4-branching-%C3%AE-1-6-branching-and-%C3%AE-2-6-sialylation-in-cancer
#10
Shadi Ferdosi, Douglas S Rehder, Paul Maranian, Erik P Castle, Thai H Ho, Harvey I Pass, Daniel W Cramer, Karen S Anderson, Lei Fu, David E C Cole, Tao Le, Xifeng Wu, Chad R Borges
Glycans represent a promising but only marginally accessed source of cancer markers. We previously reported the development of a molecularly bottom-up approach to plasma/serum (P/S) glycomics based on glycan linkage analysis that captures features such as α2-6 sialylation, β1-6 branching, and core fucosylation as single analytical signals. Based on the behavior of P/S glycans established to date, we hypothesized that the alteration of P/S glycans observed in cancer would be independent of the tissue in which the tumor originated yet exhibit stage dependence that varied little between cancers classified on the basis of tumor origin...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127373/high-accuracy-wavefront-sensing-by-phase-diversity-technique-with-bisymmetric-defocuses-diversity-phase
#11
Peiguang Zhang, Chengliang Yang, Zihao Xu, Zhaoliang Cao, Quanquan Mu, Li Xuan
We investigate a specific diversity phase for phase diversity (PD) phase retrieval, which possesses higher accuracy than common PD, especially for large-scale and high-frequency wavefront sensing. The commonly used PD algorithm employs the image intensities of the focused plane and one defocused plane to build the error metric. Unlike the commonly used PD, we explore a bisymmetric defocuses diversity phase, which employs the image intensities of two symmetrical defocused planes to build the error metric. This kind of diversity phase, named PD-BD (bisymmetric defocuses phase diversity), is analysed with the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126380/what-makes-for-sound-science
#12
EDITORIAL
Fabrizio Costa, Grant Cramer, E Jean Finnegan
The inclusive threshold policy for publication in BMC journals including BMC Plant Biology means that editorial decisions are largely based on the soundness of the research presented rather than the novelty or potential impact of the work. Here we discuss what is required to ensure that research meets the requirement of scientific soundness. BMC Plant Biology and the other BCM-series journals ( https://www.biomedcentral.com/p/the-bmc-series-journals ) differ in policy from many other journals as they aim to provide a home for all publishable research...
November 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118596/revision-of-torrent-mites-parasitengona-torrenticolidae-torrenticola-of-the-united-states-and-canada-90-descriptions-molecular-phylogenetics-and-a-key-to-species
#13
J Ray Fisher, Danielle M Fisher, Michael J Skvarla, Whitney A Nelson, Ashley P G Dowling
The descriptive biology of torrent mites (Parasitengona: Torrenticolidae: Torrenticola) of North America (north of Mexico) is investigated using integrative methods. Material examined includes approximately 2,300 specimens from nearly 500 localities across the United States and Canada, and a few collections in Mexico and Central America. Species hypotheses are derived from a phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) for 476 specimens and supported with morphology and biogeography...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117855/evaluating-effective-leadership-and-governance-in-a-midwestern-agricultural-safety-and-health-coalition
#14
Mary J Wendl, Mary E Cramer
Agricultural Centers are a coalition of organizations and individual members with a common purpose: to improve the health and safety of the agricultural community. Successful leadership and governance are essential in accomplishing these goals. This article examined the effectiveness of a midwestern Agricultural Health and Safety Center (Ag Center) leadership and governance structure. The Internal Coalition Outcomes Hierarchy (ICOH) framework and the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE(©)) instrument were used, with field visit interviews conducted to gain further insight...
November 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116765/mechanism-of-the-polymerization-of-rac-lactide-by-fast-zinc-alkoxide-catalysts
#15
Daniel E Stasiw, Anna M Luke, Tomer Rosen, Aaron B League, Mukunda Mandal, Benjamin D Neisen, Christopher J Cramer, Moshe Kol, William B Tolman
The ring-opening transesterification polymerization (ROTEP) of rac-lactide (rac-LA) using L(X)Zn catalysts (L(X) = ligand having phenolate, amine, and pyridine donors with variable para substituents X on the bound phenolate donor; X = NO2, Br, t-Bu, OMe) was evaluated through kinetics experiments and density functional theory, with the aim of determining how electronic modulation of the ligand framework influences polymerization rate, selectivity, and control. After determination that zinc-ethyl precatalysts required 24 h of reaction with benzyl alcohol to convert to active alkoxide complexes, the subsequently formed species proved to be active and fairly selective, polymerizing up to 300 equiv of rac-LA in 6-10 min while yielding isotactic (Pm = 0...
