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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933551/pentoxifylline-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibiting-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Da-Yong Xia, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Chun-Hua Hang
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PTX on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham and SAH groups. PTX (30 or 60 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the administration vehicle (normal saline) was administrated at 30 min intervals following SAH...
December 8, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933379/the-role-of-receptor-like-protein-kinases-rlks-in-abiotic-stress-response-in-plants
#2
REVIEW
Yaoyao Ye, Yanfei Ding, Qiong Jiang, Feijuan Wang, Junwei Sun, Cheng Zhu
We review and introduce recent studies on RLK s involved in the abiotic stress response and provide insights into potential regulatory mechanisms for alleviating abiotic stress. Abiotic stresses are important factors affecting plant growth and development, resulting in crop production reduction and even plant death. To survive, plants utilize different mechanisms to respond and adapt to continuously changing environmental factors. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant response to various stresses will aid in improving tolerance of plants to abiotic stress through genetic engineering, which would greatly promote the development of modern agriculture...
December 8, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933060/regulators-of-tfh-cell-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Gajendra M Jogdand, Suchitra Mohanty, Satish Devadas
The follicular helper T (Tfh) cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching, and germinal center (GC) formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), ICOS, programed death 1 (PD-1), B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. On the one hand, Tfh cells are generated from naive CD4(+) T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A), migration, and positioning in the GC by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, signaling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein/signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) as well as transcription factor (BCL-6, c-Maf, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling and repressor miR155...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932417/molecular-pathways-the-necrosome-a-target-for-cancer-therapy
#4
Lena Seifert, George Miller
Necroptosis is a caspase 8-independent cell death that requires co-activation of receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1 and RIP 3 kinases. The necrosome is a complex consisting of RIP1, RIP3 and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) leading to activation of the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL) followed by a rapid plasma membrane rupture and inflammatory response through the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and cytokines. The necrosome has been shown to be relevant in multiple tumor types, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, melanoma and several hematological malignancies...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932312/targeted-apoptosis-of-parietal-cells-is-insufficient-to-induce-metaplasia-in-stomach
#5
Joseph Burclaff, Luciana H Osaki, Dengqun Liu, James R Goldenring, Jason C Mills
Parietal cell atrophy is considered to cause metaplasia in the stomach. We developed mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor specifically in parietal cells to induce their death, and found this to increase proliferation in the normal stem cell zone and neck but not to cause metaplastic reprogramming of chief cells. Furthermore, the metaplasia-inducing agents tamoxifen or DMP-777 still induced metaplasia even following previous destruction of parietal cells by diphtheria toxin. Atrophy of parietal cells alone is therefore not sufficient to induce metaplasia-completion of metaplastic reprogramming of chief cells requires mechanisms beyond parietal cell injury or death...
December 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932059/classical-transient-receptor-potential-trpc6-channels-support-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-development-of-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Katharina Hofmann, Susanne Fiedler, Sarah Vierkotten, Jonas Weber, Stephan Klee, Jie Jia, Wolfgang Zwickenpflug, Veit Flockerzi, Ursula Storch, Ali Önder Yildirim, Thomas Gudermann, Melanie Königshoff, Alexander Dietrich
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic progressive lung disease without effective medical treatment options leading to respiratory failure and death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. The pathological process of PF is driven by aberrant wound-healing involving fibroblasts and myofibroblasts differentiated by secreted profibrotic transforming growth factor β (TGF-β1). Classical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6), a Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, is able to promote myofibroblast conversion of primary rat cardiac and human dermal fibroblasts and TRPC6-deficiency impaired wound healing after injury...
December 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931292/circulating-follicular-t-helper-cell-subset-distribution-in-patients-with-asthma
#7
Fang Gong, Chunyan Qian, HuaYan Zhu, Jie Zhu, Yuhong Pan, QiaoJing Dong, DongLin Jiang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of allergic asthma is primarily characterized by abnormality in the immunoglobulin E (IgE) pathway, suggesting a possible role for follicular T-helper cells (Tfh) in the genesis of excessive IgE accumulation. The blood chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5)+CD4+ T cells, known as circulating Tfh, share common functional characteristics with Tfh cells from germinal centers. There are three subsets of circulating Tfh cells: Tfh1 (CXCR3+CC chemokine receptor [CCR] 6), Tfh2 (CXCR3CCR6) and Tfh17 (CXCR3CCR6+)...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930910/the-neurobiology-of-zika-virus
#8
REVIEW
Hongda Li, Laura Saucedo-Cuevas, Sujan Shresta, Joseph G Gleeson
Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930863/lessons-from-a-cardiovascular-outcome-trial-with-liraglutide-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and one of common diabetes-related complications in patients with type 2 diabetes(1) . After the US Food and Drug Administration issued guidelines for assessing the CVD risk of all new glucose-lowering agents for type 2 diabetes in 2008(2) , randomized controlled CV outcome trials with new antidiabetic drugs, such as the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), lixisenatide, showed CV safety in high CV risk patient populations with type 2 diabtes(3) ...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930644/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer-checkpoint-blockade-cancer-vaccines-and-future-directions-in-combination-immunotherapy
#10
Heather L McArthur, David B Page
Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Both of these approaches currently are being explored as potential strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy is poised to change the therapeutic landscape for some breast cancers...
