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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451212/is-it-necessary-to-use-the-entire-root-as-a-donor-when-transferring-contralateral-c-7-nerve-to-repair-median-nerve
#1
Kai-Ming Gao, Jie Lao, Wen-Jie Guan, Jing-Jing Hu
If a partial contralateral C 7 nerve is transferred to a recipient injured nerve, results are not satisfactory. However, if an entire contralateral C 7 nerve is used to repair two nerves, both recipient nerves show good recovery. These findings seem contradictory, as the above two methods use the same donor nerve, only the cutting method of the contralateral C 7 nerve is different. To verify whether this can actually result in different repair effects, we divided rats with right total brachial plexus injury into three groups...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#2
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451150/identification-of-seven-novel-mutations-in-the-acid-alpha-glucosidase-gene-in-five-chinese-patients-with-late-onset-pompe-disease
#3
Hua-Xu Liu, Chuan-Qiang Pu, Qiang Shi, Yu-Tong Zhang, Rui Ban
Background: Pompe disease is a rare lysosomal glycogen storage disorder linked to the acid alpha-glucosidase gene (GAA). A wide clinical and genetic variability exists between patients from different ethnic populations, and the genotype-phenotype correlations are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathological and genetic characteristics of five Chinese patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) who carried novel GAA gene mutations. Methods: Clinical and pathological data of patients diagnosed with glycogen storage disease at our institution from April 1986 to August 2017 were collected, and next-generation sequencing of frozen muscle specimens was conducted...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451120/an-in-silico-framework-to-analyze-the-anisotropic-shear-wave-mechanics-in-cardiac-shear-wave-elastography
#4
Annette Caenen, Mathieu Pernot, Mathias Peirlinck, Luc Mertens, Abigail Swillens, Patrick Segers
Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a potential tool to non-invasively assess cardiac muscle stiffness. This study focused on the effect of the orthotropic material properties and mechanical loading on the performance of cardiac SWE, as it is known that these factors contribute to complex 3D anisotropic shear wave propagation. To investigate the specific impact of these complexities, we constructed a finite element model with an orthotropic material law subjected to different uniaxial stretches to simulate SWE in the stressed cardiac wall...
February 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#5
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447083/in-complete-sci-patients-long-term-functional-electrical-stimulation-of-permanent-denervated-muscles-increases-epidermis-thickness
#6
Giovanna Albertin, Christian Hofer, Sandra Zampieri, Michael Vogelauer, Stefan Löfler, Barbara Ravara, Diego Guidolin, Caterina Fede, Damiana Incendi, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro, Alfonc Baba, Andrea Marcante, Francesco Piccione, Paolo Gargiulo, Amber Pond, Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern
Our studies have shown that atrophic Quadriceps muscles from spinal cord injury patients suffering with permanent denervation-induced atrophy and degeneration of muscle fibers, were almost completely rescued to normal size after two years of home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-bFES). Because we used surface electrodes to stimulate the muscle, we wanted to know how the skin was affected by the treatments. Here, we report preliminary data from histological morphometry of Hematoxylin-Eosin-stained paraffin-embedded skin sections harvested from the legs of three SCI patients before and after two years of h-bFES...
February 15, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446146/crispr-cas9-mediated-mstn-disruption-and-heritable-mutagenesis-in-goats-causes-increased-body-mass
#7
X Wang, Y Niu, J Zhou, H Zhu, B Ma, H Yu, H Yan, J Hua, X Huang, L Qu, Y Chen
Genetic engineering in livestock has been greatly enhanced through the use of artificial programmed nucleases such as the recently emerged clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system. We recently reported our successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to engineer the goat genome through micro-injection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting MSTN and FGF5 in goat embryos. The phenotypes induced by edited loss-of-function mutations of MSTN remain to be evaluated extensively...
