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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545163/coccygeal-body-revisited-an-immunohistochemical-study-using-donated-elderly-cadavers
#1
Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Masahito Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi Abe
To describe the normal anatomy and histology of the adult coccygeal body (CB) and to discuss about the origin and function. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 29 CBs found in 32 elderly donated cadavers without macroscopic pathology in the pelvis. The CB was usually located in or near the anococcygeal ligaments. It was almost always composed of multiple masses or nodules of round glomus cells (smooth muscle actin, or SMA++). However, the CB sometimes contained abundant dilated veins with scattered glomus cells...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544348/galectin-1-promotes-an-m2-macrophage-response-to-polydioxanone-scaffolds
#2
Daniel Abebayehu, Andrew Spence, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz, John J Ryan, Michael J McClure
Regulating soft tissue repair to prevent fibrosis and promote regeneration is central to creating a microenvironment conducive to soft tissue development. Macrophages play an important role in this process. Their response can be modulated using biomaterials, altering cytokine and growth factor secretion to promote regeneration. Electrospun polydioxanone (PDO) fiber scaffolds promoted an M2 phenotype when macrophages were cultured on large diameter, highly porous scaffolds, but an M1 phenotype on smaller diameter fibers...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544170/hamstring-injury-prevention-in-soccer-before-or-after-training
#3
Ric Lovell, Michael Knox, Matthew Weston, Jason C Siegler, Scott Brennan, Paul W M Marshall
We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into 3 groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHEBEF ; n=10) or after (NHEAFT ; n=14) bi-weekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s(-1) ...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542067/grb2-associated-binder-1-is-required-for-extrafusal-and-intrafusal-muscle-fiber-development
#4
So Y Park, So Y Jang, Yoon K Shin, Byeol A Yoon, Hye J Lee, Hwan T Park
The neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the peripheral neuromuscular system, including in muscle spindle and postnatal myelination. We previously showed that NRG1 on the axonal membrane regulates peripheral nerve myelination through Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), a scaffolding mediator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Here, we determined the role of Gab1 in the development of muscles and the muscle spindle using muscle-specific conditional Gab1 knockout mice...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540413/a-recessive-mutation-in-beta-iv-spectrin-sptbn4-associates-with-congenital-myopathy-neuropathy-and-central-deafness
#5
Ellen Knierim, Esther Gill, Franziska Seifert, Susanne Morales-Gonzalez, Sathya D Unudurthi, Thomas J Hund, Werner Stenzel, Markus Schuelke
Congenital myopathies are a heterogeneous group of muscle disorders that are often genetically determined. Here, we investigated a boy with congenital myopathy, deafness, and neuropathy from a consanguineous Kurdish family by autozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. We found a homozygous nonsense mutation in SPTBN4 [c.1597C>T, NM_020971.2; p.(Q533*), NP_066022.2; ClinVar SUB2292235] encoding βIV-spectrin, a non-erythrocytic member of the β-spectrin family. Western blot confirmed the absence of the full-length 288 kDa isoform in muscle and of a specific 72 kDa isoform in fibroblasts...
May 24, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539892/the-cross-education-phenomenon-brain-and-beyond
#6
Ashlee M Hendy, Séverine Lamon
Objectives: Unilateral resistance training produces strength gains in the untrained homologous muscle group, an effect termed "cross-education." The observed strength transfer has traditionally been considered a phenomenon of the nervous system, with few studies examining the contribution of factors beyond the brain and spinal cord. In this hypothesis and theory article, we aim to discuss further evidence for structural and functional adaptations occurring within the nervous, muscle, and endocrine systems in response to unilateral resistance training...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539858/relationship-between-proxies-for-type-ii-fiber-type-and-resting-blood-pressure-in-division-i-american-football-athletes
#7
Christopher A DiCesare, James R Adams, Randal P Claytor, Rose M Ward, Ronald H Cox
OBJECTIVE: The risk for cardiovascular disease is well-documented. Perhaps surprisingly, specific athletic populations, including American football players, exhibit increased risk for cardiovascular disease as presented by elevated blood pressure. There is evidence suggesting a link between muscle fiber type distribution and resting blood pressure. Acknowledging this association, it becomes important to clarify an individual's risk for developing cardiovascular disease later in adulthood...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539306/sarcomere-mechanics-in-striated-muscles-from-molecules-to-sarcomeres-to-cells
#8
Dilson E Rassier
Muscle contraction is commonly associated with the cross-bridge and sliding filament theories, which have received strong support from experiments conducted over the years in different laboratories. However, there are studies that cannot be readily explained by the theories, showing (i) a plateau of the force-length relation extended beyond optimal filament overlap, and forces produced at long sarcomere lengths that are higher than those predicted by the sliding filament theory, (ii) passive forces at long sarcomere lengths that can be modulated by activation and Ca(2+), which changes the force-length relation, and (iii) an unexplained high force produced during and after stretch of activated muscle fibers...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538876/combination-therapy-with-butyrate-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-for-keloid-fibrogenesis-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Kazuhiro Torii, Noriaki Maeshige, Michiko Aoyama-Ishikawa, Makoto Miyoshi, Hiroto Terashi, Makoto Usami
Background: A single, effective therapeutic regimen for keloids has not been established yet, and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is expected. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, play multiple anti-inflammatory and anticancer roles via their respective mechanisms of action. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the antifibrogenic effects of their single and combined use on keloid fibroblasts...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538579/the-split-pectoralis-flap-combining-the-benefits-of-pectoralis-major-advancement-and-turnover-techniques-in-one-flap
#10
Rodger H Brown, Safa E Sharabi, Katarzyna E Kania, Larry H Hollier, Shayan A Izaddoost
BACKGROUND: The pectoralis major is a versatile flap used as an advancement or turnover flap for sternal wound treatment. The advancement flap provides suboptimal inferior sternal coverage and poorly fills mediastinal dead space. The turnover flap covers the inferior sternum and fills dead space but requires disinsertion of the muscle from the humerus, resulting in functional loss and cosmetic deformity. METHODS: The authors describe a new technique of splitting the pectoralis muscle along its fibers, using the superior portion as an advancement flap and the inferior portion as a turnover flap...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538438/differential-regulation-of-the-autophagy-and-proteasome-pathways-in-skeletal-muscles-in-sepsis
#11
Flavia Stana, Marija Vujovic, Dominique Mayaki, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Philippe Leblanc, Laurent Huck, Sabah N A Hussain
OBJECTIVES: Skeletal muscle fiber atrophy develops in response to severe sepsis, but it is unclear as to how the proteolytic pathways that are involved in its development are differentially regulated. We investigated the link between sepsis-induced fiber atrophy and activation of the proteasome and autophagy pathways and whether the degree of activation is more severe and sustained in limb muscles than it is in the diaphragm. DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment...
