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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210818/open-circuit-respirometry-a-brief-historical-review-of-the-use-of-douglas-bags-and-chemical-analyzers
#1
REVIEW
Roy J Shephard
The Douglas bag technique is reviewed as one in a series of articles looking at historical insights into measurement of whole body metabolic rate. Consideration of all articles looking at Douglas bag technique and chemical gas analysis has here focused on the growing appreciation of errors in measuring expired volumes and gas composition, and subjective reactions to airflow resistance and dead space. Multiple small sources of error have been identified and appropriate remedies proposed over a century of use of the methodology...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188199/back-to-the-future-revisiting-the-physiological-cost-of-negative-work-as-a-team-based-activity-for-exercise-physiology-students
#2
Matthew A Kilgas, Steven J Elmer
We implemented a team-based activity in our exercise physiology teaching laboratory that was inspired from Abbott et al.'s classic 1952 Journal of Physiology paper titled "The physiological cost of negative work." Abbott et al. connected two bicycles via one chain. One person cycled forward (muscle shortening contractions, positive work) while the other resisted the reverse moving pedals (muscle lengthening contractions, negative work), and the cost of work was compared. This study was the first to link human whole body energetics with isolated muscle force-velocity characteristics...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184235/phosphatidic-acid-biosynthesis-pharmacokinetics-mechanisms-of-action-and-effect-on-strength-and-body-composition-in-resistance-trained-individuals
#3
REVIEW
Peter Bond
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has received much attention in the field of exercise physiology as a master regulator of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The multiprotein complex is regulated by various signals such as growth factors, energy status, amino acids and mechanical stimuli. Importantly, the glycerophospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA) appears to play an important role in mTORC1 activation by mechanical stimulation. PA has been shown to modulate mTOR activity by direct binding to its FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153945/metabolic-imaging-in-exercise-physiology
#4
Thorsten Rudroff, Nathaniel B Ketelhut, John H Kindred
This mini-review focuses on selected, noninvasive imaging techniques that have been used in the study of exercise physiology. These imaging modalities can be roughly divided into two categories: tracer based and non-tracer based. Tracer based methods use radio-labeled substrates whose location and quantity can subsequently be imaged once they are incorporated into metabolic processes. Non-tracer based imaging modalities rely on specific properties of substrates to identify metabolites and determine their concentrations...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149370/changes-of-standard-physiological-perceptual-markers-and-circulating-micrornas-in-response-to-tennis-match-play-a-case-report-of-two-elite-players
#5
Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Thomas Hilberg, Jürgen Freiwald, Udo Frank Wehmeier
This study aimed to describe the acute changes of both standard physiological-perceptual markers and circulating microRNAs in response to tennis match-play in a detailed case report. Two elite male baseliners with comparable tennis experience were tested for anthropometric and fitness related variables and played 2 h of match-play on a red-clay court. The changes of standard physiological-perceptual markers including the heart rate, lactate concertation, creatine kinase activity, urea concentration and rating of perceived exertion as well as circulating microRNA-133a, -486 and -126 expression rates were examined at 10 different time-points (i...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148335/a-pediatric-cardiology-fellowship-boot-camp-improves-trainee-confidence
#6
Catherine K Allan, Paul Tannous, Elizabeth DeWitt, Michael Farias, Laura Mansfield, Christina Ronai, David Schidlow, Stephen P Sanders, James E Lock, Jane W Newburger, David W Brown
: Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. METHODS: The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care...
December 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140625/ncaa-football-off-season-training-unanswered-prayers%C3%A2-a-prayer-answered
#7
Scott Anderson
Off-season training in year-round collegiate football is purported to be performance enhancing. Absent principles of exercise physiology, excesses in sport-training regimens pose risk to the participant athletes. Since 2000, 32 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players have died in sport: 26 nontraumatic deaths and 6 traumatic deaths, a ratio of more than 4 nontraumatic deaths for every traumatic death. On average, 2 NCAA football players die per season played. Best practices, consensus guidelines, and precautions are ignored, elevating the risk...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111407/determinants-of-aortic-size-and-stiffness-and-the-impact-on-exercise-physiology-in-patients-after-the-fontan-operation
#8
Hideo Ohuchi, Yosuke Hayama, Jun Negishi, Kanae Noritake, Aya Miyazaki, Osamu Yamada, Isao Shiraishi
The pathophysiology of congenital heart disease includes aortic dilation and increased stiffness. However, the clinical determinants and significance remain unclear in patients after the Fontan operation.Size and stiffness index (SI) of the ascending and descending aorta (aAO and dAO, respectively) were assessed using angiography in 130 consecutive Fontan patients and 30 age-matched controls. Compared with controls, Fontan patients showed a dilated aAO and smaller dAO (P < 0.0001) with greater SI (3.2 ± 0...
