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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#1
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395333/erythropoietin-induces-bone-marrow-and-plasma-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-during-acute-kidney-injury
#2
Luis Toro, Víctor Barrientos, Pablo León, Macarena Rojas, Magdalena Gonzalez, Alvaro González-Ibáñez, Sebastián Illanes, Keigo Sugikawa, Néstor Abarzúa, César Bascuñán, Katherine Arcos, Carlos Fuentealba, Ana María Tong, Alvaro A Elorza, María Eugenia Pinto, Rodrigo Alzamora, Carlos Romero, Luis Michea
It is accepted that osteoblasts/osteocytes are the major source for circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). However, erythropoietic cells of bone marrow also express FGF23. The modulation of FGF23 expression in bone marrow and potential contribution to circulating FGF23 has not been well studied. Moreover, recent studies show that plasma FGF23 may increase early during acute kidney injury (AKI). Erythropoietin, a kidney-derived hormone that targets erythropoietic cells, increases in AKI. Here we tested whether an acute increase of plasma erythropoietin induces FGF23 expression in erythropoietic cells of bone marrow thereby contributing to the increase of circulating FGF23 in AKI...
January 27, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394241/chlorinated-lipids-elicit-inflammatory-responses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Hong Yu, Meifang Wang, Derek Wang, Theodore J Kalogeris, Jane McHowat, David A Ford, Ronald J Korthuis
Increased endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ECAM) expression, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions (LECA), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion (PECA), mast cell activation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and microvascular permeability are hallmarks of the inflammatory response. The infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a reactive chlorinating species (RCS) that targets membrane lipids to produce halogenated lipids such as 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) and 2-chloropalmitic acid (2-ClPA)...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374076/pad4-deficiency-leads-to-decreased-organ-dysfunction-and-improved-survival-in-a-dual-insult-model-of-hemorrhagic-shock-and-sepsis
#4
Bethany M Biron, Chun-Shiang Chung, Yaping Chen, Zachary Wilson, Eleanor A Fallon, Jonathan S Reichner, Alfred Ayala
Indirect acute respiratory distress syndrome (iARDS) is caused by a nonpulmonary inflammatory process resulting from insults such as nonpulmonary sepsis. Neutrophils are thought to play a significant role in mediating ARDS, with the development of iARDS being characterized by dysregulation and recruitment of activated neutrophils into the lung. Recently, a novel mechanism of microbial killing by neutrophils was identified through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are composed of large webs of decondensed chromatin released from activated neutrophils into the extracellular space; they are regulated by the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) through mediation of chromatin decondensation via citrullination of target histones...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347924/causes-of-death-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-12%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-a-chinese-hospital-a-10%C3%A2-year-study
#5
Yueniu Zhu, Xiaodong Zhu, Mengyan Deng, Hongxia Wei, Mingjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: In China, the majority (77%) of urban children die in hospitals. Hospital-based review could provide insight leading to improvements in clinical practice and increase the survival of critically ill children. The aim of the present study is to identify the trends of immediate causes and chronic underlying diseases associated with deaths of children at one of the largest teaching hospitals in China over a period of 10 years (2006-2015). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data of all children aged 1 month to 11 years who died at Xinhua Hospital between 2006 and 2015...
January 18, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319760/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-obstetric-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-intensive-care-unit-in-northeast-brazil
#6
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Suzanne Vieira Saintrain, Gabriel de Castro Castelo, Vanessa Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Juliana Gomes Ramalho de Oliveira, Amanda Maria Timbó Rocha, Adolfo Gomes Vasconcelos Júnior, Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication still poorly studied in the setting of obstetric patients, which is associated with increased mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors of AKI among critically ill obstetric patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) due to obstetric complications, in Fortaleza, Brazil, in the period between January 2012 and December 2014...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129420/surgical-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-aortoesophageal-fistula
#7
Takahiro Yamazato, Tetsu Nakamura, Noriyuki Abe, Koki Yokawa, Yuki Ikeno, Yojiro Koda, Soichiro Henmi, Hidekazu Nakai, Yasuko Gotake, Takashi Matsueda, Takeshi Inoue, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshihiro Kakeji, Yutaka Okita
OBJECTIVE: To present a surgical strategy for aortoesophageal fistula (AEF). METHODS: From October 1999 to May 2017, 27 patients with AEF were treated at Kobe University Hospital. After 9 patients with malignancies or fish bone penetration were excluded, 18 patients who had AEF secondary to aortic lesions were investigated. The mean age was 67.2 ± 10.4 years, and the male/female ratio was 16:2. Twelve patients had a nondissection thoracic aneurysm, and 6 patients had a chronic aortic dissection...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124121/patients-comorbidities-reduce-the-clinical-value-of-emergency-colonoscopy-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Cristiano Cremone, Anouk Esch, Charlotte Gagniere, Alessandro Fugazza, Faria Mesli, Michael Levy, Aurelien Amiot, Alexis Laurent, Yann LeBaleur, Francois Hemery, Nicolas De'Angelis, Francesco Brunetti, Iradj Sobhani
Background and study aims:  Urgent endoscopy is often used to diagnose and sometimes treat acute upper gastrointestinal syndromes (hemorrhage, toxic ingestion, and occlusion). However, its suitability concerning the management of lower gastrointestinal conditions in emergency circumstances is controversial. Patients and methods:  We studied the role of emergency colonoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of all consecutive patients presenting with acute lower gastrointestinal symptoms referred to our hospital on an emergency basis...
