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Validity and reliability

Chaoqiong Liang, Jianjun Hao, Yan Meng, Laixin Luo, Jianqiang Li
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
Fanwei Dai, Xiting Zhao, Cuiming Tang, Zhenjiang Wang, Zheshi Kuang, Zhiyi Li, Jing Huang, Guoqing Luo
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important economic tree species in many countries. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression studies in plants. A suitable reference gene is essential to ensure accurate and reliable results for qRT-PCR analyses. However, no reports describing the selection of reference genes have been published for mulberry. In this work, we evaluated the stability of twenty candidate reference genes in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions by qRT-PCR in mulberry using algorithms in two programs-geNorm and NormFinder...
2018: PloS One
David Modic, Ross Anderson, Jussi Palomäki
Psychological and other persuasive mechanisms across diverse contexts are well researched, with many studies of the effectiveness of specific persuasive techniques on distinct types of human behaviour. In the present paper, our specific interest lies in the development of a generalized modular psychometric tool to measure individuals' susceptibility to persuasion. The scale is constructed using items from previously developed and validated particulate scales established in the domains of social psychology and behavioural economics...
2018: PloS One
Amani Abu-Shaheen, Shehu Yousef, Muhammad Riaz, Abdullah Nofal, Sarfaraz Khan, Humariya Heena
Diagnosis of neuropathic pain (NP) can be challenging. The ID Pain (ID-P) questionnaire, a screening tool for NP, has been used widely both in the original version and translated forms. The aim of this study was to develop an Arabic version of ID-P and assess its validity and reliability in detecting neuropathic pain. The original ID-P was translated in Arabic language and administered to the study population. Reliability of the Arabic version was evaluated by percentage observed agreement, and Cohen's kappa; and validity by sensitivity, specificity, correctly classified, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
2018: PloS One
Mario Fleischer, Alexander Mainka, Steffen Kürbis, Peter Birkholz
Recently, 3D printing has been increasingly used to create physical models of the vocal tract with geometries obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. These printed models allow measuring the vocal tract transfer function, which is not reliably possible in vivo for the vocal tract of living humans. The transfer functions enable the detailed examination of the acoustic effects of specific articulatory strategies in speaking and singing, and the validation of acoustic plane-wave models for realistic vocal tract geometries in articulatory speech synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Joaquín Cabezas, Trinidad Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio Gómez-Galán, Héctor Cifuentes, Ramón González Carvajal
This work presents the design, construction and testing of a new embedded sensor system for monitoring concrete curing. A specific mote has been implemented to withstand the aggressive environment without affecting the measured variables. The system also includes a real-time monitoring application operating from a remote computer placed in a central location. The testing was done in two phases: the first in the laboratory, to validate the functional requirements of the developed devices; and the second on civil works to evaluate the functional features of the devices, such as range, robustness and flexibility...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Christina Balderrama-Durbin, Christopher R Erbes, Melissa A Polusny, Dawne Vogt
Intimate partner communication has become a part of the daily routine of military couples during deployment. However, there is a scarcity of research examining the individual and relationship implications of communication during deployment, likely due in part to the lack of existing measures of deployment communication. The current study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed, multidimensional tool for assessing the process and outcomes of deployment communication in a sample of 391 recently deployed male Army National Guard soldiers and their female intimate partners...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Young Hwa Kim, Karen M O'Brien
The purpose of the study was to examine the factor structure, measurement invariance, and psychometric properties of a commonly used measure of perceived career barriers (The Perception of Barriers Scale; Luzzo & McWhirter, 2001) with racially diverse college women. The results supported a 9-factor structure for the Perception of Barriers Scale; configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the 9-factors were found with Asian, African American, Latina, and White college women. All groups of women of color reported higher career barriers due to racism and higher educational barriers due to racial discrimination than White women...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza, Michael Kellmann
Monitoring of recovery in the context of athletic performance has gained significant importance during recent years. As a systematic process of data collection and evaluation, the monitoring of recovery can be implemented for various purposes. It may aid to prevent negative outcomes of training or competition, such as underrecovery, overtraining, or injuries. Further, it aims at establishing routines and strategies necessary to guarantee athletes' readiness for performance by restoring their depleted resources...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jian Liu, Fuzhong Ouyang, Zhihao Zhao, Ruifang Gao, Rui Shi, Enhui Wu, Rui Lv, Guoqiang Xu
A dual maleimides (DuMal) tagging method has been developed for both relative and absolute quantitation of cysteine-containing peptides (CCPs) in combination with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We choose a pair of maleimides with the minimal difference in their chemical structures, including N-Methylmaleimide (NMM) and N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM), which allow for tagging CCPs in the Michael Addition reaction with a high efficiency rapidly (~minutes). We have validated that the DuMal Tagging technique is sensitive and reliable in quantitative analysis of CCPs...
