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Peonidin, flower

Swathi Putta, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Eswar K Kumar, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa, Mohammad A Kamal, Luciana Scotti, Marcus T Scotti, Ghulam Md Ashraf, George E Barreto, B Sasi Bhusana Rao, D Sarala Kumari, Gorla V Reddy, Vadim V Tarasov, Sarat Babu Imandi, Gjumrakch Aliev
Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for diabetes mellitus. In search of preventative and therapeutic strategies, it is to be considering the potential role of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to prevent the pathogenesis associated with metabolic diseases. Human consumption of anthocyanins is among the highest of all flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of diabetes and diabetic complications. Anthocyanins are important natural bioactive pigments responsible for red to blue colour of fruits, leaves, seeds, stems and flowers, which are present in a variety of plant species particularly in berries and cherries...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Brady F Cress, Quentin D Leitz, Daniel C Kim, Teresita D Amore, Jon Y Suzuki, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are a class of brightly colored, glycosylated flavonoid pigments that imbue their flower and fruit host tissues with hues of predominantly red, orange, purple, and blue. Although all anthocyanins exhibit pH-responsive photochemical changes, distinct structural decorations on the core anthocyanin skeleton also cause dramatic color shifts, in addition to improved stabilities and unique pharmacological properties. In this work, we report for the first time the extension of the reconstituted plant anthocyanin pathway from (+)-catechin to O-methylated anthocyanins in a microbial production system, an effort which requires simultaneous co-option of the endogenous metabolites UDP-glucose and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet)...
January 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Da-Qiu Zhao, Meng-Ran Wei, Ding Liu, Jun Tao
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is particularly appreciated because of its elegant and gorgeous flower color, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of flower coloration. In this study, three P. lactiflora cultivars 'Xuefeng', 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou' with white, pink and red flower were selected as the materials. Their anatomical structures, cell sap pH and metal elements were investigated, and the colored pigment mainly distributed in palisade mesophyll was only found in 'Fenyulou' and 'Dahonglou', and their shape of epidermal cells, cell sap pH and metal elements were not the key factors deciding phenotype color...
May 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chiara Zaffino, Bianca Russo, Silvia Bruni
Anthocyanins are an important class of natural compounds responsible for the red, purple and blue colors in a large number of flowers, fruits and cereal grains. They are polyhydroxy- and polymethoxy-derivatives of 2-phenylbenzopyrylium (flavylium) salts, which are present in nature as glycosylated molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the identification of anthocyanidins, i.e. anthocyanins without the glycosidic moiety, by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), a very chemically-specific technique which is moreover sensitive to subtle changes in molecular structures...
2015: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Daqiu Zhao, Wenhui Tang, Zhaojun Hao, Jun Tao
Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) has been named the "king of flowers" because of its elegant and gorgeous flower colour. Among these colours, the molecular mechanisms of white formation and how white turned to red in P. suffruticosa is little known. In this study, flower colour variables, flavonoid accumulation and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes of white ('Xueta') and red ('Caihui') P. suffruticosa were investigated. The results showed that the flower colours of both cultivars were gradually deepened with the development of flowers...
April 10, 2015: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Lei Wang, Nick W Albert, Huaibi Zhang, Steve Arathoon, Murray R Boase, Hanh Ngo, Kathy E Schwinn, Kevin M Davies, David H Lewis
This study confirmed pigment profiles in different colour groups, isolated key anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and established a basis to examine the regulation of colour patterning in flowers of Cymbidium orchid. Cymbidium orchid (Cymbidium hybrida) has a range of flower colours, often classified into four colour groups; pink, white, yellow and green. In this study, the biochemical and molecular basis for the different colour types was investigated, and genes involved in flavonoid/anthocyanin synthesis were identified and characterised...
November 2014: Planta
Yafang Shao, Feifei Xu, Xiao Sun, Jinsong Bao, Trust Beta
This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC...
January 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Sainan Li, Liping Guo, Chunming Liu, Zi Ao Fu, Yuchi Zhang
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for the extraction and on-line isolation of the anthocyanidins from the petals of Chaenomeles sinensis in two stages. The SFE parameters were optimized by an orthogonal test, and the solvent systems of SFE and HSCCC were calculated and optimized with the help of a multiexponential function model. In the first stage, the lower phase of the solvent system of n-butanol/tert-butyl methyl ether/acetonitrile/0...
November 2013: Journal of Separation Science
Quy A Ngo, Huguette Albrecht, Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Ueli Grossniklaus
BACKGROUND: Plant parasitism represents an extraordinary interaction among flowering plants: parasitic plants use a specialized organ, the haustorium, to invade the host vascular system to deprive host plants of water and nutrients. Various compounds present in exudates of host plants trigger haustorium development. The two most effective haustorium inducing factors (HIFs) known for the parasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor (T. versicolor) are peonidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ), an oxidative stress agent...
2013: BMC Plant Biology
Talline R Martins, Jeremy J Berg, Steven Blinka, Mark D Rausher, David A Baum
Petal spots are widespread in angiosperms and are often implicated in pollinator attraction. Clarkia gracilis petals each have a single red-purple spot that contrasts against a pink background. The position and presence of spots in C. gracilis are determined by the epistatic interaction of alleles at two as yet unidentified loci. We used HPLC to identify the different pigments produced in the petals, and qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR to assay for spatio-temporal patterns of expression of different anthocyanin pathway genes...
