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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909670/treating-rotator-cuff-tears-through-a-coracoacromial-mini-open-approach
#1
Wolfram Thomas, Tom Sascha Thomas, Luca Tafuro, Sebastian Walter
The purpose of this study is to present a "smart," open, minimally invasive surgical technique for rotator cuff repair of the shoulder. On the basis of an anatomic study by Tichy, we use a coracoacromial mobile window: We split-not detach-the deltoid muscle by respecting its fibers' orientation and resect the coracoacromial ligament before repairing the torn rotator cuff tendons with anchors. The described approach is fast, is technically uncomplicated, and can be carried out with a standard set of instruments...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909231/influence-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-and-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-sprint-interval-training
#2
Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Jamie R Blackwell, Jonathan Fulford, Matthew I Black, James Kelly, Sinead T J McDonagh, James Carter, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
We hypothesized that 4 weeks of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty six recreationally-active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4 week period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1) SIT and NO3(-)-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2) SIT and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (~13mmol NO3(-)/day; SIT+BR); or 3) no training and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908291/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-satellite-cell-number-and-proliferation-by-remodeling-the-stem-cell-niche
#3
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Markus Beer, Arnaud Ferry, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: The myogenic capacity of satellite cells (SCs), adult muscle stem cells, is influenced by aging, exercise, and other factors. In skeletal muscle, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of oxidative metabolism and endurance training adaptation. However, a link between PGC-1α and SC behavior remains unexplored. METHODS: We have now studied SC function in a PGC-1α fiber-specific gain-of-function animal model...
December 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907123/mice-hemizygous-for-a-pathogenic-mitofusin-2-allele-exhibit-hind-limb-foot-gait-deficits-and-phenotypic-perturbations-in-nerve-and-muscle
#4
Peter Bannerman, Travis Burns, Jie Xu, Laird Miers, David Pleasure
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A), the most common axonal form of hereditary sensory motor neuropathy, is caused by mutations of mitofusin-2 (MFN2). Mitofusin-2 is a GTPase required for fusion of mitochondrial outer membranes, repair of damaged mitochondria, efficient mitochondrial energetics, regulation of mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum calcium coupling and axonal transport of mitochondria. We knocked T105M MFN2 preceded by a loxP-flanked STOP sequence into the mouse Rosa26 locus to permit cell type-specific expression of this pathogenic allele...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907012/the-signature-of-microrna-dysregulation-in-muscle-paralyzed-by-spinal-cord-injury-includes-downregulation-of-micrornas-that-target-myostatin-signaling
#5
Rita De Gasperi, Zachary A Graham, Lauren M Harlow, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin, Christopher P Cardozo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy, reduced force generation and an oxidative-to-glycolytic fiber type shift. The mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain incompletely understood. To gain new insights regarding mechanisms involved in deterioration of muscle after SCI, global expression profiles of miRs in paralyzed gastrocnemius muscle were compared between sham-operated (Sham) and spinal cord-transected (SCI) rats. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis of the altered miRs identified signaling via insulin, IGF-1, integrins and TGF-β as being significantly enriched for target genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906110/failed-upregulation-of-tfam-protein-and-mitochondrial-dna-in-oxidatively-deficient-fibers-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-locomotor-muscle
#6
Yana Konokhova, Sally Spendiff, R Thomas Jagoe, Sudhakar Aare, Sophia Kapchinsky, Norah J MacMillan, Paul Rozakis, Martin Picard, Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Charlotte H Pion, Jean Bourbeau, Russell T Hepple, Tanja Taivassalo
BACKGROUND: Low mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are well-established features of locomotor muscle dysfunction, a prevalent and debilitating systemic occurrence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the exact cause is not firmly established, physical inactivity and oxidative stress are among the proposed underlying mechanisms. Here, we assess the impact of COPD pathophysiology on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity, biogenesis, and cellular oxidative capacity in locomotor muscle of COPD patients and healthy controls...
