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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636967/a-few-good-commensals-gut-microbes-use-ifn-%C3%AE-to-fight-salmonella
#1
Kyla S Ost, June L Round
Whereas strong evidence supports the notion that the microbiota promotes immune system maturation in multiple tissues, the identity of the specific microbes that elicit protective immunity to different infections is less clear. In a recent issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Thiemann et al. (2017) report the identification of specific gut bacteria that protect from Salmonella infection by priming host IFN-γ responses.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#2
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632014/coaching-the-coach-a-program-for-development-of-faculty-portfolio-coaches
#3
Jack Kopechek, Cheryl Bardales, A Todd Lash, Curtis Walker, Sheryl Pfeil, Cynthia H Ledford
PROBLEM: Faculty coaching is recognized as an essential element for effective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education, yet best practices for training these coaches are uncertain. INTERVENTION: New portfolio coaches participated in a multifaceted training program that included orienting modules, a 7.5-hr training workshop featuring analysis of reflective writing, an Observed Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE), and subsequent longitudinal coaches' meetings for timely task training...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629083/effects-on-insulin-adsorption-due-to-zinc-and-strontium-substitution-in-hydroxyapatite
#4
Luisa A Scudeller, Elena Mavropoulos, Marcelo N Tanaka, Andrea M Costa, Carolina A C Braga, Elvis O López, Alexandre Mello, Alexandre M Rossi
Insulin-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been proposed as a potential drug delivery system for the oral treatment of diabetes and to stimulate bone cell proliferation and bone mineralization. The kinetics of insulin incorporation onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and Sr (SrHA)- and Zn (ZnHA)-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629060/enhancing-the-biocompatibility-of-the-polyurethane-methacrylate-and-off-stoichiometry-thiol-ene-polymers-by-argon-and-nitrogen-plasma-treatment
#5
Tiam Foo Chen, Kim Shyong Siow, Pei Yuen Ng, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis
Our studies focused on improving the biocompatibility properties of two microfluidic prototyping substrates i.e. polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) and off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE-80) polymer by Ar and N2 plasma treatment. The contact angle (CA) measurement showed that both plasma treatments inserted oxygen and nitrogen moieties increased the surface energy and hydrophilicity of PUMA and OSTE-80 polymer which corresponded to an increase of nitrogen to carbon ratios (N/C), as measured by XPS, to provide a conducive environment for cell attachments and proliferation...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624134/efficacy-of-response-guided-directly-observed-pegylated-interferon-and-self-administered-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#6
Jason Grebely, Olav Dalgard, Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Margaret Hellard, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Cornelia Staehelin, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND: There are few data on treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use. This study evaluated the efficacy of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST). A secondary aim was to identify predictors of HCV treatment response. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicentre clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014...
June 14, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620596/optimal-length-of-follow-up-for-the-detection-of-unsuccessful-pediatric-pyeloplasty-a-single-center-experience
#7
Utsav K Bansal, Pankaj P Dangle, Heidi Stephany, Asad Durrani, Glenn Cannon, Francis X Schneck, Michael C Ost
OBJECTIVES: To assess the optimal length of follow-up for patients undergoing both open and minimally invasive pyeloplasties to ensure prompt detection of a recurrent obstruction. There are no standard guidelines on ideal follow-up and imaging post-pediatric pyeloplasty currently. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 264 patients (<18 years old) who underwent pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction between April 2002 and December 2014...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618285/belgian-experience-with-direct-acting-antivirals-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#8
Rob Bielen, Christophe Moreno, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Stefan Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre Mulkay, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Wim Verlinden, Christian Brixko, Jochen Decaestecker, Chantal De Galocsy, Filip Janssens, Mike Cool, Lode Van Overbeke, Christophe Van Steenkiste, François D'heygere, Wilfried Cools, Frederik Nevens, Geert Robaeys
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) has become a curable disease due to the development of direct acting antivirals (DAA). The WHO has set a target to eliminate HCV completely. Therefore, people who inject drugs (PWID) also need to be treated. In this study, we compared the real-life uptake and outcome of DAA treatment for HCV in PWID and non-PWID. METHODS: We performed a nation-wide, retrospective cohort study in 15 hospitals. All patients who were treated with simeprevir-sofosbuvir, daclatasvir-sofosbuvir, or ombitasvir/paritaprevir ritonavir-dasabuvir between December 2013 and November 2015 were included...