February 2013: New Phytologist
Xiao-Jing Liu, Yao-Nung Chuang, Chung-Yi Chiou, Dan-Chu Chin, Fu-Quan Shen, Kai-Wun Yeh
The anthocyanin-biosynthetic pathway was studied in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey with yellow floral color and mosaic red anthocyanin in lip crests, sepals and petals, and compared with the anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers of Oncidium Honey Dollp, a natural somatoclone derived from tissue culture of Gower Ramsey, with a yellow perianth without red anthocyanins in floral tissues. HPLC analysis revealed that the red anthocyanin in lip crests of the Gower Ramsey cultivar comprised peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, whereas Honey Dollp was devoid of anthocyanin compounds...
August 2012: Planta
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Nobuhiro Zaima, Tatsuya Moriyama, Yukio Kawamura
Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica) contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites...
2012: PloS One
Fumi Tatsuzawa, Kanako Ito, Hiroki Muraoka, Toshiharu Namauo, Kazuhisa Kato, Yoshihito Takahata, Satoshi Ogawa
Triacylated peonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucosides were isolated from the purple flowers of Moricandia ramburii Webb. (Family: Brassicaceae), and determined to be peonidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-feruloyl)-glucosyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-glucoside] (1), peonidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-feruloyl)-glucosyl)-6-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-glucoside] (2) and peonidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(trans-sinapoyl)-glucosyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-glucoside] (3), respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods...
April 2012: Phytochemistry
Anja K Lätti, Kaisu R Riihinen, Laura Jaakola
Hybridization between species plays an important role in the evolution of secondary metabolites and in the formation of combinations of existing secondary metabolites in plants. We have investigated the content of phenolic compounds in berries and flowers of Vaccinium×intermedium Ruthe, which is a rare natural hybrid between bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). The berries and flowers of the hybrid showed characteristics inherited from both parent species in the distribution and contents of phenolic compounds...
June 2011: Phytochemistry
Monica Jordheim, Irene Skaar, Helene Lunder, Øyvind M Andersen
Flowers of Fuchsia arborescens, F. boliviana, F. fulgens var. 'Variegata', F. magellanica (Onagraceae) and twenty-nine F. magellanica cultivars contained some of the thirteen anthocyanidin 3,5-diglucosides (six), 3-monoglycosides (five) and 3-(2"-galloylglucosides) (two), which altogether were identified. Peonidin 3-O-(2"-O-galloyl-beta-glucopyranoside), which has not been reported before, was found in F. magellanica and F. fulgens var. 'Variegata'. The various corollas with purple nuances were correlated with a relatively high content of malvidin 3,5-diglucoside...
January 2011: Natural Product Communications
Mitsuru Sato, Takashi Kawabe, Munetaka Hosokawa, Fumi Tatsuzawa, Motoaki Doi
The variegated Saintpaulia cultivar Thamires (Saintpaulia sp.), which has pink petals with blue splotches, is generally maintained by leaf cuttings. In contrast, tissue culture-derived progeny of the cultivar showed not only a high percentage of mutants with solid-blue petals but also other solid-color variants, which have not been observed from leaf cuttings. Solid-color phenotypes were inherited stably by their progeny from tissue culture. Petals from each solid-color variant were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and shown to contain different proportions of three main anthocyanin derivatives: malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin...
May 2011: Plant Cell Reports
Ryoji Takahashi, Joseph G Dubouzet, Hisakazu Matsumura, Kentaro Yasuda, Tsukasa Iwashina
BACKGROUND: Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. RESULTS: B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1...
2010: BMC Plant Biology
M Wolniak, I Wawer
Anthocyanidins, red dyes from flower petals and fruits, are beneficial to human health. They attract considerable attention owing to their strong antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, however they are unstable in solution and available in small amounts only. (13)C CP MAS NMR spectra were recorded to characterize solid-state conformation of nine anthocyanidins: apigenidin, pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, malvidin robinetidin, luteolinidin and diosmetinidin chlorides. For some carbons, the solid-state chemical shifts were different from those obtained for solutions, indicating differences in conformation and intermolecular interactions...
July 2008: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Chung-Yi Chiou, Kai-Wun Yeh
The yellow coloration pattern in Oncidium floral lip associated with red sepal and petal tissues is an ideal model to study coordinate regulation of anthocyanin synthesis. In this study, chromatography analysis revealed that the red coloration in floral tissues was composed of malvidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compounds. By contrary, these pigments were not detected in yellow lip tissue. Four key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, i...
March 2008: Plant Molecular Biology
Monica Jordheim, Finn Måge, Øyvind M Andersen
Consumption of berries from various sources including the genus Ribes has been associated with diverse potential health benefits. The 14 examined cultivars of European gooseberry (R. grossularia L.) contained in various proportions the 3-glucoside (3), 3-rutinoside (4), 3-xyloside (7), 3-O-beta-(6' '-E-caffeoylglucopyranoside) (8), and 3-O-beta-(6' '-E-p-coumaroylglucopyranoside) (10) of cyanidin and the 3-rutinoside (6) and 3-glucoside of peonidin (5). Pigments 3, 4, delphinidin 3-rutinoside (2), delphinidin 3-glucoside (1), and minor amounts of 6, 7, and 10 were found in red flowering currant (R...
July 11, 2007: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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