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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241032/biomimetic-elastomeric-conductive-and-biodegradable-polycitrate-based-nanocomposites-for-guiding-myogenic-differentiation-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#1
Yuzhang Du, Juan Ge, Yannan Li, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Artificial muscle-like biomaterials have gained tremendous interests owing to their broad applications in regenerative medicine, wearable devices, bioelectronics and artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, key challenges are still existed for current materials, including biomimetic viscoelasticity, biocompatibility and biodegradation, multifunctionality. Herein, for the first time, we develop highly elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable poly (citric acid-octanediol-polyethylene glycol)(PCE)-graphene (PCEG) nanocomposites, and demonstrate their applications in myogenic differentiation and guiding skeletal muscle tissue regeneration...
December 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236590/a-novel-nonelectrosurgical-technique-for-incising-the-pylorus-in-laparoscopic-pyloromyotomy
#2
Ziad A Bataineh, Nathan M Novotny
OBJECTIVE: Since the loss of the protected arthrotomy knife several years ago, pediatric surgeons have struggled to find a safe, reliable, and inexpensive way to incise the pyloric serosa before spreading the muscle. The most widely accepted method of cutting the serosa is with electrocautery, although some still question its safety. We introduce a novel technique of incising the serosa with a percutaneously inserted needle without the use of electrocautery. DESCRIPTION: In this case series, we describe the experience of a single surgeon with a novel technique of incising the serosa...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234662/surgical-treatment-of-rectus-femoris-injury-in-soccer-playing-athletes-report-of-two-cases
#3
Leandro Girardi Shimba, Gabriel Carmona Latorre, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Diego Costa Astur, Carlos Vicente Andreoli
Muscle injury is the most common injury during sport practice. It represents 31% of all lesions in soccer, 16% in track and field, 10.4% in rugby, 17.7% in basketball, and between 22% and 46% in American football. The cicatrization with the formation of fibrotic tissue can compromise the muscle function, resulting in a challenging problem for orthopedics. Although conservative treatment presents adequate functional results in the majority of the athletes who have muscle injury, the consequences of treatment failure can be dramatic, possibly compromising the return to sport practice...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231808/abelson-tyrosine-protein-kinase-2-regulates-myoblast-proliferation-and-controls-muscle-fiber-length
#4
Jennifer K Lee, Steven J Burden
Muscle fiber length is nearly uniform within a muscle but widely different among different muscles. We show that Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2 (Abl2) has a key role in regulating myofiber length, as a loss of Abl2 leads to excessively long myofibers in the diaphragm, intercostal and levator auris muscles but not limb muscles. Increased myofiber length is caused by enhanced myoblast proliferation, expanding the pool of myoblasts and leading to increased myoblast fusion. Abl2 acts in myoblasts, but as a consequence of expansion of the diaphragm muscle, the diaphragm central tendon is reduced in size, likely contributing to reduced stamina of Abl2 mutant mice...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#5
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229646/nhe-and-diffusion-dependent-proton-fluxes-across-the-tubular-system-membranes-of-fast-twitch-muscle-fibers-of-the-rat
#6
Bradley S Launikonis, Tanya R Cully, Laszlo Csernoch, D George Stephenson
The complex membrane structure of the tubular system (t-system) in skeletal muscle fibers is open to the extracellular environment, which prevents measurements of H+ movement across its interface with the cytoplasm by conventional methods. Consequently, little is known about the t-system's role in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH, which is different from extracellular pH. Here we describe a novel approach to measure H+-flux measurements across the t-system of fast-twitch fibers under different conditions. The approach involves loading the t-system of intact rat fast-twitch fibers with a strong pH buffer (20 mM HEPES) and pH-sensitive fluorescent probe (10 mM HPTS) before the t-system is sealed off...