February 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444710/a-novel-in-vitro-model-for-the-assessment-of-postnatal-myonuclear-accretion
#8
Anita Kneppers, Lex Verdijk, Chiel de Theije, Mark Corten, Ellis Gielen, Luc van Loon, Annemie Schols, Ramon Langen
BACKGROUND: Due to the post-mitotic nature of myonuclei, postnatal myogenesis is essential for skeletal muscle growth, repair, and regeneration. This process is facilitated by satellite cells through proliferation, differentiation, and subsequent fusion with a pre-existing muscle fiber (i.e., myonuclear accretion). Current knowledge of myogenesis is primarily based on the in vitro formation of syncytia from myoblasts, which represents aspects of developmental myogenesis, but may incompletely portray postnatal myogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444631/accumulation-of-laforin-and-other-related-proteins-in-canine-lafora-disease-with-epm2b-repeat-expansion
#9
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443878/skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-the-emerging-role-of-spermine-oxidase-and-spermidine
#10
REVIEW
Manuela Cervelli, Alessia Leonetti, Guglielmo Duranti, Stefania Sabatini, Roberta Ceci, Paolo Mariottini
Skeletal muscle comprises approximately 40% of the total body mass. Preserving muscle health and function is essential for the entire body in order to counteract chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Prolonged physical inactivity, particularly among the elderly, causes muscle atrophy, a pathological state with adverse outcomes such as poor quality of life, physical disability, and high mortality. In murine skeletal muscle C2C12 cells, increased expression of the spermine oxidase (SMOX) enzyme has been found during cell differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440993/increasing-agrin-function-antagonizes-muscle-atrophy-and-motor-impairment-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Marina Boido, Elena De Amicis, Valeria Valsecchi, Marco Trevisan, Ugo Ala, Markus A Ruegg, Stefan Hettwer, Alessandro Vercelli
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a pediatric genetic disease, characterized by motor neuron (MN) death, leading to progressive muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and, in the most severe cases, to death. Abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) have been reported in SMA, including neurofilament (NF) accumulation at presynaptic terminals, immature and smaller than normal endplates, reduced transmitter release, and, finally, muscle denervation. Here we have studied the role of agrin in SMAΔ7 mice, the experimental model of SMAII...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438907/tongue-exercise-and-ageing-effects-on-morphological-and-biochemical-properties-of-the-posterior-digastric-and-temporalis-muscles-in-a-fischer-344-brown-norway-rat-model
#12
Brittany N Krekeler, Glen Leverson, Nadine P Connor
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examin effects of age and tongue exercise on the posterior digastric (opener) and the temporalis (closer). We hypothesized 1) age would result in differing morphological (cross sectional area) and biochemical (myosin heavy chain isoform) components of these muscles; 2) tongue exercise would result in coactivation of these muscles inducing a decrease in age-related differences between age groups. DESIGN: Young adult (9 months) and old (32 months) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomized into a tongue exercise or control group...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431032/decellularized-muscle-supports-new-muscle-fibers-and-improves-function-following-volumetric-injury
#13
Michael James McClure, David Josh Cohen, Allison N Ramey, Caroline B Bivens, Satya Mallu, Jonathan E Isaacs, Emily Imming, Yen-Chen Huang, MoonHae Sunwoo, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara Boyan
Current strategies to treat volumetric muscle loss use primarily pedicle or free muscle transfers, but these grafts fail to adequately regenerate functional tissue. Decellularized soft tissue grafts possess physical and chemical cues to promote muscle regeneration, suggesting their potential for use in large muscle defects. In this study, we developed a decellularized muscle matrix (DMM) graft using rat gastrocnemius. Anisotropy and chemical components of the extracellular matrix were retained, including laminin, fibronectin, and collagen...
February 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430446/models-of-disuse-muscle-atrophy-therapeutic-implications-in-critically-ill-patients
#14
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424054/chitin-biological-absorbable-catheters-bridging-sural-nerve-grafts-transplanted-into-sciatic-nerve-defects-promote-nerve-regeneration
#15
Zhi-Yong Wang, Jian-Wei Wang, Li-Hua Qin, Wei-Guang Zhang, Pei-Xun Zhang, Bao-Guo Jiang
AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. METHODS: A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery...