May 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616590/combination-of-extracorporeal-shockwave-lithotripsy-and-ureteroscopy-for-large-staghorn-calculi-in-a-pediatric-patient-case-report
#9
Austin J Schults, Wanjian Jia, Michael C Ost, Siam Oottamasathien
Background: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is a procedure commonly performed to treat nephrolithiasis, with promising results in pediatric patients. However, increasing renal calculi size is directly related to worsening stone-free rates. There are few reports in the literature of >2-cm staghorn calculi that expound on the exact mechanism of treatment in the pediatric population. Case Presentation: We present a case report of a 3-year-old boy who presented with a large 3-cm staghorn calculi effectively treated with one session of SWL followed by a planned staged ureteroscopy for definitive treatment...
2017: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615077/service-utilization-and-cost-of-implementing-a-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-and-care-program-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-delhi-india
#10
Mary Philip Sebastian, Aparajita Dasgupta, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Asha Singh, Vartika Sharma, Ira Madan, Waimar Tun, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Avina Sarna
BACKGROUND: WHO, UNODC, and UNAIDS recommend a comprehensive package for prevention, treatment, and care of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We describe the uptake of services and the cost of implementing a comprehensive package for HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in Delhi, India. METHODS: A cohort of 3774 PWID were enrolled for a prospective HIV incidence study and provided the comprehensive package: HIV and hepatitis testing and counseling, hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections, clean needles-syringes, condoms, abscess care, and education...
June 14, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610605/adherence-to-response-guided-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-for-people-who-inject-drugs-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-2-3-infection-the-activate-study
#11
Evan B Cunningham, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Olav Dalgard, Janaki Amin, Margaret Hellard, Graham R Foster, Philip Bruggmann, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Tanya L Applegate, Martin Weltman, David Shaw, Adrian Dunlop, Julie Bruneau, Håvard Midgard, Stefan Bourgeois, Maria Christine Thurnheer, Gregory J Dore, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The aims of this analysis were to investigate treatment completion and adherence among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in a study of response-guided therapy for chronic HCV genotypes 2/3 infection. METHODS: ACTIVATE was a multicenter clinical trial recruited between 2012 and 2014. Participants with genotypes 2/3 were treated with directly observed peg-interferon alfa-2b (PEG-IFN) and self-administered ribavirin for 12 (undetectable HCV RNA at week 4) or 24 weeks (detectable HCV RNA at week 4)...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604356/ocular-surface-temperature-in-patients-with-evaporative-and-aqueous-deficient-dry-eyes-a-thermographic-approach
#12
Sara Matteoli, Eleonora Favuzza, Lucrezia Mazzantini, Pasquale Aragona, Stefania Cappelli, Andrea Corvi, Rita Mencucci
In recent decades infrared thermography (IR) has allowed accurate and quantitative measurements of the ocular surface temperature (OST), applying a non-invasive procedure. The objective of this work was to develop a procedure based on IR, which allows characterizing the cooling of the ocular surface of patients suffering from dry eye syndrome, and distinguishing among patients suffering from aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eyes (EDE). Approach: All patients examined (34F/4M, 23-84 years) were divided into two groups according to their Schirmer I result (≤7 mm for ADDE and >7 mm for EDE), and the OST was recorded for 7 s at 30Hz...