December 11, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227993/in-vivo-zebrafish-morphogenesis-shows-cyp26b1-promotes-tendon-condensation-and-musculoskeletal-patterning-in-the-embryonic-jaw
#7
Patrick D McGurk, Mary E Swartz, Jessica W Chen, Jenna L Galloway, Johann K Eberhart
Integrated development of diverse tissues gives rise to a functional, mobile vertebrate musculoskeletal system. However, the genetics and cellular interactions that drive the integration of muscle, tendon, and skeleton are poorly understood. In the vertebrate head, neural crest cells, from which cranial tendons derive, pattern developing muscles just as tendons have been shown to in limb and trunk tissue, yet the mechanisms of this patterning are unknown. From a forward genetic screen, we determined that cyp26b1 is critical for musculoskeletal integration in the ventral pharyngeal arches, particularly in the mandibulohyoid junction where first and second arch muscles interconnect...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225211/changes-in-foxo-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-late-stage-of-immobilized-fast-and-slow-muscle-atrophy
#8
Takeshi Okamoto, Shuichi Machida
The present study aimed to examine the changes in the expression of Forkhead box protein O (FOXO) and proinflammatory cytokines in both slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles following cast immobilization. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cast immobilization for 7 and 21 days. Cast immobilization increased FOXO3a mRNA and total protein expression in both the soleus and plantaris muscles. Although FOXO3a phosphorylation tended to increase in response to cast immobilization in both muscles, a significant increase was evident after 21 days of immobilization only in the soleus muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223824/correlating-motor-unit-morphology-with-bioelectrical-activity-a-simulation-study
#9
Ewa Zalewska, Irena Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine motor unit morphology underpinning the various MUP waveforms using MUP analysis. METHOD: The simulation method is based on the decomposition of MUP into single fiber potentials. Number of fibers, fiber diameters and fiber to electrode distances were determined. The impact of each muscle fiber on the MUP waveform was determined and quantified by its percentage contribution. RESULTS: The origin of the four examined MUPs of distinct waveforms have been explained by showing the histograms of fiber diameters and their distance to the electrode...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219186/improved-adductor-function-after-canine-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-injury-and-repair-using-muscle-progenitor-cells
#10
Randal C Paniello, Sarah Brookes, Neel K Bhatt, Khadijeh Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Hongji Zhang, Stacey Halum
OBJECTIVE: Muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) can be isolated from muscle samples and grown to a critical mass in culture. They have been shown to survive and integrate when implanted into rat laryngeal muscles. In this study, the ability of MPC implants to enhance adductor function of reinnervated thyroarytenoid muscles was tested in a canine model. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Sternocleidomastoid muscle samples were harvested from three canines...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217665/critical-determinants-of-combined-sprint-and-endurance-performance-an-integrative-analysis-from-muscle-fiber-to-the-human-body
#11
Stephan van der Zwaard, Willem J van der Laarse, Guido Weide, Frank W Bloemers, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Koen Levels, Dionne A Noordhof, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Optimizing physical performance is a major goal in current physiology. However, basic understanding of combining high sprint and endurance performance is currently lacking. This study identifies critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance using multiple regression analyses of physiologic determinants at different biologic levels. Cyclists, including 6 international sprint, 8 team pursuit, and 14 road cyclists, completed a Wingate test and 15-km time trial to obtain sprint and endurance performance results, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213017/topographical-anatomy-of-the-pronator-teres-muscle-and-median-nerve-a-study-using-histological-sections-of-human-fetuses
#12
Shinichi Abe, Naomitsu Tomita, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
The median nerve passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle (PT), although variations such as absence of the ulnar head may exist. We observed histological sections of the upper extremity from 24 embryos and fetuses. In the early stage, the PT extended between the radius and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, but no candidate for the ulnar head was found. In mid-term fetuses, the ulnar margin of the PT was attached to the elbow joint capsule. Moreover, in late-stage fetuses, a small deep part of the PT arose from the thick joint capsule of the humero-ulnar joint near the coronoid process of the ulna...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212890/starring-or-supporting-role-satellite-cells-and-skeletal-muscle-fiber-size-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Kevin A Murach, Christopher S Fry, Tyler J Kirby, Janna R Jackson, Jonah D Lee, Sarah H White, Esther E Dupont-Versteegden, John J McCarthy, Charlotte A Peterson
Recent loss-of-function studies show that satellite cell depletion does not promote sarcopenia or unloading-induced atrophy, and does not prevent regrowth. Although overload-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy is normally associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion, hypertrophic adaptation proceeds in the absence of satellite cells in fully grown adult mice, but not in young growing mice. Emerging evidence also indicates that satellite cells play an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix during hypertrophy...