November 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081491/deep-vein-thrombosis-complicated-by-spontaneous-iliopsoas-hematoma-in-patient-with-septic-shock
#9
Muhammad Umer Butt, Lili A Buzsaki, Susan S Smyth, Samy-Claude Elayi
BACKGROUND Spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage (SRH) is a rare and difficult-to-diagnose entity. It is not associated with trauma, pathology, or iatrogenic manipulations. Few cases have been reported, with the only precipitating factor recognized being bleeding diatheses such as anticoagulation states, inherited coagulopathies, and hemodialysis. However, none of these have been described in combination with septic shock, which itself is associated with platelet dysfunction, coagulation dysfunction, and vasculopathy...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075932/effect-of-ringers-acetate-in-different-doses-on-plasma-volume-in-rat-models-of-hypovolemia
#10
Svajunas Statkevicius, Attila Frigyesi, Peter Bentzer
BACKGROUND: Even though crystalloids are the first choice for fluid resuscitation in hemodynamically unstable patients, their potency as plasma volume expanders in hypovolemia of different etiologies is largely unknown. The objective of the study was to investigate dose-response curves of a crystalloid in hypovolemia induced by either sepsis or hemorrhagic shock. RESULTS: Rats were randomized to resuscitation with Ringers acetate at a dose 10, 30, 50, 75, or 100 ml/kg at 4 h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or 2...
October 26, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062711/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-causing-fatal-meningitis-and-septicemia-by-citrobacter-koseri
#11
Felix Reyes, Navneet Singh, Nigar Anjuman-Khurram, Jihae Lee, Lillian Chow
Citrobacter koseri is a gram-negative bacillius that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is an uncommon pathogen that typically causes meningitis and brain abscesses in children, however central nervous system (CNS) infections are rarely found in adults. We present a case of C. koseri meningitis in an immunocompetent adult secondary to intestinal micro-perforation caused by Strongyloides A 76-year-old man admitted for asthma exacerbation developed septic shock. A lumbar puncture revealed bacterial meningitis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937407/time-course-of-septic-shock-in-immunocompromised-and-nonimmunocompromised-patients
#12
Matthieu Jamme, Fabrice Daviaud, Julien Charpentier, Nathalie Marin, Michaël Thy, Yannick Hourmant, Jean-Paul Mira, Frédéric Pène
OBJECTIVES: To address the impact of underlying immune conditions on the course of septic shock with respect to both mortality and the development of acute infectious and noninfectious complications. DESIGN: An 8-year (2008-2015) monocenter retrospective study. SETTING: A medical ICU in a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed for septic shock within the first 48 hours of ICU admission were included. Patients were classified in four subgroups with respect to their immune status: nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised distributed into hematologic or solid malignancies and nonmalignant immunosuppression...
December 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906284/effect-of-transfusion-on-mortality-and-other-adverse-events-among-critically-ill-septic-patients-an-observational-study-using-a-marginal-structural-cox-model
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Claire Dupuis, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Sébastien Bailly, Christophe Adrie, Dany Goldgran-Toledano, Elie Azoulay, Stéphane Ruckly, Guillaume Marcotte, Bertrand Souweine, Michael Darmon, Yves Cohen, Carole Schwebel, Guillaume Lacave, Lila Bouadma, Jean-Francois Timsit
OBJECTIVES: RBC transfusion is often required in patients with sepsis. However, adverse events have been associated with RBC transfusion, raising safety concerns. A randomized controlled trial validated the 7 g/dL threshold, but previously transfused patients were excluded. Cohort studies led to conflicting results and did not handle time-dependent covariates and history of treatment. Additional data are thus warranted to guide patient's management. DESIGN: To estimate the effect of one or more RBC within 1 day on three major outcomes (mortality, ICU-acquired infections, and severe hypoxemia) at day 30, we used marginal structural models...