February 18, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906103/progressive-impairment-of-cav1-1-function-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-expressing-a-mutant-type-1-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-g93a-linked-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Donald Beqollari, Christin F Romberg, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Martina Martini, Andrew A Voss, Antonio Musarò, Roger A Bannister
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is typically fatal within 3-5 years of diagnosis. While motoneuron death is the defining characteristic of ALS, the events that underlie its pathology are not restricted to the nervous system. In this regard, ALS muscle atrophies and weakens significantly before presentation of neurological symptoms. Since the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) is a key regulator of both mass and force, we investigated whether CaV1...
June 23, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906101/characterization-of-a-dmd-egfp-reporter-mouse-as-a-tool-to-investigate-dystrophin-expression
#8
Mina V Petkova, Susanne Morales-Gonzales, Karima Relizani, Esther Gill, Franziska Seifert, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Luis Garcia, Helge Amthor, Markus Schuelke
BACKGROUND: Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein that provides sarcolemmal stability as a structural link between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). Mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene cause X-linked dystrophinopathies with variable phenotypes, the most severe being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) characterized by progressive muscle wasting and fibrosis. However, dystrophin deficiency does not only impair the function of skeletal and heart muscle but may also affect other organ systems such as the brain, eye, and gastrointestinal tract...
July 5, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906090/muscle-specific-deletion-of-socs3-increases-the-early-inflammatory-response-but-does-not-affect-regeneration-after-myotoxic-injury
#9
Kristy Swiderski, Savant S Thakur, Timur Naim, Jennifer Trieu, Annabel Chee, David I Stapleton, René Koopman, Gordon S Lynch
BACKGROUND: Muscles of old animals are injured more easily and regenerate poorly, attributed in part to increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. As a negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, a key mediator of myogenic proliferation and differentiation, altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) is likely to have important consequences for muscle regeneration...
October 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906081/vacht-overexpression-increases-acetylcholine-at-the-synaptic-cleft-and-accelerates-aging-of-neuromuscular-junctions
#10
Satoshi Sugita, Leland L Fleming, Caleb Wood, Sydney K Vaughan, Matheus P S M Gomes, Wallace Camargo, Ligia A Naves, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Cristina Guatimosim, Gregorio Valdez
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction occurs during aging and in a variety of diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it remains unknown whether changes in cholinergic transmission contributes to age- and disease-related degeneration of the motor system. Here we investigated the effect of moderately increasing levels of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), muscle fibers, and motor neurons during development and aging and in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
October 5, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906078/four-week-rapamycin-treatment-improves-muscular-dystrophy-in-a-fukutin-deficient-mouse-model-of-dystroglycanopathy
#11
Steven J Foltz, Junna Luan, Jarrod A Call, Ankit Patel, Kristen B Peissig, Marisa J Fortunato, Aaron M Beedle
BACKGROUND: Secondary dystroglycanopathies are a subset of muscular dystrophy caused by abnormal glycosylation of α-dystroglycan (αDG). Loss of αDG functional glycosylation prevents it from binding to laminin and other extracellular matrix receptors, causing muscular dystrophy. Mutations in a number of genes, including FKTN (fukutin), disrupt αDG glycosylation. METHODS: We analyzed conditional Fktn knockout (Fktn KO) muscle for levels of mTOR signaling pathway proteins by Western blot...
