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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#1
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645314/neuromuscular-function-during-knee-extension-exercise-after-cold-water-immersion
#2
Hitoshi Wakabayashi, Titis Wijayanto, Yutaka Tochihara
BACKGROUND: Human adaptability to cold environment has been focused on in the physiological anthropology and related research area. Concerning the human acclimatization process in the natural climate, it is necessary to conduct a research assessing comprehensive effect of cold environment and physical activities in cold. This study investigated the effect of cold water immersion on the exercise performance and neuromuscular function during maximal and submaximal isometric knee extension...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641075/postconditioning-with-intralipid-emulsion-protects-against-reperfusion-injury-in-postinfarct-remodeled-rat-hearts-by-activation-of-ros-akt-erk-signaling
#3
Michael Zaugg, Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, Manoj Gandhi, Alexander S Clanachan
The clinically used lipid emulsion Intralipid (ILE) reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in healthy rodent hearts. We tested whether ILE is cardioprotective in postinfarct remodeled hearts. Postinfarct remodeled and sham Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were perfused in working mode and subjected to ischemia (15 minutes) and reperfusion (30 minutes). Left ventricular (LV) work was measured in hearts that were untreated or that received ILE (1%) postconditioning administered at the onset of reperfusion, or the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (10 μM) alone or in combination with ILE...
June 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638346/micrornas-in-muscle-characterizing-the-powerlifter-phenotype
#4
Randall F D'Souza, Thomas Bjørnsen, Nina Zeng, Kirsten M M Aasen, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#5
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634270/making-muscle-skeletal-myogenesis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#6
REVIEW
Jérome Chal, Olivier Pourquié
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body and loss of its function or its regenerative properties results in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders. Understanding the mechanisms that drive skeletal muscle formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of skeletal muscle diseases, but also provide a roadmap for recapitulating skeletal myogenesis in vitro from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). PSCs have become an important tool for probing developmental questions, while differentiated cell types allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625916/er-stress-disturbs-sr-er-mitochondria-ca-2-transfer-implications-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#7
Marion Pauly, Claire Angebault-Prouteau, Haikel Dridi, Cécile Notarnicola, Valérie Scheuermann, Alain Lacampagne, Stefan Matecki, Jérémy Fauconnier
Besides its role in calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, the sarco-endoplamic reticulum (SR/ER) controls protein folding and is tethered to mitochondria.Under pathophysiological conditions the unfolded protein response (UPR) is associated with disturbance in SR/ER-mitochondria crosstalk. Here, we investigated whether ER stress altered SR/ER-mitochondria links, Ca(2+) handling and muscle damage in WT (Wild Type) and mdx mice, the murine model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). In WT mice, the SR/ER-mitochondria links were decreased in isolated FDB muscle fibers after injection of ER stress activator tunicamycin (TM)...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624465/muscle-pathology-in-vici-syndrome-a-case-study-with-a-novel-mutation-in-epg5-and-a-summary-of-the-literature
#8
Carola Hedberg-Oldfors, Niklas Darin, Anders Oldfors
Vici syndrome is a disorder characterized by myopathy, cardiomyopathy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, immunodeficiency, cataracts, hypopigmentation, microcephaly, gross developmental delay and failure to thrive. It is caused by mutations in EPG5, which encodes a protein involved in the autophagy pathway. Although myopathy is part of the syndrome, few publications have described the muscle pathology. We present a detailed morphological analysis in a boy with Vici syndrome due to a novel homozygous one-base deletion in EPG5 (c...
May 8, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623422/effects-of-omega-3-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-myoblast-transplantation-and-satellite-cell-activation-in-dystrophin-deficient-muscle-fibers
#9
Samara Camaçari de Carvalho, Sajedah M Hindi, Ashok Kumar, Maria Julia Marques
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), lack of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration, with DMD patients suffering from cardiorespiratory failure. Cell therapy is an alternative to life-long corticoid therapy. Satellite cells, the stem cells of skeletal muscles, do not completely compensate for the muscle damage in dystrophic muscles. Elevated levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, such as metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), impair muscle regeneration, leading to extensive fibrosis and poor results with myoblast transplantation therapies...
