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"Exercise physiology"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805516/do-graded-activity-therapies-cause-harm-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#1
Tom Kindlon
Reporting of harms was much better in the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behavioural therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial than earlier chronic fatigue syndrome trials of graded exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, some issues remain. The trial's poor results on objective measures of fitness suggest a lack of adherence to the activity component of these therapies. Therefore, the safety findings may not apply in other clinical contexts. Outside of clinical trials, many patients report deterioration with cognitive behavioural therapy and particularly graded exercise therapy...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795013/management-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-children-and-adolescents-engaging-in-physical-activity
#2
REVIEW
Silpa Nadella, Justin A Indyk, Manmohan K Kamboj
Regular physical activity is an important component in the management of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM), as it has the potential to improve glycemic control, delay cardiovascular complications, and increase overall well-being. Unfortunately, many children and adolescents with diabetes do not partake in regular exercise and physical activity for multiple reasons. This review identifies the barriers to participation from the aspect of the patient, caregiver, and the healthcare provider...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783384/clinical-physical-physiological-and-dietary-patterns-of-obese-and-sedentary-adults-with-primary-hypertension-characterized-by-sex-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-exerdiet-hta-study
#3
Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Pablo Corres, Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Aitor Martínez-Aguirre, Javier Pérez-Asenjo, Gualberto R Aispuru, Lide Arenaza, Estibaliz Romaratezabala, Iñaki Arratibel-Imaz, Iñigo Mujika, Silvia Francisco-Terreros, Sara Maldonado-Martín
The main purpose of this study was to determine some key physical, physiological, clinical, and nutritional markers of health status in obese and sedentary adults (54.0 ± 8.1 years, 141 men and 68 women) with primary hypertension (HTN) characterized by sex and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level. The studied population showed a high cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile including metabolically abnormal obese, with poor CRF level (22.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), exercise-induced HTN (Systolic Blood Pressure>210 mmHg in men and >190 mmHg in women at the end of the exercise test) and with non-healthy adherence to dietary pattern (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, 46...
August 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763244/more-breathing-less-fitness-lessons-from-exercise-physiology-in-copd-heart-failure-overlap
#4
Santiago C Arce, Eduardo L De Vito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738087/exercise-physiology-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device-analysis-of-heart-pump-interaction-with-a-computational-simulator
#5
Libera Fresiello, Frank Rademakers, Piet Claus, Gianfranco Ferrari, Arianna Di Molfetta, Bart Meyns
Patients with a Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) are hemodynamically stable but show an impaired exercise capacity. Aim of this work is to identify and to describe the limiting factors of exercise physiology with a VAD. We searched for data concerning exercise in heart failure condition and after VAD implantation from the literature. Data were analyzed by using a cardiorespiratory simulator that worked as a collector of inputs coming from different papers. As a preliminary step the simulator was used to reproduce the evolution of hemodynamics from rest to peak exercise (ergometer cycling) in heart failure condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737585/biomarkers-in-sports-and-exercise-tracking-health-performance-and-recovery-in-athletes
#6
Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Stavros A Kavouras, Robin M Queen, J Luke Pryor, Douglas J Casa
Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay-persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713460/effects-of-an-elastic-hamstring-assistance-device-during-downhill-running
#7
Randy L Aldret, Brittany A Trahan, Greggory Davis, Brian Campbell, David M Bellar
The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males (X = 21.6 ± 2.5 years) into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants' body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO2max, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion...
June 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685468/tissue-integrating-oxygen-sensors-continuous-tracking-of-tissue-hypoxia
#8
Natalie A Wisniewski, Scott P Nichols, Soya J Gamsey, Steve Pullins, Kit Y Au-Yeung, Bruce Klitzman, Kristen L Helton
We describe a simple method of tracking oxygen in real-time with injectable, tissue-integrating microsensors. The sensors are small (500 μm × 500 μm × 5 mm), soft, flexible, tissue-like, biocompatible hydrogel s that have been shown to overcome the foreign body response for long-term sensing. The sensors are engineered to change luminescence in the presence of oxygen or other analytes and function for months to years in the body. A single injection followed by non-invasive monitoring with a hand-held or wearable Bluetooth optical reader enables intermittent or continuous measurements...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683290/cry1-2-selectively-repress-ppar%C3%AE-and-limit-exercise-capacity
#9
Sabine D Jordan, Anna Kriebs, Megan Vaughan, Drew Duglan, Weiwei Fan, Emma Henriksson, Anne-Laure Huber, Stephanie J Papp, Madelena Nguyen, Megan Afetian, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Anastasia Kralli, Ronald M Evans, Katja A Lamia
Cellular metabolite balance and mitochondrial function are under circadian control, but the pathways connecting the molecular clock to these functions are unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) enables preferential utilization of lipids as fuel during exercise and is a major driver of exercise endurance. We show here that the circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 function as co-repressors for PPARδ. Cry1(-/-);Cry2(-/-) myotubes and muscles exhibit elevated expression of PPARδ target genes, particularly in the context of exercise...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654051/experimental-protocol-of-a-three-minute-all-out-arm-crank-exercise-test-in-spinal-cord-injured-and-able-bodied-individuals
#10
Joelle L Flueck
