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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753321/influence-of-pathogen-and-focus-of-infection-on-procalcitonin-values-in-sepsis-patients-with-bacteremia-or-candidemia
#1
Daniel O Thomas-Rüddel, Bernhard Poidinger, Matthias Kott, Manfred Weiss, Konrad Reinhart, Frank Bloos
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) serum concentrations to diagnose Gram-negative bacteremia and the association of PCT serum concentrations with more specific pathogens and the focus of infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the prospectively collected patient-level dataset from a cluster randomized quality improvement trial was performed. The trial included sepsis patients with organ dysfunction treated in the participating intensive care units from 2011 to 2015...
May 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719043/impact-of-whole-genome-duplication-events-on-diversification-rates-in-angiosperms
#2
Jacob B Landis, Douglas E Soltis, Zheng Li, Hannah E Marx, Michael S Barker, David C Tank, Pamela S Soltis
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) pervades the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite extensive progress in our understanding of WGD, the role of these events in promoting diversification is still not well understood. We seek to clarify the possible association between WGD and diversification rates in flowering plants. METHODS: Using a previously published phylogeny spanning all land plants (31,749 tips) and WGD events inferred from analyses of the 1000 Plants (1KP) transcriptome data, we analyzed the association of WGDs and diversification rates following numerous WGD events across the angiosperms...
March 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690206/a-review-of-paul-lassenius-kramp-s-hydrozoan-types-taxonomic-status-location-and-condition-of-the-material-and-a-biography-of-the-danish-zoologist
#3
Cinzia Gravili, Laura Pavesi, Ferdinando Boero, Ole S Tendal
During his scientific career, largely from 1910-1970, the Danish cnidarian specialist P.L. Kramp authored 94 scientific papers, and more than 30 other kinds of publications, such as reports and popular articles. Kramp was affiliated with the marine department of the Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen (now: The Natural History Museum of Denmark, NHMD), an institution intensely involved at the time in expeditions, in the assembling and maintenance of collections, and in the revision of a wide range of animal groups...
April 9, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608614/successional-dynamics-of-marine-fouling-hydroids-cnidaria-hydrozoa-at-a-finfish-aquaculture-facility-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#4
Luis Martell, Roberta Bracale, Steven A Carrion, Jennifer E Purcell, Marco Lezzi, Cinzia Gravili, Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero
Aquaculture is increasing rapidly to meet global seafood demand. Some hydroid populations have been linked to mortality and health issues in finfish and shellfish, but their dynamics in and around aquaculture farms remain understudied. In the present work, two experiments, each with 36 panels, tested colonization (factors: depth, season of immersion) and succession (factors: depth, submersion duration) over one year. Hydroid surface cover was estimated for each species, and data were analyzed with multivariate techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#5
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570829/gonadal-histology-of-box-jellyfish-cnidaria-cubozoa-reveals-variation-between-internal-fertilizing-species-alatina-alata-alatinidae-and-copula-sivickisi-tripedaliidae
#6
Jimena García-Rodríguez, Cheryl Lewis Ames, José Eduardo A R Marian, Antonio Carlos Marques
Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are gonochoristic cnidarians with distinct reproductive strategies. This comparative histological study examines the gonad organization of Alatina alata and Copula sivickisi, two box jellyfish species that exhibit different modes of internal fertilization. A. alata reproduces via spermcasting aggregations while C. sivickisi reproduces via copulation; in both cases, internal fertilization occurs in the gastrovascular cavity. Herein, we provide the first histological description of subgastric sacs-structures unique to C...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518561/loss-of-metagenesis-and-evolution-of-a-parasitic-life-style-in-a-group-of-open-ocean-jellyfish
#7
Bastian Bentlage, Karen J Osborn, Dhugal J Lindsay, Russell R Hopcroft, Kevin A Raskoff, Allen G Collins
Loss or stark reduction of the free-swimming medusa or jellyfish stage is common in the cnidarian class Hydrozoa. In the hydrozoan clade Trachylina, however, many species do not possess a sessile polyp or hydroid stage. Trachylines inhabiting freshwater and coastal ecosystems (i.e., Limnomedusae) possess a metagenetic life cycle involving benthic, sessile polyp and free-swimming medusa. In contrast, the paradigm is that open ocean inhabiting, oceanic trachylines (in the orders Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae) develop from zygote to medusa via a free-swimming larva, forgoing the polyp stage...
July 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497211/population-density-shapes-patterns-of-survival-and-reproduction-in-eleutheria-dichotoma-hydrozoa-anthoathecata
#8
Aleksandra Dańko, Ralf Schaible, Joanna Pijanowska, Maciej J Dańko
Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450607/the-caput-medusae-sign-in-portal-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Dario Giambelluca, Giovanni Caruana, Roberto Cannella, Dario Picone, Massimo Midiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446223/evolution-and-development-of-scyphozoan-jellyfish
#10
Rebecca R Helm
Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life-cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation)...
