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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938435/the-role-of-sequential-bmp-signaling-in-directing-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-bipotential-gonadal-cells
#1
Kirsi Sepponen, Karolina Lundin, Katri Knuus, Pia Väyrynen, Taneli Raivio, Juha S Tapanainen, Timo Tuuri
Context: Human gonads arise as a pair of epithelial ridges on the surface of intermediate mesoderm (IM)-derived mesonephros. Toxic environmental factors and mutations in various genes are known to disturb normal gonadal development, but due to a lack of suitable in vitro models, detailed studies characterizing the molecular basis of the observed defects have not been performed. Objective: Our objective was to establish an in vitro method for studying differentiation of bipotential gonadal progenitors using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in gonadal differentiation...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938308/sensor-based-physiologic-control-strategy-for-biventricular-support-with-rotary-blood-pumps
#2
Yu Wang, Steven C Koenig, Zhongjun Wu, Mark S Slaughter, Guruprasad A Giridharan
Rotary biventricular assist devices (BiVAD) are becoming a clinically accepted treatment option for end-stage biventricular failure. To improve BiVAD efficacy and safety, we propose a control algorithm to achieve the clinical objectives of maintaining left-right-sided balance, restoring physiologic flows, and preventing ventricular suction. The control algorithm consists of two proportional-integral (PI) controllers for left and right ventricular assist devices (LVAD and RVAD) to maintain differential pump pressure across LVAD (ΔPL) and RVAD (ΔPR) to provide left-right balance and physiologic flow...
September 21, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937224/thermocapillary-droplet-actuation-effect-of-solid-structure-and-wettability
#3
George Karapetsas, Nikolaos T Chamakos, Athanasios G Papathanasiou
We examine the thermocapillary-driven flow of a droplet on a non-uniformly heated patterned surface. Using a sharp-interface scheme, capable of efficiently modelling the flow over complex surfaces, we perform 2D and 3D finite element simulations for a wide range of substrate wettabilities, i.e. from hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surfaces. Our results demonstrate that the contact angle hysteresis, due to the presence of the solid structures, is responsible for the appearance of a critical thermal gradient beyond which droplet migration is possible that has been reported by experimental observations...
September 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937160/countercurrent-liquid-liquid-extraction-on-paper
#4
Gert Ij Salentijn, Maciej Grajewski, Elisabeth Verpoorte
Proof-of-concept is shown for two-phase countercurrent flow on paper. The device consists of two paper layers, one of which has been modified with a sizing agent to be hydrophobic. The layers exhibit different wetting behavior for water and octanol. Both phases dominate wetting in one of the layers and can be made to move in different directions along the interface to achieve liquid-liquid extraction.
September 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936623/acute-renal-metabolic-effect-of-metformin-assessed-with-hyperpolarised-mri-in-rats
#5
Haiyun Qi, Per M Nielsen, Marie Schroeder, Lotte B Bertelsen, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin inhibits hepatic mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, thereby increasing cytosolic lactate and suppressing gluconeogenesis flux in the liver. This inhibition alters cytosolic and mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox) potential, which has been reported to protect organ function in several disease states including diabetes. In this study, we investigated the acute metabolic and functional changes induced by metformin in the kidneys of both healthy and insulinopenic Wistar rats used as a model of diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936528/continuous-electroosmotic-sorting-of-particles-in-grooved-microchannels
#6
Alexander L Dubov, Taras Y Molotilin, Olga I Vinogradova
We propose a novel microfluidic fractionation concept suitable for neutrally buoyant micron-sized particles. This approach takes advantage of the ability of grooved channel walls oriented at an angle to the direction of an external electric field to generate a transverse electroosmotic flow. Using computer simulations, we first demonstrate that the velocity of this secondary transverse flow depends on the distance from the wall, so neutrally buoyant particles, depending on their size and initial location, will experience different lateral displacements...