June 12, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604329/report-on-the-first-government-funded-opioid-substitution-programme-for-heroin-users-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#13
Graeme Michie, Shuaib Hoosain, Muiruri Macharia, Lize Weich
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593244/effect-of-mandarin-orange-yogurt-on-allergic-conjunctivitis-induced-by-conjunctival-allergen-challenge
#14
Yuko Hara, Atsushi Shiraishi, Yuri Sakane, Yuki Takezawa, Tomoyuki Kamao, Yuichi Ohashi, Sho Yasunaga, Takuya Sugahara
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of mandarin orange yogurt containing nobiletin and β-lactoglobulin on the allergic conjunctivitis induced by a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC). Methods: Experiment 1 was performed on 26 asymptomatic patients (age, 25.3 ± 5.3 years) with proven seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to cedar pollen. We compared the degree of conjunctivitis induced by CAC before and after ingesting mandarin orange yogurt for 2 weeks. Experiment 2 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed on 31 patients (age, 32...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592583/rehabilitation-interventions-to-improve-patient-reported-outcomes-and-physical-fitness-in-survivors-of-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Elke Rammant, Renée Bultijnck, Nora Sundahl, Piet Ost, Nele S Pauwels, Benedicte Deforche, Ronny Pieters, Karel Decaestecker, Valérie Fonteyne
INTRODUCTION: Survivors of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) experience physical and psychosocial side effects of cancer diagnosis and treatment. These negative side effects have a crucial impact on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To date, there is evidence that rehabilitation interventions such as physical activity and psychosocial support have a positive effect on the HRQoL of cancer survivors. Unfortunately, there are no specific guidelines for rehabilitation or survivorship programmes for MIBC survivors...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575441/transmembrane-motions-of-pglb-induced-by-llo-are-coupled-with-el5-loop-conformational-changes-necessary-for-ost-activity
#16
Hui Sun Lee, Wonpil Im
N-linked glycosylation is an enzymatic reaction where an oligosaccharide is transferred en bloc onto an asparagine residue of an acceptor polypeptide, catalyzed by oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Despite the available crystal structures, the role of the external loop EL5, which is critical for the catalytic cycle, is still enigmatic as EL5 in the crystal structures is partially absent or blocks a pathway of lipid-linked oligosaccharide to the active site. Here we report the molecular origin of EL5 conformational changes through a series of molecular dynamics simulations of a bacterial OST, Campylobacter lari PglB...
May 30, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575062/the-rs16906252-c-t-snp-is-not-associated-with-increased-overall-survival-or-temozolomide-response-in-a-han-chinese-glioma-cohort
#17
Kuo-Chen Wei, Chia-Yuan Chen, Li-Ying Feng, Wei-Tzu Huang, Chia-Hua Chen, Peng-Wei Hsu, Kai Wang, Leroy E Hood, Leslie Y Chen
The methylation status of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is associated with the prognosis in gliomas and in other cancers. Recent studies showed that rs16906252, an SNP in the MGMT promoter, is associated with promoter methylation and is a predictor of the overall survival time (OST) and the response to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. However, these findings haven't been systematically investigated in the Han-Chinese population. We analyzed the relevance between rs16906252 polymorphisms, the MGMT methylation status, and the OST in 72 Han-Chinese gliomas patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543933/repeatability-of-oral-sugar-test-results-glucagon-like-peptide-1-measurements-and-serum-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-concentrations-in-horses
#18
N Frank, D M Walsh
BACKGROUND: Repeatability of the oral sugar test (OST) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that OST glucose, insulin, active (aGLP-1) and total (tGLP-1) glucagon-like peptide 1, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin results would be repeatable. ANIMALS: Fifty-three horses from a Tennessee research facility (n = 23) and private practice in Missouri (n = 30), including animals with medical histories of equine metabolic syndrome...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#19
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527042/parenting-stress-among-parents-of-children-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Elin Öst, Margret Nisell, Björn Frenckner, Carmen Mesas Burgos, Maria Öjmyr-Joelsson
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among parents of children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 51 children with CDH were treated at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital. The survival rate at discharge was 86% and long-term survival rate 80%. One parent each of the long-term survivors (41 children) was included in the present study, and 34 parents (83%) agreed to participate. Participants received the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ)...
May 19, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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