June 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#12
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#13
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906050/the-sh3-and-cysteine-rich-domain-3-stac3-gene-is-important-to-growth-fiber-composition-and-calcium-release-from-the-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-in-postnatal-skeletal-muscle
#14
Xiaofei Cong, Jonathan Doering, Davi A G Mazala, Eva R Chin, Robert W Grange, Honglin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. METHODS: We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RESULTS: RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905294/glucocorticoids-increase-skeletal-muscle-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-nik-links-to-muscle-atrophy
#15
Christopher S Fry, Syed Z Nayeem, Edgar L Dillon, Partha S Sarkar, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Randall J Urban, Traver J Wright, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Ronald G Tilton, Sanjeev Choudhary
Glucocorticoids (GC) are a frontline therapy for numerous acute and chronic diseases because of their demonstrated efficacy at reducing systemic inflammation. An unintended side effect of GC therapy is the stimulation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for GC-induced skeletal muscle atrophy have been extensively investigated, and the ability to treat patients with GC without unintended muscle atrophy has yet to be realized. We have reported that a single, standard-of-care dose of Methylprednisolone increases in vivo expression of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), an important upstream regulatory kinase controlling NF-κB activation, along with other key muscle catabolic regulators such as Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 that induce skeletal muscle proteolysis...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904961/muscle-elastography-a-new-imaging-technique-for-multiple-sclerosis-spasticity-measurement
#16
G Illomei, G Spinicci, E Locci, M G Marrosu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity is currently evaluated on the basis of neurological examinations such as Ashworth Scale (AS) and 0-10 NRS. Severity of spasticity is difficult to quantify. We investigated the use of real time elastography (RTHE) ultrasounds for evaluating objectively the muscle fibers status in MS spasticity patients and their changes after a new antispasticity treatment. Two studies were performed. In study A, 110 MS patients underwent a neurological evaluation based on the AS and RTHE. The RTHE images were scored with the new 1-5 muscle fibers rigidity imaging scale, here called MEMSs (Muscle Elastography Multiple Sclerosis Score)...
November 30, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904496/adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhance-myogenic-differentiation-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-muscular-dystrophy-via-paracrine-signaling
#17
Ji-Qing Cao, Ying-Yin Liang, Ya-Qin Li, Hui-Li Zhang, Yu-Ling Zhu, Jia Geng, Li-Qing Yang, Shan-Wei Feng, Juan Yang, Jie Kong, Cheng Zhang
Adipose-derived stem cells have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration through the paracrine secretion of neurotrophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these cells can promote myogenic differentiation in muscular dystrophy. Adipose-derived stem cells (6 × 10(6)) were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice at various sites. Dystrophin expression was found in the muscle fibers. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1 and S6 kinase 1 were increased, and the Akt/mTOR pathway was activated...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904268/clinicopathological-features-and-immunohistochemical-alterations-of-keratinocyte-proliferation-melanocyte-density-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia-and-nerve-fiber-distribution-in-becker-s-nevus
#18
Ping Sheng, Yun-Long Cheng, Chuan-Chuan Cai, Wei-Jin Guo, Ying Zhou, Ge Shi, Yi-Ming Fan
BACKGROUND: Although Becker's nevus (BN) is a relatively common disease, the systematic studies of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical results are poorly reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical alterations of keratinocyte proliferation, melanocyte density, smooth muscle hyperplasia and nerve fiber distribution in BN. METHODS: Clinical and pathological data were collected in 60 newly-diagnosed BN cases...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900777/muscular-pattern-in-three-species-of-macrostomum-platyhelminthes-macrostomorpha
#19
Mariana L Adami, Francisco Brusa, Jorge R Ronderos, Cristina Damborenea
Previous studies demonstrated complex architecture of the muscular system of Macrostomum species, especially in the rostrum area and the pharynx. However, little is known about the differences in muscular pattern between species of the genus. This study examines and compares the muscular systems of specimens belonging to three freshwater Macrostomum species (M. quiritium, M. tuba and M. velastylum), labeled with phalloidin-rhodamine and studied by confocal microscopy. Our results agree with the previous descriptions, confirming that the muscular patterns for the body wall, rostrum area, pharynx and caudal region differ among species...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899900/fiber-type-specific-satellite-cell-content-in-cyclists-following-heavy-training-with-carbohydrate-and-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation
#20
Alec I McKenzie, Andrew C D'Lugos, Michael J Saunders, Keith D Gworek, Nicholas D Luden
The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto "control" condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT-120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT-reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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