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212849/trim63-murf-1-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-biomarkers-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#14
Philipp Baumert, Mark J Lake, Barry Drust, Claire Stewart, Robert M Erskine
Unaccustomed strenuous exercise can lead to muscle strength loss, inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated if a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (A>G, rs2275950) within the TRIM63 gene (encoding MuRF-1 and potentially affecting titin mechanical properties) was associated with the variable response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Sixty-five untrained, healthy participants (genotyped for rs2275950: AA, AG and GG) performed 120 maximal eccentric knee extensions (ECC) to induce muscle damage...
December 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212003/soce-is-important-for-maintaining-sarcoplasmic-calcium-content-and-release-in-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#15
Mónika Sztretye, Nikolett Geyer, János Vincze, Dána Al-Gaadi, Tamás Oláh, Péter Szentesi, Gréta Kis, Miklós Antal, Ildikó Balatoni, László Csernoch, Beatrix Dienes
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a Ca2+-entry process activated by the depletion of intracellular stores and has an important role in many cell types. In skeletal muscle, however, its role during physiological muscle activation has been controversial. To address this question, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release in a mouse strain with a naturally occurring mutation in the myostatin gene (Compact (Cmpt)) leading to a hypermuscular yet reduced muscle-force phenotype was compared to that in wild-type mice...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211883/carcass-characteristics-meat-quality-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-wild-living-mallards-anas-platyrhynchos-l
#16
P Janiszewski, D Murawska, V Hanzal, M Gesek, D Michalik, M Zawacka
The aim of this study was to determine the carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of wild-living mallards. The experimental materials comprised 30 mallards (1:1 sex ratio) harvested during the hunting season in northeastern Poland. The carcasses were transported to the laboratory where they were weighed individually, plucked, dressed, and dissected. The proximate chemical composition and physicochemical properties of meat and the fatty acid profile of breast muscle lipids were determined, and a histological analysis was performed...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210643/adipokines-and-myokines-a-pivotal-role-in-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-disorders
#17
Hye Soo Chung, Kyung Mook Choi
Obesity induces an imbalance in the expression and secretion of several cytokines, which contributes to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. On the contrary, skeletal muscle is known to have a role in reversing the detrimental impact of obesity. It has been established that adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that secretes proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines. Similarly, skeletal muscle produces secretory molecules, called myokines, from contracting muscle fibers. Myokines were recently recognized as beneficial modulators of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207687/variation-in-morphometry-of-vastus-medialis-muscle
#18
Hina B Rajput, Sangeeta J Rajani, Vasant H Vaniya
Introduction: The Vastus Medialis (VM) muscle divides into two parts, proximal Vastus Medialis Longus (VML) and distal Vastus Medialis Obliquus (VMO). The VMO originates from the tendon of adductor magnus and insert into the medial border of patella and these fibers are nearly horizontal. It exerts medial force vector to counter the lateral force vector of Vastus Lateralis (VL) hence the VM presents a biomechanical advantage over the VL. The functional importance of VML and VMO is well explained but the anatomical evidence of separate identity of VMO is lacking...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206970/thrombospondin-1-and-disease-progression-in-dysferlinopathy
#19
Norifumi Urao, Rita E Mirza, Thomas F Corbiere, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Christoph H Borchers, Timothy J Koh
The purpose of this study was to determine whether thrombospondin (TSP)-1 promotes macrophage activity and disease progression in dysferlinopathy. First, we found that levels of TSP-1 are elevated in blood of non-ambulant dysferlinopathy patients compared with ambulant patients and healthy controls, supporting the idea that TSP-1 levels are correlated with disease progression. We then crossed dysferlinopathic BlaJ mice with TSP-1 knockout mice and assessed disease progression longitudinally with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206782/muscle-fiber-and-performance-changes-after-fast-eccentric-complex-training
#20
Gregory C Bogdanis, Athanasios Tsoukos, Lee E Brown, Elisavet Selima, Panagiotis Veligekas, Konstantinos Spengos, Gerasimos Terzis
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term fast eccentric and ballistic complex training program on muscle power, rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber composition and cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Sixteen male physical education students were randomly assigned to either a training group (TG, n=8) or a control group (C, n=8). The TG followed a 6-week low volume training program, including fast eccentric squat training with an individually optimized load of 74±7% of maximal half-squat strength (1RM) twice per week and a ballistic training session with loaded (30% 1RM) and unloaded jump squats, once per week, all combined with unloaded plyometric jumps...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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