March 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park, Martin Block
The purpose of this study was to address contact theory as the theoretical basis of the Paralympic School Day (PSD) disability awareness program using a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory), seeking to control and explain the manner in which PSD satisfied the four components of contact theory. Participants were 145 sixth-grade students who took part in PSD. Results determined that the PSD intervention supported the four theoretical components of contact theory, with statistically significant differences in student responses across all four indicators (p < ...
March 15, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Debra A Field, Roslyn W Livingstone
AIM: To identify and critically appraise standardized measures of power mobility skill used with children (18y or younger) with mobility limitations and explore the measures' application for 'exploratory', 'operational', and 'functional' learners. METHOD: Five electronic databases were searched along with hand-searching for peer-reviewed articles published in English to July 2017 (updated 31st August 2017). Key terms included power(ed) mobility, power(ed) wheelchair, and database-specific terms...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Rashed Al Amer, Khalid Al Khalifa, Safeyah Ali Alajlan, Ahmed Al Ansari
PURPOSE: The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. METHODOLOGY: The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain...
March 14, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Jennifer A Bunn, James W Navalta, Charles J Fountaine, Joel D Reece
Wearable physical activity trackers are a popular and useful method to collect biometric information at rest and during exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize recent findings of wearable devices for biometric information related to steps, heart rate, and caloric expenditure for several devices that hold a large portion of the market share. Searches were conducted in both PubMed and SPORTdiscus. Filters included: humans, within the last 5 years, English, full-text, and adult 19+ years...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Justin W Y Lee, Cheng Li, Patrick S H Yung, Kai-Ming Chan
Background/Objective: Evaluating hamstring strength by isokinetic dynamometry is limited by various practical issues such as time and cost. A video-based Nordic hamstring exercise is introduced as an alternative option. The aims of this study are to evaluate 1.) the between-session reliability and 2.) concurrent validity of the testing method compared to a standardized isokinetic dynamometry. Methods: Thirty male elite footballers were recruited for the study. From the Nordic hamstring exercise, the video-analysis-determined Nordic break-point angles where the participant could no longer withstand the force of the fall (eccentric mode) and the number of seconds that the player could hold at 30° forward flexion angle (isometric mode) were measured...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Henry Zhao, Lauren Pesavento, Skye Coote, Edrich Rodrigues, Patrick Salvaris, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard, Michael Stephenson, Leonid Churilov, Nawaf Yassi, Stephen M Davis, Bruce C V Campbell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical triage scales for prehospital recognition of large vessel occlusion (LVO) are limited by low specificity when applied by paramedics. We created the 3-step ambulance clinical triage for acute stroke treatment (ACT-FAST) as the first algorithmic LVO identification tool, designed to improve specificity by recognizing only severe clinical syndromes and optimizing paramedic usability and reliability. METHODS: The ACT-FAST algorithm consists of (1) unilateral arm drift to stretcher <10 seconds, (2) severe language deficit (if right arm is weak) or gaze deviation/hemineglect assessed by simple shoulder tap test (if left arm is weak), and (3) eligibility and stroke mimic screen...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Michelle Livne, Jens K Boldsen, Irene K Mikkelsen, Jochen B Fiebach, Jan Sobesky, Kim Mouridsen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke imaging is pivotal for diagnosis and stratification of patients with acute ischemic stroke to treatment. The potential of combining multimodal information into reliable estimates of outcome learning calls for robust machine learning techniques with high flexibility and accuracy. We applied the novel extreme gradient boosting algorithm for multimodal magnetic resonance imaging-based infarct prediction. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of 195 patients with acute ischemic stroke, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion-weighted imaging, and 10 perfusion parameters were derived from acute magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Uwe Schwahn
The measurement of circulating hormones by immunoassay remains a cornerstone in preclinical endocrine research. For scientists conducting and interpreting immunoassay measurements of rodent samples, the paramount aim usually is to obtain reliable and meaningful measurement data in order to draw conclusions on biological processes. However, the biological variability between samples is not the only variable affecting the readout of an immunoassay measurement and a considerable amount of unwanted or unintended variability can be quickly introduced during the pre-analytical and analytical phase...
March 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Manuel Cappellari, Gianni Turcato, Stefano Forlivesi, Fabio Bagante, Gianfranco Cervellin, Giuseppe Lippi, Bruno Bonetti, Paolo Bovi, Danilo Toni
Background and purpose The nomogram is an important component of modern medical decision-making, which calculates the probability of an event entirely based on individual characteristics. We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of unfavorable outcome in intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients included in the large multicenter Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. Methods All patients registered in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register by 179 Italian centers between May 2001 and March 2016 were originally included...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
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