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"Exercise physiology"

Jessica MacKay, Helen Leonard, Kingsley Wong, Andrew Wilson, Jenny Downs
AIM: Respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Rett syndrome. This study investigated respiratory morbidity and relationships with age, mutation type, feeding, and walking status. METHOD: Families registered with the InterRett database (n=399) provided data on the health of their child with Rett syndrome (age 2-57y). Hospital admissions because of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) over a 5-year exposure period were investigated by age, mutation type, enteral feeding, and walking status...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Hyoung-Kil Park, Min-Kyung Jung, Eunkyung Park, Chang-Young Lee, Yong-Seok Jee, Denny Eun, Jun-Youl Cha, Jaehyun Yoo
Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Anne M Ambia, Jamie L Morgan, C Edward Wells, Scott W Roberts, Monika Sanghavi, David B Nelson, F Gary Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Richard Deji Akiboye, Davendra M Sharma
CONTEXT: Haematuria is a common urological presentation associated with patient anxiety and clinically relevant underlying pathology. However, the prevalence and pathophysiology of haematuria following sporting exercise is less well documented. OBJECTIVES: This review paper seeks to clarify the prevalence of microscopic and macroscopic haematuria in association with sporting exercise reported in the literature, and the pathophysiology behind it. We review the relation of haematuria to injury to the urinary tract in sport, as well as the incidence of underlying disease, urological and incidental, following investigation for exercise-induced haematuria...
February 27, 2018: European Urology Focus
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Gregory A L Davies, Larry A Wolfe, Michelle F Mottola, Catherine MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To design Canadian guidelines advising obstetric care providers of the maternal, fetal, and neonatal implications of aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises in pregnancy. OUTCOMES: Knowledge of the impact of exercise on maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity, and of the maternal measures of fitness. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE search from 1966 to 2002 for English language articles related to studies of maternal aerobic and strength conditioning in a previously sedentary population, maternal aerobic and strength conditioning in a previouslyactive population, impact of aerobic and strength conditioning on early and late pregnancy outcomes, and impact of aerobic and strength conditioning on neonatal outcomes, as well as for review articles and meta-analyses related to exercise in pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Jing Kang, Chao Xue, Adriana Chou, Austin Scholp, Ting Gong, Yi Zhang, Zhen Chen, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of traditional and physiological warm-up exercises and to determine the optimal duration of these methods using acoustic and aerodynamic metrics. METHODS: Twenty-six subjects were recruited to participate in both straw phonation exercises (physiological vocal warm-up) and traditional singing exercises (traditional vocal warm-up) for 20 minutes each, 24 hours apart. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP), fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio were measured before the intervention (m0), as well as after 5 minutes (m5), 10 minutes (m10), 15 minutes (m15), and 20 minutes (m20) of intervention...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín, Pascal Madeleine, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Paula Rezende Camargo, Tania Fátima Salvini
Mechanical hyperalgesia defined as decreased pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) is commonly associated with pain. In this narrative review, we report the current state of the art within topographical pressure sensitivity maps. Such maps are based on multiple PPT assessments. The PPTs are assessed by an a priori defined grid with special focus on both spatial and temporal summation issues. The grid covers the muscle or the body region of interest using absolute or relative values determined from anatomical landmarks or anthropometric values...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Timothy David Noakes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Andrea F M Petrella, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
BACKGROUND: Physical activity screening prior to starting a physical activity program is important to identify if there are any underlying health conditions. However, many older adults do not complete such assessments prior to beginning their physical activity program. This project compared the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's newly developed Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) to a standardized exercise stress test in terms of screening out versus screening in false positive GAQ tests...