September 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936275/a-bio-inspired-method-for-direct-measurement-of-local-wall-shear-rates-with-micrometer-localization-using-the-multimeric-protein-von-willebrand-factor-as-sensor-molecule
#7
Klaus Bonazza, Bernhard Scheichl, Johannes Frank, Hanspeter Rottensteiner, Gerald Schrenk, Gernot Friedbacher, Peter L Turecek, Friedrich Scheiflinger, Günter Allmaier
Wall shear rates are critical for a broad variety of fluidic phenomena and are taken into account in nearly every experimental or simulation study. Generally, shear rates are not observable directly but rather derived from other parameters such as pressure and flow, often assuming somehow idealized systems. However, there is a biological system which is able to constantly measure the wall shear as a part of a regulatory circuit: The blood circulation system takes advantage of shear rate sensor (protein)molecules (multimeric forms of von Willebrand Factor, VWF), which are dissolved in the blood plasma and dramatically change their conformation under shear conditions...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935978/-optical-and-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-properties-of-ag-modified-silicon-double-nanocone-array
#8
L Mehrvar, M Sadeghipari, S H Tavassoli, S Mohajerzadeh, M Fathipour
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) systems with large number of active sites exhibit superior capability in detection of low concentration analytes. In this paper, we present theoretical as well as experimental studies on the optical properties of a unique hybrid nanostructure, Ag NPs decorated silicon double nanocones (Si-DNCs) array, which provide high density of hot spots. The Si-DNC array is fabricated by employing electron beam lithography together with plasma etching process. Multipole analysis of the scattering spectra, based on the multipole expansion theory, confirms that the toroidal dipole moment dominates over other electric and magnetic multipole moments in the Si-DNCs array...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935927/effects-of-ticagrelor-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#9
Keita Yamauchi, Takahiko Imai, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Toru Iwama, Hideaki Hara
Ticagrelor is a direct acting and reversibly binding P2Y12 antagonist approved for the prevention of thromboembolic events. Its potential benefits in ischemic stroke have not been investigated sufficiently. Mice were subjected to 2 hours of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were orally treated with ticagrelor (10 or 30 mg/kg), aspirin (60 mg/kg), or vehicle at 3 and 24 hours before MCAO and 0 and 6 hours after reperfusion. The infarct volume and neurological deficits 22 hours after reperfusion were evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935639/isolation-and-characterization-of-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-cells-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Toshio Suzuki, Erica J Carrier, Megha A Talati, Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy, Xinping Chen, Rintaro Nishimura, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, James D West
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a process in which endothelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts, and undergo a dramatic remodeling of the cytoskeleton. It has been implicated in initiation and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the characteristics of cells which have undergone EndMT-cells in vivo have not been reported and so remain unclear. To study this, sugen5416 and hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PAH was established in Cdh5-Cre / Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm4(ACTB-tdTomato,-EGFP)Luo)/J double-transgenic mice, in which GFP was stably expressed in pan-endothelial cells...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935579/mechanisms-imaging-and-structure-of-tear-film-breakup
#11
REVIEW
P Ewen King-Smith, Carolyn G Begley, Richard J Braun
Tear film breakup (BU) is an important aspect of dry eye disease, as a cause of ocular aberrations, irritation and ocular surface inflammation and disorder. Additionally, measurement of breakup time, BUT, is a common clinical test for dry eye. The current definition of BUT is subjective; here, a more objective concept of "touchdown" - the moment when the lipid layer touches down on the corneal surface - is proposed as an aid to understanding processes in early and late stages of BU development. Models of BU have generally been based on the assumption that a single mechanism is involved...
September 18, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935013/-can-preoperative-peak-expiratory-flow-predict-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-in-lung-cancer-patients-undergoing-lobectomy
#12
Kun Zhou, Yanming Wu, Jianhua Su, Yutian Lai, Cheng Shen, Pengfei Li, Guowei Che
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), especially postoperative pneumonia (POP), directly affect the rapid recovery of lung cancer patients after surgery. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) can reflect airway patency and cough efficiency. Moreover, cough impairment may lead to accumulation of pulmonary secretions which can increase the risk of PPCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of preoperative PEF on PPCs in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: Retrospective research was conducted on 433 lung cancer patients who underwent lobectomy at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2014 to December 2015...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934982/mir-320-inhibits-the-growth-of-glioma-cells-through-downregulating-pbx3
#13
Cuicui Pan, Hua Gao, Ni Zheng, Qi Gao, Yuanquan Si, Yueran Zhao
BACKGROUND: MiR-320 is downregulated in multiple cancers, including glioma and acts as tumor suppressor through inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PBX3 (Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 3), a putative target gene of miR-320, has been reported to be upregulated in various tumors and promote tumor cell growth through regulating MAKP/ERK pathway. This study aimed to verify whether miR-320 influences glioma cells growth through regulating PBX3. METHODS: Twenty-four human glioma and paired adjacent nontumorous tissues were collected for determination of miR-320 and PBX3 expression using RT-qPCR and western blot assays...