December 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900672/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-adult-patients-with-acute-fulminant-myocarditis-clinical-outcomes-and-risk-factor-analysis
#14
X Liao, B Li, Z Cheng
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to summarize the clinical outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult patients with acute fulminant myocarditis and to investigate the risk factors associated with its application. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients with cardiogenic shock and acute fulminant myocarditis. The following data were collected: patients' preoperative general condition, related clinical factors during ECMO, complications, and outcomes of ECMO...
September 12, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868314/cause-of-death-following-surgery-for-acute-type-a-dissection-evidence-from-the-canadian-thoracic-aortic-collaborative
#15
R Scott McClure, Maral Ouzounian, Munir Boodhwani, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Michael W A Chu, Zlatko Pozeg, Francois Dagenais, Khokan C Sikdar, Jehangir J Appoo
BACKGROUND: Surgery confers the best chance of survival following acute Type A dissection (ATAD), yet perioperative mortality remains high. Although perioperative risk factors for mortality have been described, information on the actual causes of death is sparse. In this study, we aimed to characterize the inciting events causing death during surgical repair of ATAD. METHODS: Nine centers participated in the study. We included all patients who died following surgical repair for ATAD between January 2007 and December 2013...
April 2017: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844961/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-rat-splenocytes-following-hemorrhagic-shock
#16
Marie Warren, Kumar Subramani, Richard Schwartz, Raghavan Raju
The regulation of mitochondrial function is critical in cellular homeostasis following hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock results in fluid loss and reduced availability of oxygen and nutrients to tissues. The spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ playing a key role in 'filtering the blood' and in the innate and adaptive immune responses. To understand the molecular basis of hemorrhagic shock, we investigated the changes in splenocyte mitochondrial respiration, and concomitant immune and metabolic alterations...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827548/cith3-a-reliable-blood-biomarker-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-endotoxic-shock
#17
Baihong Pan, Hasan B Alam, Wei Chong, James Mobley, Baoling Liu, Qiufang Deng, Yinjian Liang, Yanming Wang, Eric Chen, Tianbing Wang, Muneesh Tewari, Yongqing Li
Current biomarkers for sepsis are limited by their non-specificity, short half-life, and insensitive response to therapy. Recently, we have demonstrated that citrullinated histone H3(CitH3) is released into the blood from neutrophil extracellular traps(NETs) in response to severe infection, and CitH3 may be a potential biomarker for sepsis. In the present study, we found that NET components were released in mouse models of both lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced shock (LPSS) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). To further quantify CitH3 in the NETs, we established a CitH3 specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751369/wearable-technology-for-compensatory-reserve-to-sense-hypovolemia
#18
Victor A Convertino, Michael N Sawka
Traditional monitoring technologies fail to provide accurate or early indications of hypovolemia-mediated extremis because physiological systems (as measured by vital signs) effectively compensate until circulatory failure occurs. Hypovolemia is the most life-threatening physiological condition associated with circulatory shock in hemorrhage or sepsis, and it impairs one's ability to sustain physical exertion during heat stress. This review focuses on the physiology underlying the development of a novel non-invasive wearable technology that allows for real-time evaluation of the cardiovascular system's ability to compensate to hypovolemia, or its compensatory reserve, which provides an individualized estimate of impending circulatory collapse...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716593/the-critical-care-literature-2016
#19
REVIEW
Michael E Winters, Joseph P Martinez, Haney Mallemat, William J Brady
An emergency physician (EP) is often the first health care provider to evaluate, resuscitate, and manage a critically ill patient. Between 2001 and 2009, the annual hours of critical care delivered in emergency departments (EDs) across the United States increased >200%! (Herring et al., 2013). This trend has persisted since then. In addition to seeing more critically ill patients, EPs are often tasked with providing critical care long beyond the initial resuscitation period. In fact, >33% of critically ill patients who are brought to an ED remain there for >6h (Herring et al...
October 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615325/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-regulates-the-pink1-parkin-and-dj-1-pathways-of-mitophagy-during-sepsis
#20
Xianghong Zhang, Du Yuan, Qian Sun, Li Xu, Emma Lee, Anthony J Lewis, Brian S Zuckerbraun, Matthew R Rosengart
During sepsis and shock states, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. Consequently, adaptive mechanisms, such as fission, fusion, and mitophagy, are induced to eliminate damaged portions or entire dysfunctional mitochondria. The regulatory PINK1/Parkin and DJ-1 pathways are strongly induced by mitochondrial depolarization, although a direct link between loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and mitophagy has not been identified. Mitochondria also buffer Ca(2+), and their buffering capacity is dependent on ΔΨ Here, we characterize a role for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) I in the regulation of these mechanisms...
October 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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