January 17, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jason M Brown, Breonte S Guy, Dawn X Henderson, C Edward Ebert, Jill Harp, Chad D Markert
Regenerative medicine is a novel discipline that both excites undergraduates and may be used as a vehicle to expose students to scientific concepts and opportunities. The goal of this article is to describe the implementation of a National Science Foundation-funded Targeted Infusion Project in which underrepresented minority undergraduates are exposed to laboratory-bench skills and summer research opportunities that they may not have encountered otherwise. A 3-wk infusion of laboratory-bench and data presentation skills, in the context of a regenerative medicine/bioengineering project, aimed to engage students and expose them to opportunities as summer researchers and teaching assistants...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Brian S Ferguson, Matthew J Rogatzki, Matthew L Goodwin, Daniel A Kane, Zachary Rightmire, L Bruce Gladden
Lactate (La- ) has long been at the center of controversy in research, clinical, and athletic settings. Since its discovery in 1780, La- has often been erroneously viewed as simply a hypoxic waste product with multiple deleterious effects. Not until the 1980s, with the introduction of the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle did a paradigm shift in our understanding of the role of La- in metabolism begin. The evidence for La- as a major player in the coordination of whole-body metabolism has since grown rapidly. La- is a readily combusted fuel that is shuttled throughout the body, and it is a potent signal for angiogenesis irrespective of oxygen tension...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland, Han C G Kemper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
Charles R Pedlar, Carlo Brugnara, Georgie Bruinvels, Richard Burden
Maintaining a positive iron balance is essential for female athletes to avoid the effects of iron deficiency and anaemia and to maintain or improve performance. A major function of iron is in the production of the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying molecule, haemoglobin, via erythropoiesis. Iron balance is under the control of a number of factors including the peptide hormone hepcidin, dietary iron intake and absorption, environmental stressors (e.g. altitude), exercise, menstrual blood loss and genetics. Menstruating females, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding are at an elevated risk of iron deficiency...
March 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Rodney A Green, Laura Y Whitburn, Anita Zacharias, Graeme Byrne, Diane L Hughes
Blended learning has become increasingly common in higher education. Recent findings suggest that blended learning achieves better student outcomes than traditional face-to-face teaching in gross anatomy courses. While face-to-face content is perceived as important to learning there is less evidence for the significance of online content in improving student outcomes. Students enrolled in a second-year anatomy course from the physiotherapy (PT), exercise physiology (EP), and exercise science (ES) programs across two campuses were included (n = 500)...
December 13, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
Michael Coronado, Giovanni Fajardo, Kim Nguyen, Mingming Zhao, Kristina B Kooiker, Gwanghyun Jung, Dong-Qing Hu, Sushma Reddy, Erik Sandoval, Aleksandr Stotland, Roberta A Gottlieb, Daniel Bernstein
Rationale: Mitochondria play a dual role in the heart, responsible for meeting energetic demands and regulating cell death. Paradigms have held that mitochondrial fission and fragmentation are the result of pathologic stresses such as ischemia, are an indicator of poor mitochondrial health, and lead to mitophagy and cell death. However, recent studies demonstrate that inhibiting fission also results in decreased mitochondrial function and cardiac impairment, suggesting that fission is important for maintaining cardiac and mitochondrial bioenergetic homeostasis...
December 12, 2017: Circulation Research
Attila Vágvölgyi, Zsolt Rozgonyi, Pál Vadász, János Tamás Varga
INTRODUCTION: Besides the oncology and operative surgical technics, functional aspects influence the operability of lung cancer. Preoperative risk stratification, evaluation of postoperative complications needs to be considered. AIM: To review international literature and experiences of our institute. METHOD: We focused the literature of risk stratification of thoracic surgery. Lung function, lung mechanics, chest kinematics, exercise physiology were considered...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
Mark S Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Kristi B Adamo, Salomé Aubert, Joel D Barnes, Louise Choquette, Mary Duggan, Guy Faulkner, Gary S Goldfield, Casey E Gray, Reut Gruber, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Xanne Janssen, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Nicholas Kuzik, Claire LeBlanc, Joanna MacLean, Anthony D Okely, Veronica J Poitras, Mary-Ellen Rayner, John J Reilly, Margaret Sampson, John C Spence, Brian W Timmons, Valerie Carson
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, research experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0-4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children of the early years embrace the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
Amanda Harvey, Guy Faulkner, Lora Giangregorio, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week)...
November 9, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Lora Humphrey Beebe, Marian Roman, Hollie Raynor, Dixie Thompson, Andrea Franks
Graduate student attitudes (n = 28) were assessed before and after participation in interprofessional practitioner education (IPE). Twenty-eight graduate students participated (14 mental health nursing, 6 pharmacy, 4 nutrition, 4 exercise physiology); most had at least some health care experience. Posttest scores indicated gains on a majority of constructs measured. These results suggest that online-blended IPE content yields gains in team skills and attitudes. This study adds to a very small body of literature on IPE in graduate programs...
November 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
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