Reliable exercise protocols are required to test changes in exercise performance in elite athletes. Performance improvements in these athletes may be small; therefore, sensitive tools are fundamental to exercise physiology. There are currently many exercise tests that allow for the examination of exercise capacity in able-bodied athletes, with protocols mainly for lower-body or whole-body exercise. There is a trend to test athletes in a sport-specific setting that closely resembles the actions that the participants are used to performing...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630575/acute-and-post-exercise-physiological-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-endurance-and-sprint-athletes
#11
Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann
The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE)...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626082/significant-role-of-the-cardio-postural-interaction-in-blood-pressure-regulation-during-standing
#12
Da Xu, Ajay Verma, Amanmeet Garg, Michelle Bruner, Reza Fazel-Rezai, Andrew P Blaber, Kouhyar Tavakolian
Cardiovascular and postural control systems have been studied independently despite the increasing evidence showing the importance of cardio-postural interaction in blood pressure regulation. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of cardio-postural interaction in relation to cardiac baroreflex in blood pressure regulation under orthostatic stress before and after mild exercise. Physiological variables representing cardiovascular control (heart rate and systolic blood pressure), lower limb muscle activation (electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure derived from force and moment data during sway) were measured from 17 healthy participants (25±2 years; 8 females) during a sit-to-stand test before and after sub-maximal exercise...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550178/severity-of-structural-and-functional-right-ventricular-remodeling-depends-on-training-load-in-an-experimental-model-of-endurance-exercise
#13
Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Cira Rubies, Montserrat Batlle, Bart Bijnens, Lluís Mont, Marta Sitges, Eduard Guasch
An arrhythmogenic right ventricle (RV) remodeling has been reported in response to regular training, but it remains unclear how exercise intensity affects the presence and extent of such remodeling. We aimed at assessing the relationship between RV remodeling and exercise load in a long-term endurance training model. Wistar rats were conditioned to run at moderate (MOD, 45 min, 30cm/s) or intense (INT, 60 min, 60cm/s) workloads for 16 weeks; sedentary rats (SED) served as controls. Cardiac remodeling was assessed with standard echocardiographic and tissue Doppler techniques, sensor-tip pressure catheters and pressure-volume loop analyses...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533960/body-composition-estimation-from-selected-slices-equations-computed-from-a-new-semi-automatic-thresholding-method-developed-on-whole-body-ct%C3%A2-scans
#14
Alizé Lacoste Jeanson, Ján Dupej, Chiara Villa, Jaroslav Brůžek
BACKGROUND: Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509390/pilot-study-of-client-outcomes-from-exercise-physiology-in-a-youth-mental-health-service
#15
Gina Woodhead, Danielle Hitch, Kate Bolton, Dianne Albiston, Eoin Killackey
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utilisation and experience of an exercise physiology programme, known as Bod Squad at a youth mental health service. Individual sessions were offered in an outpatient setting, while both group and individual sessions occurred in an inpatient unit. This pilot study used a mixed methodology to collect data from young people who attended Bod Squad. A database of exercise physiology records for 47 young people were analysed for attendance and physiological indicators...
May 16, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505224/muscle-bioenergetic-considerations-for-intrinsic-laryngeal-skeletal-muscle-physiology
#16
Mary J Sandage, Audrey G Smith
Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and introduce bioenergetic physiology as a necessary parameter for theoretical models of laryngeal skeletal muscle function. Method: A comprehensive review of the human intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle physiology literature was conducted...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474874/poincar%C3%A3-plot-analysis-of-ultra-short-term-heart-rate-variability-during-recovery-from-exercise-in-physically-active-men
#17
Rayana L Gomes, Luiz C Marques Vanderlei, David M Garner, Milana D Ramos Santana, Luiz C de Abreu, Vitor E Valenti
BACKGROUND: Recently there has been increasing interest in the study of ultra-short- term heart rate variability (HRV) in sports performance and exercise physiology. In order to improve standardization of this specific analysis, we evaluated the ultra-short-term HRV analysis through SD1Poincaré index to identify exercise induced responses. METHODS: We investigated 35 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years old. Volunteers performed physical exercise on treadmill with intensity of 6...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467922/metabolic-flexibility-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Bret H Goodpaster, Lauren M Sparks
Metabolic flexibility is the ability to respond or adapt to conditional changes in metabolic demand. This broad concept has been propagated to explain insulin resistance and mechanisms governing fuel selection between glucose and fatty acids, highlighting the metabolic inflexibility of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In parallel, contemporary exercise physiology research has helped to identify potential mechanisms underlying altered fuel metabolism in obesity and diabetes. Advances in "omics" technologies have further stimulated additional basic and clinical-translational research to further interrogate mechanisms for improved metabolic flexibility in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue with the goal of preventing and treating metabolic disease...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467920/the-limits-of-exercise-physiology-from-performance-to-health
#19
REVIEW
Brendan M Gabriel, Juleen R Zierath
Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how these inform contemporary knowledge, and speculate on future questions...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426779/reference-standards-for-lean-mass-measures-using-ge-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-caucasian-adults
#20
Mary T Imboden, Ann M Swartz, Holmes W Finch, Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky
OBJECTIVE: To develop reference values by age and sex for LM measures using GE-Healthcare DXA systems. METHODS: A de-identified sample was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. DXA scans of 2,076 women and 1,251 men were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA. Percentiles (%ile) were calculated for all variables of interest (LM, LMI, %LM, and ALMI) and a factorial ANOVA was used to assess differences for each variable between 10-year age groups and sex, as well as the interaction between age and sex...
2017: PloS One
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