February 7, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104750/gene-networks-in-skeletal-muscle-following-endurance-exercise-are-co-expressed-in-blood-neutrophils-and-linked-with-blood-inflammation-markers
#9
James A Broadbent, Dayle Sampson, Surendran Sabapathy, Luke J Haseler, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Andrew Cameron Bulmer, Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer
It remains incompletely understood whether there is an association between the transcriptome profiles of skeletal muscle and blood leukocytes in response to exercise or other physiological stressors. We have previously analyzed the changes in the muscle and blood neutrophil transcriptome in eight trained men before and 3 h, 48 h and 96 h after 2 h cycling and running. Because we collected muscle and blood in the same individuals and under the same conditions, we were able to directly compare gene expression between the muscle and blood neutrophils...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074412/a-scientific-rationale-to-improve-resistance-training-prescription-in-exercise-oncology
#10
Ciaran M Fairman, Michael C Zourdos, Eric R Helms, Brian C Focht
To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies...
January 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055244/canadian-society-for-exercise-physiology-symposium-on-integrative-physiology-honouring-dr-bengt-saltin-the-use-of-exercise-to-study-integrative-physiology
#11
Coral L Murrant, Maureen J MacDonald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006436/professor-bengt-saltin-symposium-environmental-challenges-to-human-performance
#12
REVIEW
Philip N Ainslie
This short review is from a presentation made at the Bengt Saltin Symposium, October 15-17, at the 2015 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology conference, Hamilton, Canada. The review provides context of the important work of the late Dr. Saltin's contributions to environmental physiology. In addition to well-controlled laboratory experiments to better understand the influence of hypoxia or temperature, or both, Dr. Saltin also led several field expeditions to the North Greenland, Kenya, Himalayas, and the Andes, where he studied several aspects of human adaptation to environment...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006435/linking-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-and-metabolism-to-the-limits-of-human-performance
#13
REVIEW
Robert Boushel
Over the last 50 years, Bengt Saltin's contributions to our understanding of physiology of the circulation, the matching of the circulation to muscle metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms that set the limits for exercise performance were enormous. His research addressed the key questions in the field using sophisticated experimental methods including field expeditions. From the Dallas Bedrest Study to the 1-leg knee model to the physiology of lifelong training, his prodigious body of work was foundational in the field of exercise physiology and his leadership propelled integrative human physiology into the mainstream of biological sciences...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993896/reexamining-cancer-metabolism-lactate-production-for-carcinogenesis-could-be-the-purpose-and-explanation-of-the-warburg-effect
#14
REVIEW
Iñigo San-Millán, George A Brooks
Herein, we use lessons learned in exercise physiology and metabolism to propose that augmented lactate production ('lactagenesis'), initiated by gene mutations, is the reason and purpose of the Warburg Effect and that dysregulated lactate metabolism and signaling are the key elements in carcinogenesis. Lactate-producing ('lactagenic') cancer cells are characterized by increased aerobic glycolysis and excessive lactate formation, a phenomenon described by Otto Warburg 93 years ago, which still remains unexplained...
December 17, 2016: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974872/studies-on-exercise-physiology-and-performance-testing-of-racehorses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1930s-using-recovery-rate-as-an-index
#15
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959640/bengt-saltin-and-exercise-physiology-a-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Michael J Joyner
This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929389/diaphragm-dysfunction-diagnostic-approaches-and-management-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Martin Dres
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle, and its dysfunction can lead to significant adverse clinical consequences. The aim of this review is to provide clinicians with an overview of the main causes of uni- and bi-lateral diaphragm dysfunction, explore the clinical and physiological consequences of the disease on lung function, exercise physiology and sleep and review the available diagnostic tools used in the evaluation of diaphragm function. A particular emphasis is placed on the clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in the intensive care unit setting and the use of ultrasound to evaluate diaphragmatic action...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903779/exercise-physiology-and-sports-science-must-be-considered-in-evolutionary-theories-regarding-human-performance-a-reply-to-postma-2016
#18
James M Smoliga, Gerald S Zavorsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898870/horse-species-symposium-exercise-physiology-of-the-horse
#19
J A Coverdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765846/noninvasive-assessment-of-cardiac-output-by-brachial-occlusion-cuff-technique-comparison-with-the-open-circuit-acetylene-washin-method
#20
Pavol Sajgalik, Vaclav Kremen, Alex R Carlson, Vratislav Fabian, Chul-Ho Kim, Courtney Wheatley, Vaclav Gerla, John A Schirger, Thomas P Olson, Bruce D Johnson
Cardiac output (CO) assessment as a basic hemodynamic parameter has been of interest in exercise physiology, cardiology, and anesthesiology. Noninvasive techniques available are technically challenging, and thus difficult to use outside of a clinical or laboratory setting. We propose a novel method of noninvasive CO assessment using a single, upper-arm cuff. The method uses the arterial pressure pulse wave signal acquired from the brachial artery during 20-s intervals of suprasystolic occlusion. This method was evaluated in a cohort of 12 healthy individuals (age, 27...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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