September 21, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934730/dihydroartemisinin-and-curcumin-synergistically-induce-apoptosis-in-skov3-cells-via-upregulation-of-mir-124-targeting-midkine
#14
Jiaojiao Zhao, Yuchen Pan, Xiujun Li, Xuefang Zhang, Yaxian Xue, Tingting Wang, Shuli Zhao, Yayi Hou
BACKGROUND/AIM: Women with advanced ovarian carcinoma are less likely to receive platinum-based chemotherapy and surgery due to a greater risk of cytotoxicity and poorer outcomes. We attempted to improve a promising therapy against ovarian cancer by using a combination of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and curcumin (Cur). METHODS: Human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were treated with DHA, Cur alone, or a combination of both. The viability of SKOV3 cells was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and a colony formation assay...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934202/platelet-dysfunction-contributes-to-bleeding-complications-in-patients-with-probable-leptospirosis
#15
Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Muhammad Hussein Gasem, Willemijn van der Does, Pandu H Sasongko, Bambang Isbandrio, Rolf T Urbanus, Philip G de Groot, Andre van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast
BACKGROUND: Severe leptospirosis is frequently complicated by a hemorrhagic diathesis, of which the pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Thrombocytopenia is common, but often not to the degree that spontaneous bleeding is expected. We hypothesized that the hemorrhagic complications are not only related to thrombocytopenia, but also to platelet dysfunction, and that increased binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets is involved in both platelet dysfunction and increased platelet clearance...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933777/generation-and-use-of-a-humanized-bone-marrow-ossicle-niche-for-hematopoietic-xenotransplantation-into-mice
#16
Andreas Reinisch, David Cruz Hernandez, Katharina Schallmoser, Ravindra Majeti
Xenotransplantation is frequently used to study normal and malignant hematopoiesis of human cells. However, conventional mouse xenotransplantation models lack essential human-specific bone-marrow (BM)-microenvironment-derived survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals for engraftment of normal and malignant blood cells. As a consequence, many human leukemias and other hematologic disorders do not robustly engraft in these conventional models. Here, we describe a complete workflow for the generation of humanized ossicles with an accessible BM microenvironment that faithfully recapitulates normal BM niche morphology and function...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933213/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-potential-mechanisms-of-damage
#17
Brooke Fehily, Melinda Fitzgerald
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant public healthcare concern, accounting for the majority of all head injuries. While symptoms are generally transient, some patients go on to experience long-term cognitive impairments and additional mild impacts can result in exacerbated and persisting negative outcomes. To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal injury and inflammation following repeated mTBI; assessments of oxidative stress and myelin pathology have thus far been limited...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933112/-application-of-continuous-mixing-technology-in-ethanol-precipitation-process-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-by-using-micromixer
#18
Xing-Chu Gong, Ji-Chen Shen, Hai-Bin Qu
Continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing is one of the development directions in international pharmaceutical technology. In this study, a continuous mixing technology of ethanol and concentrated extract in the ethanol precipitation of Salvia miltiorrhiza was realized by using a membrane dispersion method. The effects of ethanol flowrate, concentrated extract flowrate, and flowrate ratio on ethanol precipitation results were investigated. With the increase of the flowrates of ethanol and concentrated extract, retention rate of active phenolic acids components was increased, and the total solid removal rate was decreased...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932891/identification-of-terpenes-and-essential-oils-by-means-of-static-headspace-gas-chromatography-ion-mobility-spectrometry
#19
Roman Rodríguez-Maecker, Eduardo Vyhmeister, Stefan Meisen, Antonio Rosales Martinez, Andriy Kuklya, Ursula Telgheder
Static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (SHS GC-IMS) is a relatively new analytical technique that has considerable potential for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, SHS GC-IMS was used for the identification of the major terpene components of various essential oils (EOs). Based on the data obtained from 25 terpene standards and 50 EOs, a database for fingerprint identification of characteristic terpenes and EOs was generated utilizing SHS GC-IMS for authenticity testing of fragrances in foods, cosmetics, and personal care products...
September 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932297/flow-cytometry-in-detecting-resistant-e-coli-strains
#20
Lyudmila Akhmaltdinova, Alyona Lavrinenko, Ilya Belyayev
Antibacterial drugs are the most consumed group of drugs in the modern hospitals. Standard methods of antibiotic sensitivity are labour and time-consuming, taking up to 24 hours after the pure culture is isolated (the analysis typically lasts up to 72 hours). Working out express diagnostic methods is of importance, and studies are made in various directions. Flow cytometry in detecting resistant E. coli strains was used. Flow cytometry fluorescent dyes were used to stain viable and dead cells. For method validation, relative accuracy, relative susceptibility, relative specificity and Cohen's kappa test were determined compared to the delusion test...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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