May 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537843/activity-of-periscapular-muscles-and-its-correlation-with-external-oblique-during-push-up-does-scapular-dyskinesis-change-the-electromyographic-response
#12
Rodrigo Cappatode de Araújo, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, Natália Barros Beltrão, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui
Scapular dyskinesis is the term used to describe changes in the positioning or movement of the scapula. Such dysfunction is associated with changes in the activation of the scapular muscles. However, the influence of the axial muscles on the scapular muscles activity of subjects with scapular dyskinesis is unknown. This study aimed to compare the electromyography (EMG) activity of periscapular muscles and its correlation with the external oblique muscle during the execution of push-up performed in different surfaces, in volunteers with and without scapular dyskinesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536183/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-contributes-to-sarcopenia-and-lower-muscle-glycolytic-potential-in-old-mice
#13
Marin Jane McBride, Kevin P Foley, Donna M D'souza, Yujin E Li, Trevor C Lau, Thomas J Hawke, Jonathan D Schertzer
The mechanisms underpinning decreased skeletal muscle strength and slowing of movement during aging are ill-defined. "Inflammaging" - increased inflammation with advancing age - may contribute to aspects of sarcopenia, but little is known about the participatory immune components. We discovered that aging was associated with increased caspase-1 activity in mouse skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the caspase-1 containing NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to sarcopenia in mice. Male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and NLRP3(-/-) mice were aged to 10 months (adult) and 24 months (old)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#14
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533379/learned-response-sequences-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#15
Dan-Anders Jirenhed, Anders Rasmussen, Fredrik Johansson, Germund Hesslow
Associative learning in the cerebellum has previously focused on single movements. In eyeblink conditioning, for instance, a subject learns to blink at the right time in response to a conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone that is repeatedly followed by an unconditional corneal stimulus (US). During conditioning, the CS and US are transmitted by mossy/parallel fibers and climbing fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells that acquire a precisely timed pause response that drives the overt blink response. The timing of this conditional Purkinje cell response is determined by the CS-US interval and is independent of temporal patterns in the input signal...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533284/nesprin-1%C3%AE-2-is-essential-for-mouse-postnatal-viability-and-nuclear-positioning-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
Matthew J Stroud, Wei Feng, Jianlin Zhang, Jennifer Veevers, Xi Fang, Larry Gerace, Ju Chen
The position of the nucleus in a cell is controlled by interactions between the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex and the cytoskeleton. Defects in nuclear positioning and abnormal aggregation of nuclei occur in many muscle diseases and correlate with muscle dysfunction. Nesprin 1, which includes multiple isoforms, is an integral component of the LINC complex, critical for nuclear positioning and anchorage in skeletal muscle, and is thought to provide an essential link between nuclei and actin...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533262/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-rat-soleus-muscle-after-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#17
Kelsey H Collins, David A Hart, Ian C Smith, Anthony M Issler, Raylene A Reimer, Ruth A Seerattan, Jaqueline L Rios, Walter Herzog
The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532897/mast-cells-improve-functional-recovery-of-transected-peripheral-nerve-a-novel-preliminary-study
#18
Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh, Leila Zarei, Negin Farhad, Mehran Bahrami-Bukani, Rahim Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Employment of regenerative properties of cells at the service of nerve repair has been initiated during recent decades. Effects of local transplantation of bone marrow-derived mast cells on peripheral nerve regeneration were studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a conduit chitosan-based hybrid conduit filled with BMMCs in BMMC group. In positive control group (Pos), the conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone...
May 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531892/emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-associated-mutant-forms-of-lamin-a-recruit-the-stress-responsive-protein-ankrd2-into-the-nucleus-affecting-the-cellular-response-to-oxidative-stress
#19
Silvia Angori, Cristina Capanni, Georgine Faulkner, Camilla Bean, Giuseppe Boriani, Giovanna Lattanzi, Vittoria Cenni
BACKGROUND: Ankrd2 is a stress responsive protein mainly expressed in muscle cells. Upon the application of oxidative stress, Ankrd2 translocates into the nucleus where it regulates the activity of genes involved in cellular response to stress. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy 2 (EDMD2) is a muscular disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding lamin A, LMNA. As well as many phenotypic abnormalities, EDMD2 muscle cells also feature a permanent basal stress state, the underlying molecular mechanisms of which are currently unclear...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531280/effects-of-calorie-restriction-and-fiber-type-on-glucose-uptake-and-abundance-of-electron-transport-chain-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-proteins-in-single-fibers-from-old-rats
#20
Haiyan Wang, Edward B Arias, Carmen S Yu, Anthony R P Verkerke, Gregory D Cartee
Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine in 23-26 months-old rats the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks-old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ±insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles...
May 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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