May 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370416/plant-pathogen-interactions-leaf-physiology-alterations-in-poplars-infected-with-rust-melampsora-medusae
#11
Fermín Gortari, Juan José Guiamet, Corina Graciano
Rust produced by Melampsora sp. is considered one of the most relevant diseases in poplar plantations. Growth reduction in poplar plantations takes place because rust, like other pathogens, alters leaf physiology. There is not a complete evaluation of several of the physiological traits that can be affected by rust at leaf level. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, in an integrative way and in the same pathosystem, which physiological processes are affected when Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh...
January 23, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345317/an-orientation-independent-dic-microscope-allows-high-resolution-imaging-of-epithelial-cell-migration-and-wound-healing-in-a-cnidarian-model
#12
J E Malamy, M Shribak
Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333345/ontogeny-reversal-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-turritopsis-sp-5-cnidaria-hydrozoa-oceaniidae-a-possible-new-species-endemic-to-xiamen-china
#13
Jun-Yuan Li, Dong-Hui Guo, Peng-Cheng Wu, Li-Sheng He
Ontogeny reversal, as seen in some cnidarians, is an unprecedented phenomenon in the animal kingdom involving reversal of the ordinary life cycle. Three species of Turritopsis have been shown to be capable of inverted metamorphosis, a process in which the pelagic medusa transforms back into a juvenile benthic polyp stage when faced with adverse conditions. Turritopsis sp.5 is a species of Turritopsis collected from Xiamen, China which presents a similar ability, being able to reverse its life cycle if injured by mechanical stress...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281657/indoles-induce-metamorphosis-in-a-broad-diversity-of-jellyfish-but-not-in-a-crown-jelly-coronatae
#14
Rebecca R Helm, Casey W Dunn
Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258421/in-vivo-imaging-of-epithelial-wound-healing-in-the-cnidarian-clytia-hemisphaerica-demonstrates-early-evolution-of-purse-string-and-cell-crawling-closure-mechanisms
#15
Zach Kamran, Katie Zellner, Harry Kyriazes, Christine M Kraus, Jean-Baptiste Reynier, Jocelyn E Malamy
BACKGROUND: All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245632/-i-scolionema-i-i-sanshin-i-sp-n-a-new-species-hydrozoa-limnomedusae-olindiidae-from-the-ryukyu-archipelago-southern-japan
#16
Sho Toshino
A new species of hydrozoan jellyfish belonging to the order Limnomedusae is reported from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Southern Japan. The species belongs to the genus Scolionema, which prior to this study includes just a single valid species, S. suvaense. This name, however, has several junior synonyms and considerable diversity has been reported for different populations from Mediterranean, Indian ocean and Pacific ocean localities, including Central Japan. The species described in this paper, Scolionema sanshin sp...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212727/deep-pelagic-food-web-structure-as-revealed-by-in-situ-feeding-observations
#17
C Anela Choy, Steven H D Haddock, Bruce H Robison
Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210939/vascular-remodeling-of-choroidal-neovascularization-after-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-therapy-visualized-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#18
Alexandra Miere, Pauline Butori, Salomon Y Cohen, Oudy Semoun, Vittorio Capuano, Camille Jung, Eric H Souied
PURPOSE: To describe the qualitative and quantitative changes in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow pattern after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration underwent multimodal imaging, including OCTA at initial examination and at last visit. High-flow networks in the choriocapillaris segmentation of OCTA were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at baseline and at follow-up, to characterize vascular flow changes after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment and to correlate these changes with final exudation signs on spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
November 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197505/a-safer-urea-based-in-situ-hybridization-method-improves-detection-of-gene-expression-in-diverse-animal-species
#19
Chiara Sinigaglia, Daniel Thiel, Andreas Hejnol, Evelyn Houliston, Lucas Leclère
In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195752/a-novel-method-of-synovitis-stratification-in-ultrasound-using-machine-learning-algorithms-results-from-clinical-validation-of-the-medusa-project
#20
Pawel Mielnik, Marcin Fojcik, Jakub Segen, Marek Kulbacki
Ultrasound is widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic arthritis. We present an evaluation of a novel automatic ultrasound diagnostic tool based on image recognition technology. Methods used in developing the algorithm are described elsewhere. For the purpose of evaluation, we collected 140 ultrasound images of metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints from patients with chronic arthritis. They were classified, according to hypertrophy size, into four stages (0-3) by three independent human observers and the algorithm...
February 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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