November 8, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114191/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-using-bellavere-s-score-system
#16
Azhar Memon
Objective: Determine the frequency of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type 2 diabetics using Bellavere's score system. Subjects and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Isra University Hospital Hyderabad from March to November 2011. Sixty voluntary participants of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were selected through non-probability purposive sampling. Cardiac autonomic nerve function was assessed using Bellavere's score system...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108621/in-vitro-biosynthesis-of-3-mercaptolactate-by-lactate-dehydrogenases
#17
Christina Andreeßen, Natalie Wolf, Benedikt Cramer, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Alexander Steinbüchel
3-Mercaptolactate (3ML) is an interesting mercapto compound with special regard to the biosynthesis of new polythioesters (PTEs). Unfortunately, this thioester analog of lactic acid is currently not commercially available. For this reason, we developed an in vitro biosynthesis pathway to convert cysteine to 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MPy), which is then rapidly and efficiently converted to 3ML by suitable lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs). As liver LDH from Rattus norvegicus (LDHRn) was previously described to Exhibit 3MPy reduction activity, in silico studies based on homology to LDHRn were performed and led to the identification of four potentially suitable bacterial LDH candidates from Escherichia coli (LDHEc), Corynebacterium glutamicum (LDHCg), Bacillus cereus (LDHBc) and Gloeobacter violaceus (LDHGv)...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106282/false-alarm-a-comprehensive-reanalysis-of-evidence-that-psychopathology-symptom-networks-have-limited-replicability-by-forbes-wright-markon-and-krueger-2017
#18
Denny Borsboom, Eiko I Fried, Sacha Epskamp, Lourens J Waldorp, Claudia D van Borkulo, Han L J van der Maas, Angélique O J Cramer
Forbes, Wright, Markon, and Krueger (2017) stated that "psychopathology networks have limited replicability" (p. 1011) and that "popular network analysis methods produce unreliable results" (p. 1011). These conclusions are based on an assessment of the replicability of four different network models for symptoms of major depression and generalized anxiety across two samples; in addition, Forbes et al. analyzed the stability of the network models within the samples using split-halves. Our reanalysis of the same data with the same methods led to results directly opposed to theirs: All network models replicated very well across the two data sets and across the split-halves...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105187/improved-resolution-of-glutamate-glutamine-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-with-optimized-point-resolved-spectroscopy-sequence-timings-for-their-simultaneous-quantification-at-9-4%C3%A2-t
#19
Brennen J Dobberthien, Anthony G Tessier, Atiyah Yahya
Glutamine (Gln), glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are relevant brain metabolites that can be measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). This work optimizes the point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence echo times, TE1 and TE2 , for improved simultaneous quantification of the three metabolites at 9.4 T. Quantification was based on the proton resonances of Gln, Glu and GABA at ≈2.45, ≈2.35 and ≈2.28 ppm, respectively. Glu exhibits overlap with both Gln and GABA; in addition, the Gln peak is contaminated by signal from the strongly coupled protons of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), which resonate at about 2...
November 3, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093171/electroencephalographic-connectivity-measures-predict-learning-of-a-motor-sequencing-task
#20
Jennifer Wu, Franziska Knapp, Steven C Cramer, Ramesh Srinivasan
Individuals vary significantly with respect to rate and degree of improvement with motor practice. While the regions that underlie motor learning have been well described, neurophysiological factors underlying differences in response to motor practice are less well understood. The present study examined both resting state and event-related EEG coherence measures of connectivity as predictors of response to motor practice on a motor sequencing task using the dominant hand. Thirty-two healthy, young, right-handed participants underwent resting EEG prior to motor practice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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