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Bastian Bentlage, Karen J Osborn, Dhugal J Lindsay, Russell R Hopcroft, Kevin A Raskoff, Allen G Collins
Loss or stark reduction of the free-swimming medusa or jellyfish stage is common in the cnidarian class Hydrozoa. In the hydrozoan clade Trachylina, however, many species do not possess a sessile polyp or hydroid stage. Trachylines inhabiting freshwater and coastal ecosystems (i.e., Limnomedusae) possess a metagenetic life cycle involving benthic, sessile polyp and free-swimming medusa. In contrast, the paradigm is that open ocean inhabiting, oceanic trachylines (in the orders Narcomedusae and Trachymedusae) develop from zygote to medusa via a free-swimming larva, forgoing the polyp stage...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Aleksandra Dańko, Ralf Schaible, Joanna Pijanowska, Maciej J Dańko
Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability...
2018: Marine Biology
Dario Giambelluca, Giovanni Caruana, Roberto Cannella, Dario Picone, Massimo Midiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Rebecca R Helm
Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life-cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation)...
February 14, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Fermín Gortari, Juan José Guiamet, Corina Graciano
Rust produced by Melampsora sp. is considered one of the most relevant diseases in poplar plantations. Growth reduction in poplar plantations takes place because rust, like other pathogens, alters leaf physiology. There is not a complete evaluation of several of the physiological traits that can be affected by rust at leaf level. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, in an integrative way and in the same pathosystem, which physiological processes are affected when Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh...
January 23, 2018: Tree Physiology
J E Malamy, M Shribak
Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Jun-Yuan Li, Dong-Hui Guo, Peng-Cheng Wu, Li-Sheng He
Ontogeny reversal, as seen in some cnidarians, is an unprecedented phenomenon in the animal kingdom involving reversal of the ordinary life cycle. Three species of Turritopsis have been shown to be capable of inverted metamorphosis, a process in which the pelagic medusa transforms back into a juvenile benthic polyp stage when faced with adverse conditions. Turritopsis sp.5 is a species of Turritopsis collected from Xiamen, China which presents a similar ability, being able to reverse its life cycle if injured by mechanical stress...
2018: PeerJ
Rebecca R Helm, Casey W Dunn
Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa)...
2017: PloS One
Zach Kamran, Katie Zellner, Harry Kyriazes, Christine M Kraus, Jean-Baptiste Reynier, Jocelyn E Malamy
BACKGROUND: All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
Sho Toshino
A new species of hydrozoan jellyfish belonging to the order Limnomedusae is reported from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Southern Japan. The species belongs to the genus Scolionema, which prior to this study includes just a single valid species, S. suvaense. This name, however, has several junior synonyms and considerable diversity has been reported for different populations from Mediterranean, Indian ocean and Pacific ocean localities, including Central Japan. The species described in this paper, Scolionema sanshin sp...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
C Anela Choy, Steven H D Haddock, Bruce H Robison
Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Alexandra Miere, Pauline Butori, Salomon Y Cohen, Oudy Semoun, Vittorio Capuano, Camille Jung, Eric H Souied
PURPOSE: To describe the qualitative and quantitative changes in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow pattern after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration underwent multimodal imaging, including OCTA at initial examination and at last visit. High-flow networks in the choriocapillaris segmentation of OCTA were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed at baseline and at follow-up, to characterize vascular flow changes after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment and to correlate these changes with final exudation signs on spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
November 23, 2017: Retina
Chiara Sinigaglia, Daniel Thiel, Andreas Hejnol, Evelyn Houliston, Lucas Leclère
In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical...
February 1, 2018: Developmental Biology
Pawel Mielnik, Marcin Fojcik, Jakub Segen, Marek Kulbacki
Ultrasound is widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic arthritis. We present an evaluation of a novel automatic ultrasound diagnostic tool based on image recognition technology. Methods used in developing the algorithm are described elsewhere. For the purpose of evaluation, we collected 140 ultrasound images of metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints from patients with chronic arthritis. They were classified, according to hypertrophy size, into four stages (0-3) by three independent human observers and the algorithm...
February 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Brad J Gemmell, Sean P Colin, John H Costello
Recently, it has been shown that some medusae are capable of swimming very efficiently, i.e. with a low cost of transport, and that this is in part due to passive energy recapture (PER) which occurs during bell relaxation. We compared the swimming kinematics among a diverse array of medusae, varying in taxonomy, morphology and propulsive and foraging modes, in order to evaluate the prevalence of PER in medusae. We found that while PER was common among taxa, the magnitude of the contribution to overall swimming varied greatly...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Changlong Gou, Jiazhen Wang, Yuqiong Wang, Wenlong Dong, Xiaofeng Shan, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
The objective was to add 0, 400, 800 or 1200 mg/kg of Hericium caput-medusae polysaccharide (HCMP) to the basal diet of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and determine effects on humoral innate immunity, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance. Adding HCMP enhanced (P < 0.05) bactericidal activity at 1, 2 and 3 weeks and also lysozyme activity, complement C3, and SOD activity at 2 and 3 weeks. Supplementing 800 or 1200 mg/kg of HCMP for 2 or 3 weeks increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of total protein, albumin and globulin...
January 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Johannes M Albes
Interrupted pledget-armed braided sutures are widely used for valve implantation. In a 74-year-old woman with aortic valve endocarditis and shallow annular abscess, annulus dehiscence resulted after resection. As resistance was too high for sufficient primary approximation, a snug fit of the valve by means of circumferential application of curbed tourniquets resembling Medusa's head after suture placement was achieved. Closest possible approximation of the upper and lower part of the annulus with the prosthesis prior to final fixation was thus possible, so that application of too much tension on a single suture could be avoided...
December 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Carolyn M Malmstrom, H Scott Butterfield, Laura Planck, Christopher W Long, Valerie T Eviner
Invasive weeds threaten the biodiversity and forage productivity of grasslands worldwide. However, management of these weeds is constrained by the practical difficulty of detecting small-scale infestations across large landscapes and by limits in understanding of landscape-scale invasion dynamics, including mechanisms that enable patches to expand, contract, or remain stable. While high-end hyperspectral remote sensing systems can effectively map vegetation cover, these systems are currently too costly and limited in availability for most land managers...
2017: PloS One
Manuel Pimentel, Marcial Escudero, Elvira Sahuquillo, Miguel Ángel Minaya, Pilar Catalán
The Pooideae are a highly diverse C3 grass subfamily that includes some of the most economically important crops, nested within the highly speciose core-pooid clade. Here, we build and explore the phylogeny of the Pooideae within a temporal framework, assessing its patterns of diversification and its chromosomal evolutionary changes in the light of past environmental transformations. We sequenced five plastid DNA loci, two coding (ndhF, matk) and three non-coding (trnH-psbA, trnT-L and trnL-F), in 163 Poaceae taxa, including representatives for all subfamilies of the grasses and all but four ingroup Pooideae tribes...
2017: PeerJ
Lin Chen, Zheng-Hui Li, Jian-Neng Yao, Yue-Ling Peng, Rong Huang, Tao Feng, Ji-Kai Liu
Hericium caput-medusae is an edible and medicinal mushroom closely relative to H. erinaceus. According to our detailed chemical investigation, two novel isoindolinone-containing meroterpene dimers, caputmedusins A (1) and B (2), as well as nine analogues, caputmedusins C-K (3-11), were isolated from the fermentation broth of H. caput-medusae. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were speculated based on the specific optical rotation and biogenetic consideration...
October 2017: Fitoterapia
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