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Megaloblastic anemia in HIV

Katherine A Devitt, John H Lunde, Michael R Lewis
Abstract Pancytopenia is regularly encountered in hematology practice, yet there exist few published assessments of the frequencies of various etiologies, and these frequencies exhibit substantial geographic variation. We reviewed bone marrow specimens from pancytopenic adults to determine the most common etiologies and to identify associations with clinical and laboratory findings. Of 132 patients with no history of hematolymphoid neoplasia, no prior bone marrow study for pancytopenia and no recent cytotoxic chemotherapy, 64% had clonal hematopoietic disorders...
May 2014: Leukemia & Lymphoma
M Rangaswamy, Prabhu, N M Nandini, G V Manjunath
Pancytopenia is defined by reduction of all the three formed elements of blood below the normal reference. It may be a manifestation of a wide variety of disorders, which primarily or secondarily affect the bone marrow. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the management of patients with pancytopenia and therefore needs detailed study. The total number of cases studied were 100 over a period of two years in the department of pathology, JSS Hospital, Mysore. Megaloblastic anaemia (33%) was the commonest cause of pancytopenia...
August 2012: Journal of the Indian Medical Association
M Premkumar, N Gupta, T Singh, T Velpandian
Background. Pancytopenia has multiple etiologies like megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, leukemia, and various infections. We investigated the clinical, etiological and hematological profile including bone marrow morphology of patients with pancytopenia in relation to their vitamin B12 and folic acid status at a tertiary care referral hospital in north India. Methods. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pancytopenia were selected from June 2007 to December 2008. Bone marrow examination and other tests were carried out as warranted, including serum cobalamin and folate assays using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC MS/MS)...
2012: Anemia
Roos J Leguit, Jan G van den Tweel
An important indication for bone marrow investigation is the presence of bone marrow failure, which manifests itself as (pan)cytopenia. The causes of cytopenia are varied and differ considerably between childhood and adulthood. In the paediatric age group inherited bone marrow failure syndromes are important causes of bone marrow failure, but they play only a minor role in later life. This review gives a comprehensive overview of bone marrow failure disorders in children and adults. We classified the causes of bone marrow failure according to the main presenting haematological abnormality, i...
November 2010: Histopathology
I A Adediran, M A Durosinmi
There is dearth of information on the haematologic complications of HIV/AIDS in this country. The aim of this work was to evaluate the importance of peripheral blood and bone marrow changes in a population of adult Nigerians managed for symptomatic HIV infection at the OAUTHC, Ile-Ife, between 1995 and 2001. The study was prospective. Peripheral blood cells counts (haemetocrit value, total and differential leucocyte counts, and platelet counts) and bone marrow cytology of serologically confirmed HIV/AIDS patients seen within the study period were studied...
December 2006: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
MaryAnn Foote, Alan Colowick, David A Goodkin
Anemia has multiple etiologies: it may be caused by nutritional deficiencies or congenital abnormalities, or it may be associated with a number of conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, cancer, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Anemia is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with endstage renal disease, cancer, or HIV infection. Each case of anemia is different, with different causes, clinical consequences, and treatment strategies. Identifying the most appropriate treatment requires an understanding of the etiology of the anemia and investigation of the nature of the causative medical condition...
December 2002: Cytokines, Cellular & Molecular Therapy
Recep Ozturk, Aynur Engin, Resat Ozaras, Ali Mert, Fehmi Tabak, Yildirim Aktuğlu
Pyrimethamine is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis and the prophylaxis of malaria. Among the well-documented side effects are megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, thrombopenia, rash, vomiting, and diarrhea. Hyperpigmentation is a very rare side effect. In some patients, associated HIV infection makes it difficult to distinguish the reasons for the etiology. We herein describe an HIV-negative patient who developed hyperpigmentation after pyrimethamine use.
July 2002: Journal of Dermatology
M G Brook, H Ayles, C Harrison, C Rowntree, R F Miller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of bone marrow (BM) sampling in HIV positive patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Specialist HIV/AIDS service in London. SUBJECTS: 215 consecutive HIV infected patients undergoing 246 BM samplings for investigation of pyrexia without localising signs, haematological abnormalities, or staging/investigation of lymphoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnostic yield from (and impact on management of) BM sampling...
April 1997: Genitourinary Medicine
F García-Die, A Remacha, J Cadafalch, M J Barceló, M M Parellada, B Arza
The deoxyuridine suppression test (dUST) was used to evaluate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive (HIV-1) patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12 and/or low red cell folate and to assess any possible interferences of azydothymidine (AZT) in this test. The dUST was studied in 29 HIV-1 positive patients, 18 without low serum vitamin B12 or low red cell folate and 11 with low serum vitamin B12 (6 patients), low red cell folate (4 patients) and 1 case with both. The role of AZT was studied using different concentrations (0...
April 1996: European Journal of Haematology
A F Remacha, A Riera, J Cadafalch, E Gimferrer
A prospective study of 60 consecutively admitted patients with HIV infection was performed to document the prevalence, etiology and manifestations of low serum vitamin B-12 in such patients. Low serum B-12 levels were found in 10 patients (16.7%). In 6, vitamin B-12 absorption was impaired and hog intrinsic factor addition did not improve it. Patients with low vitamin B-12 levels showed lower hemoglobin, leukocytes, lymphocytes, CD4 lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio than HIV patients with physiological serum vitamin B-12 levels...
July 1991: European Journal of Haematology
J H Riley, A Davidovich, J M Lipman, R Arceo, T D Anderson
The antiviral nucleoside analogue 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) is a DNA chain terminator and/or inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. We evaluated the effects of ddC in 36 New Zealand white rabbits. Three/sex were assigned to a control group and 5 treatment groups (10-250 mg/kg/day) for 13 or 18 weeks. Blood samples were taken 1 week prior to treatment and weekly thereafter to termination with the exception of the 2 highest dose groups, where blood sample collection was terminated at week 13...
1992: Toxicologic Pathology
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