June 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#10
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620932/fiber-type-composition-of-the-palmaris-brevis-muscle-implications-for-palmar-function
#11
Colin W Moore, Tyler S Beveridge, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small muscle of variant morphology located on the ulnar aspect of the palm, superficial to the hypothenar eminence. Functionally, the PB has been proposed to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal from compressive forces during repetitive or intermittent trauma associated with grasping. Although PB function has been inferred from cadaveric observations, it is unknown whether it has the contractile capacity and fatigue-resistance necessary to withstand these functional demands...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618254/platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-influences-muscle-regeneration-in-duchenne-muscle-dystrophy
#12
Patricia Piñol-Jurado, Eduard Gallardo, Noemi de Luna, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Carles Sánchez-Riera, Esther Fernández-Simón, Clara Gomis, Isabel Illa, Jordi Díaz-Manera
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle fibers, and their substitution by fibrotic and adipose tissue. Many factors contribute to this process, but the molecular pathways related to regeneration and degeneration of muscle are not completely known. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB belongs to a family of growth factors that regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. The role of PDGF-BB in muscle regeneration in humans has not been studied...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617969/conditionally-targeted-deletion-of-psen1-leads-to-diastolic-heart-dysfunction
#13
Xiao-Wei Song, Qing-Ning Yuan, Ying Tang, Mi Cao, Ya-Feng Shen, Zhen-Yu Zeng, Chang-Hai Lei, SongHua Li, Xian-Xian Zhao, Yong-Ji Yang
Recently, PSEN1 has been reported to have mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy pedigrees. However, the function and mechanism of PSEN1 in cardiomyopathy remains unresolved. Here, we established 4 types of genetically modified mice to determine the function of PSEN1 in cardiac development and pathology. PSEN1 null mutation resulted in perinatal death, retardation of heart growth, ventricular dilatation, septum defects, and valvular thickening. PSEN1 knockout in adults led to decreased muscle fibers, widened sarcomere Z lines and reduced lengths of sarcomeres in cardiomyocytes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617826/cf2-transcription-factor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mef2-rna-levels-nuclei-number-and-muscle-fiber-size
#14
Juan J Arredondo, Jorge Vivar, Sara Laine-Menéndez, Leticia Martínez-Morentin, Margarita Cervera
CF2 and Mef2 influence a variety of developmental muscle processes at distinct stages of development. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the CF2-Mef2 relationship and its effects on muscle building remain yet to be resolved. Here, we explored the regulatory role of CF2 in the Drosophila embryo muscle formation. To address this question and not having proper null CF2 mutants we exploited loss or gain of function strategies to study the contribution of CF2 to Mef2 transcription regulation and to muscle formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617704/greater-oxidative-capacity-in-primary-myotubes-from-endurance-trained-women
#15
Timothy D Heden, Terence E Ryan, Patrick J Ferrara, Robert C Hickner, Patricia M Brophy, P Darrell Neufer, Joseph M McClung, Katsuhiko Funai
PURPOSE: Exercise training promotes skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. Primary myotubes retain some metabolic properties observed in vivo but it is unknown whether this includes exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. The goal of this study was to test if primary myotubes from exercise-trained women have higher mitochondrial content and maximal oxygen consumption compared to untrained women. METHODS: Six trained and nine untrained Caucasian women participated in this study...
June 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616376/genome-editing-and-muscle-stem-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-muscular-dystrophies
#16
REVIEW
Veronica Pini, Jennifer E Morgan, Francesco Muntoni, Helen C O'Neill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscular dystrophies are a group of severe degenerative disorders characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and death. Therapies designed to restore muscle homeostasis and to replace dying fibers are being experimented, but none of those in clinical trials are suitable to permanently address individual gene mutation. The purpose of this review is to discuss genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which enable direct sequence alteration and could potentially be adopted to correct the genetic defect leading to muscle impairment...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614723/single-muscle-fiber-proteomics-reveals-fiber-type-specific-features-of-human-muscle-aging
#17
Marta Murgia, Luana Toniolo, Nagarjuna Nagaraj, Stefano Ciciliot, Vincenzo Vindigni, Stefano Schiaffino, Carlo Reggiani, Matthias Mann
Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612422/tenonplasty-for-closing-defects-during-sclerocorneal-surgery-a-brief-review-of-its-anatomy-and-clinical-applications
#18
Fabian N Fries, Shady Suffo, Loay Daas, Berthold Seitz, Miltiadis Fiorentzis, Arne Viestenz
PURPOSE: To provide insight into the clinical anatomy of Tenon's capsule and to describe a technique to manage sclerocorneal defects using autologous Tenon's tissue. METHODS: A thin layer of Tenon's capsule harvested from the patient's own eye is used to seal the defect and act as a scaffold. The Tenon's flap is spread over the defect and held in place by Vicryl sutures. A bandage contact lens is then placed on the eye. RESULTS: Tenon's capsule is composed of thick fibrous tissue with smooth muscle fibers and a thin posterior capsule of orbital fat...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609139/evidence-and-role-of-phlebitis-and-lipid-infiltration-in-the-onset-and-pathogenesis-of-wooden-breast-disease-in-modern-broiler-chickens
#19
Michael Babak Papah, Erin Brannick, Carl J Schmidt, Behnam Abasht
Wooden Breast Disease (WBD), a myopathy that frequently affects modern broiler chickens, is a disorder that has been associated with significant economic losses in the poultry industry. To examine tissue changes associated with the onset and early pathogenesis of this disorder, a time-series experiment was conducted using chickens from a high-breast-muscle-yield, purebred commercial broiler line. Birds were raised for up to seven weeks, with a subset of birds sampled weekly. Breast muscle tissues were extracted at necropsy and processed for analysis by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
June 13, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607408/differences-in-pharmacodynamic-responses-to-rocuronium-in-normal-or-injured-orbicularis-oris-are-associated-with-expression-of-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits
#20
Yong Huang, Yian Xing, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
Previous research has indicated that differences in sensitivities to muscle relaxants exist between facial nerve- and somatic nerve-innervated muscles. Here, we report that the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for rocuronium were significantly larger in the normal orbicularis oris than those in the gastrocnemius. Increased IC50 values and reduced twitch tension were observed after facial nerve injury. The normal orbicularis oris had a smaller muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a larger ratio of endplate surface area (ESA) to muscle fiber CSA (ESA/CSA), but no difference was found in the density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits on endplates between normal orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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