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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346717/anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear-induces-a-sustained-loss-of-muscle-fiber-force-production
#1
Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg, Elizabeth R Sibilsky Enselman, Alexis C Konja, Logan R Eckhardt, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher L Mendias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers. METHODS: We obtained quadriceps biopsies of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, and additional biopsies one, two, and six months after surgery. Muscles fiber contractility was assessed in vitro, along with whole muscle strength testing...
January 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346133/dexmedetomidine-impairs-diaphragm-function-and-increases-oxidative-stress-but-does-not-aggravate-diaphragmatic-atrophy-in-mechanically-ventilated-rats
#2
Thomas Breuer, Christian Bleilevens, Rolf Rossaint, Gernot Marx, Julian Gehrenkemper, Henning Dierksen, Antoine Delpierre, Joachim Weis, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Christian S Bruells
BACKGROUND: Anesthetics in ventilated patients are critical as any cofactor hampering diaphragmatic function may have a negative impact on the weaning progress and therefore on patients' mortality. Dexmedetomidine may display antioxidant and antiproteolytic properties, but it also reduced glucose uptake by the muscle, which may impair diaphragm force production. This study tested the hypothesis that dexmedetomidine could inhibit ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were separated into three groups (n = 8/group)...
January 18, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345962/role-of-selected-polymorphisms-in-determining-muscle-fiber-composition-in-japanese-men-and-women
#3
Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Hirofumi Zempo, Keisuke Shiose, Eiichi Yoshimura, Hideaki Kumahara, Makoto Ayabe, Yasuki Higaki, Ryo Yamada, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Akira Kiyonaga, Hisashi Naito, Hiroaki Tanaka, Noriyuki Fuku
Genetic polymorphisms and sex differences are suggested to affect muscle fiber composition; however, no study has investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on muscle fiber composition with respect to sex differences in Japanese population. The present study included 211 healthy Japanese individuals (102 men and 109 women). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine the proportion of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC-I, MHC-IIa, and MHC-IIx)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344054/the-carnitine-status-does-not-affect-the-contractile-and-metabolic-phenotype-of-skeletal-muscle-in-pigs
#4
Daniel Kaup, Janine Keller, Erika Most, Joachim Geyer, Klaus Eder, Robert Ringseis
Background: Recently, supplementation of L-carnitine to obese rats was found to improve the carnitine status and to counteract an obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from type I to type II. However, it has not been resolved if the change of muscle fiber distribution induced in obese rats and the restoration of the "normal" muscle fiber distribution, which is found in lean rats, in obese rats by supplemental L-carnitine is causally linked with the carnitine status. In the present study we hypothesized that fiber type distribution in skeletal muscle is dependent on carnitine status...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342086/copy-number-variation-in-sox6-contributes-to-chicken-muscle-development
#5
Shudai Lin, Xiran Lin, Zihao Zhang, Mingya Jiang, Yousheng Rao, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
Copy number variations (CNVs), which cover many functional genes, are associated with complex diseases, phenotypic diversity and traits that are economically important to raising chickens. The sex-determining region Y-box 6 (Sox6) plays a key role in fast-twitch muscle fiber differentiation of zebrafish and mice, but it is still unknown whether SOX6 plays a role in chicken skeletal muscle development. We identified two copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) which were significantly related to different traits on the genome level in chickens by AccuCopy® and CNVplex® analyses...
January 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339694/aortic-%C3%AE-smooth-muscle-actin-expressions-in-aortic-disorders-and-coronary-artery-disease-an-immunohistochemical-study
#6
Shi Min Yuan, Ning Wu
OBJECTIVE: The is to report immunohistochemical observations of aortic α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expressions in patients with aortic aneurysm, acute aortic dissection, and coronary artery disease and to discuss phenotypic switching of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of these lesions. METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical treatment for acute type A aortic dissection (20 patients), aortic aneurysm (9 patients), and coronary artery disease (20 patients) were included...
January 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338614/the-two-mutations-of-actin-myosin-interface-and-their-effect-on-the-dynamics-structures-and-functions-of-skeletal-muscle-actin
#7
Faeze Sadat Mohajer, Sepideh Parvizpour, Jafar Razmara, Mohd Shahir Shamsir
Congenital myopathy is a broad category of muscular diseases with symptoms appearing at the time of birth. One type of congenital myopathy is Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion (CFTD), a severely debilitating disease. The G48D and G48C mutations in the D-loop and the actin-myosin interface are the two causes of CFTD. These mutations have been shown to significantly affect the structure and function of muscle fibers. To the author's knowledge, the effects of these mutations have not yet been studied. In this work, the power stroke structure of the head domain of myosin and the wild and mutated types of actin were modeled...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338279/the-chondrocoracoideus-muscle-a-rare-anatomical-variant-of-the-pectoral-area
#8
Dionysios Venieratos, Alexandros Samolis, Maria Piagkou, Stergios Douvetzemis, Alexandrina Kourotzoglou, Kontantinos Natsis
OBJECTIVE: The study adds important information regarding the descriptive anatomy of a very rarely reported unilateral chondrocoracoideus muscle (of Wood). Additionally it highlights the concomitant muscular and neural alterations. CASE REPORT: The current case presents the occurrence of a chondrocoracoideus muscle situated left-sided, as an extension of the abdominal portion of the pectoralis major muscle (PM). The chondrocoracoideus coexisted with a contralateral atypical PM, partially blended with the clavicular fibers of the deltoid muscle...