February 8, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422607/skeletal-myosin-binding-protein-c-isoforms-regulate-thin-filament-activity-in-a-ca2-dependent-manner
#16
Brian Leei Lin, Amy Li, Ji Young Mun, Michael J Previs, Samantha Beck Previs, Stuart G Campbell, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Pieter de P Tombe, Roger Craig, David M Warshaw, Sakthivel Sadayappan
Muscle contraction, which is initiated by Ca2+, results in precise sliding of myosin-based thick and actin-based thin filament contractile proteins. The interactions between myosin and actin are finely tuned by three isoforms of myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C): slow-skeletal, fast-skeletal, and cardiac (ssMyBP-C, fsMyBP-C and cMyBP-C, respectively), each with distinct N-terminal regulatory regions. The skeletal MyBP-C isoforms are conditionally coexpressed in cardiac muscle, but little is known about their function...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421431/introducing-autoimmunity-at-the-synapse-by-a-novel-animal-model-of-experimental-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis
#17
REVIEW
Jianwen Wang, Yatao Xiao, Kejing Zhang, Benyan Luo, Chengyong Shen
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a peripheral synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers that controls muscle contraction. The NMJ is the target of various disorders including myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disease in which auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) attack the synapse, and thus cause muscle weakness in patients. There are multiple auto-Abs in the MG patient sera, but not all the Abs are proven to be pathogenic, which increases the difficulties in clinical diagnoses and treatments. To establish the causative roles of auto-Abs in MG pathogenesis, the experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG) induced by the active immunization of auto-antigens (auto-Ags) or the passive transfer of auto-Abs is required...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420990/potential-roles-of-vitamin-e-in-age-related-changes-in-skeletal-muscle-health
#18
REVIEW
Eunhee Chung, Huanbiao Mo, Shu Wang, Yujiao Zu, Manal Elfakhani, Steven R Rios, Ming-Chien Chyu, Rong-Sen Yang, Chwan-Li Shen
Skeletal muscle disorders including sarcopenia are prevalent during the complex biological process of aging. Loss of muscle mass and strength commonly seen in sarcopenia is induced by impaired neuromuscular innervation, transition of skeletal muscle fiber type, and reduced muscle regenerative capacity, all attributable to chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Current literature suggests that vitamin E molecules (α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and the corresponding tocotrienols) with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities may mitigate age-associated skeletal dysfunction and enhance muscle regeneration, thus attenuating sarcopenia...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418121/mouse-hind-limb-skeletal-muscle-functional-adaptation-in-a-simulated-fine-branch-arboreal-habitat
#19
Joseph E Rupert, J Ethan Joll, Wiaam Y Elkhatib, Jason M Organ
The musculoskeletal system is remarkably plastic during growth. The purpose of this study was to examine the muscular plasticity in functional and structural properties in a model known to result in significant developmental plasticity of the postcranial skeleton. Fifteen weanling C57BL/6 mice were raised to 16 weeks of age in one of two enclosures: a climbing enclosure that simulates a fine branch arboreal habitat and is traversed by steel wires crossing at 45° relative to horizontal at multiple intersections, and a control enclosure that resembles a parking deck with no wires but the same volume of habitable space...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418119/leg-muscle-architecture-in-primates-and-its-correlation-with-locomotion-patterns
#20
Damiano Marchi, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor, Adam Hartstone-Rose
Bone biomechanical studies indicate that leg bone structure can be related to different locomotor patterns. The osteological correlates of extant primates' locomotion patterns and substrate use are important to consider when estimating corresponding behaviors of extinct primates. Here, we test if these same patterns are seen in the differences in leg muscular architecture. Muscle mass, fascicle lengths (FL), physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), reduced PCSA (RPCSA) and tendon-to-muscle belly ratio were studied in 33 primate species (6 strepsirrhines, 14 platyrrhines and 13 catarrhines)...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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