November 2017: Acta Medica Academica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337623/fibrillar-collagen-organization-associated-with-broiler-wooden-breast-fibrotic-myopathy
#9
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Wooden breast (WB) is a fibrotic myopathy affecting the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle in fast-growing commercial broiler lines. Birds with WB are phenotypically detected by the palpation of a hard p. major muscle. A primary feature of WB is the fibrosis of muscle with the replacement of muscle fibers with extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen. The ability of a tissue to be pliable and stretch is associated with the organization of collagen fibrils in the connective tissue areas surrounding muscle fiber bundles (perimysium) and around individual muscle fibers (endomysium)...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337194/fasudil-ameliorates-the-ischemia-reperfusion-oxidative-injury-in-rat-hearts-through-suppression-of-myosin-regulatory-light-chain-nadph-oxidase-2-pathway
#10
Yi-Shuai Zhang, Li-Jing Tang, Hua Tu, Shi-Jing Wang, Bin Liu, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Nian-Sheng Li, Xiu-Ju Luo, Jun Peng
Fasudil is a potent Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and can relax smooth muscle or cardiac muscle contraction through decreasing the phosphorylation level of myosin regulatory light chain (p-MLC20 or p-MLC2v), while p-MLC2v can function as a transcription factor to promote the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression in rat hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). This study aims to explore whether fasudil can protect the rat hearts against I/R oxidative injury through suppressing NOX2 expression via reduction of p-MLC2v level...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336364/mechanism-of-chronic-stress-induced-reduced-atherosclerotic-medial-area-and-increased-plaque-instability-in-rabbit-models-of-chronic-stress
#11
Ze-Mou Yu, Xiao-Tao Deng, Ruo-Mei Qi, Lu-Yan Xiao, Chong-Qing Yang, Tao Gong
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress contributes to increased risks of atherosclerotic diseases including heart disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. However, its underline mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism via which chronic stress exerts its effect on atherosclerosis (AS). METHODS: Fifty male New Zealand white rabbits were used. Aortic balloon-injury model was applied. Both social stress and physical stress methods were adopted to establish chronic stress models...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335929/computational-model-to-investigate-the-relative-contributions-of-different-neuromuscular-properties-of-tibialis-anterior-on-force-generated-during-ankle-dorsiflexion
#12
Ariba Siddiqi, Sridhar Poosapadi Arjunan, Dinesh Kant Kumar
This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters...
January 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333727/the-relation-between-maximal-voluntary-force-in-m-palmaris-longus-and-the-temporal-and-spatial-summation-of-muscle-fiber-recruitment-in-human-subjects
#13
Cécyl G Claudel, Waqas Ahmed, Vibeke S Elbrønd, Adrian P Harrison, Else Marie Bartels
This study aimed at looking at the frequency (T-score) and the amplitude (S-score) of fiber use during contraction of a forearm muscle, m. palmaris longus, as measured by acoustic myography (AMG). An additional aim was to relate the T- and S-scores to the recorded force obtained from a hand dynamometer. The hypothesis being that temporal and spatial summation of muscle fiber contraction in a given muscle during a given movement, can together describe a given obtained force. Force measurements were carried out on 12 healthy human subjects aged 19-68 years (6 men & 6 women), while their m...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332305/oblique-thyroarytenoid-muscle-in-humans-an-independent-muscle-or-an-accessory-belly
#14
Shin-Hyo Lee, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and morphological variations of the oblique thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle in humans. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric anatomic dissections. METHODS: One hundred hemilarynges from 50 formalin-embalmed cadavers were dissected to investigate the morphology of muscle fibers of the TA muscle. RESULTS: Thirty-six (36%) hemilarynges were found to have a distinct oblique belly superficial to the TA muscle...
January 14, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332246/an-historical-perspective-of-the-discovery-of-titin-filaments-part-2
#15
REVIEW
Cristobal G Dos Remedios
In 2017, a Special Issue of Biophysical Reviews was devoted to "Titin and Its Binding Partners. The issue contained a review: "An historical perspective of the discovery of titin filaments" by dos Remedios and Gilmour that was intended to be a history of the discovery of the giant protein titin, previously named connectin. The review took readers back to the earliest discovery of the so-called third filament component of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomeres and ended in 1969. Recently, my colleague Shin'ichi Ishiwata gently reminded me of two papers published in 1990 and 1993 that were unwittingly omitted from the original historical perspective...
January 13, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330956/craniomandibular-variation-in-phalangeriform-marsupials-functional-comparisons-with-primates
#17
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#18
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#19
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330947/dietary-correlates-of-primate-masticatory-muscle-fiber-architecture
#20
Adam Hartstone-Rose, Ashley R Deutsch, Carissa L Leischner, Francisco Pastor
Analyses of masticatory muscle architecture-specifically fascicle length (FL; a correlate of muscle stretch and contraction speed) and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA; a correlate of force)-reveal soft-tissue dietary adaptations. For instance, consumers of large, soft foods are expected to have relatively long FL, while consumers of obdurate foods are expected to have relatively high PCSA. Unfortunately, only a few studies have analyzed these variables across large primate samples-an order of particular interest because it is our own...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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