November 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929541/non-amyloidogenic-effects-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonists-implications-for-brimonidine-mediated-neuroprotection
#11
Shereen Nizari, Li Guo, Benjamin M Davis, Eduardo M Normando, Joana Galvao, Lisa A Turner, Mukhtar Bizrah, Mohammad Dehabadi, Kailin Tian, M Francesca Cordeiro
The amyloid beta (Aβ) pathway is strongly implicated in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and more recently, glaucoma. Here, we identify the α2 adrenergic receptor agonists (α2ARA) used to lower intraocular pressure can prevent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death via the non-amyloidogenic Aβ-pathway. Neuroprotective effects were confirmed in vivo and in vitro in different glaucoma-related models using α2ARAs brimonidine (BMD), clonidine (Clo) and dexmedetomidine. α2ARA treatment significantly reduced RGC apoptosis in experimental-glaucoma models by 97...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929534/extracellular-histones-cell-free-dna-or-nucleosomes-differences-in-immunostimulation
#12
REVIEW
Gerben Marsman, Sacha Zeerleder, Brenda M Luken
In inflammation, extensive cell death may occur, which results in the release of chromatin components into the extracellular environment. Individually, the purified chromatin components double stranded (ds)DNA and histones have been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to display various immunostimulatory effects, for example, histones induce cytotoxicity and proinflammatory signaling through toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4, while DNA induces signaling through TLR9 and intracellular nucleic acid sensing mechanisms...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929475/anticancer-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-with-lung-cancer-targeted-nanoparticles
#13
Ji-Eun Chang, Hyun-Jong Cho, Sanghoon Jheon
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and non-surgical method representing an attractive alternative choice for lung cancer treatment. Photosensitizers selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and lead to tumor cell death in the presence of oxygen and the proper wavelength of light. To increase the therapeutic effect of PDT, we developed both photosensitizer- and anticancer agent-loaded lung cancer-targeted nanoparticles. Both enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect-based passive targeting and hyaluronic-acid-CD44 interaction-based active targeting were applied...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929439/cell-death-in-chondrocytes-osteoblasts-and-osteocytes
#14
REVIEW
Toshihisa Komori
Cell death in skeletal component cells, including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, plays roles in skeletal development, maintenance, and repair as well as in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. Chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are important steps for endochondral ossification. Although the inactivation of P53 and RB is involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcomas, the deletion of p53 and inactivation of Rb are insufficient to enhance chondrocyte proliferation, indicating the presence of multiple inhibitory mechanisms against sarcomagenesis in chondrocytes...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929425/the-coexistence-of-hypertension-and-ovariectomy-additively-increases-cardiac-apoptosis
#15
Yi-Yuan Lin, Yu-Jung Cheng, Jun Hu, Li-Xi Chu, Woei-Cherng Shyu, Chung-Lan Kao, Tzer-Bin Lin, Chia-Hua Kuo, Ai-Lun Yang, Shin-Da Lee
To investigate whether the coexistence of hypertension and ovariectomy will increase cardiac Fas receptor and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways, histopathological analysis, the TUNEL assay and Western blotting were performed on the excised hearts from three groups of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were divided into a sham-operated group (SHR-Sham), bilaterally ovariectomized group (SHR-OVX) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Compared with the WKY group, the SHR-Sham group exhibited decreased protein levels of ERα, ERβ, p-Akt/Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad and decreased further in the SHR-OVX group, as well as protein levels of t-Bid, Bak, Bad, Bax, cytochrome c, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) increased in the SHR-Sham group and increased further in the SHR-OVX group...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929040/involvement-of-p2x7-receptor-in-neuronal-degeneration-triggered-by-traumatic-injury
#16
Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás, Caridad Galindo-Romero, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, María Barberà-Cremades, Carlos deTorre-Minguela, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Pablo Pelegrín, Marta Agudo-Barriuso
Axonal injury is a common feature of central nervous system insults that culminates with the death of the affected neurons, and an irreversible loss of function. Inflammation is an important component of the neurodegenerative process, where the microglia plays an important role by releasing proinflammatory factors as well as clearing the death neurons by phagocytosis. Here we have identified the purinergic signaling through the P2X7 receptor as an important component for the neuronal death in a model of optic nerve axotomy...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928637/molecular-functions-of-xanthomonas-type-iii-effector-avrbst-and-its-plant-interactors-in-cell-death-and-defense-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Sang Wook Han, Byung Kook Hwang
Xanthomonas effector AvrBsT interacts with plant defense proteins and triggers cell death and defense response. This review highlights our current understanding of the molecular functions of AvrBsT and its host interactor proteins. The AvrBsT protein is a member of a growing family of effector proteins in both plant and animal pathogens. Xanthomonas type III effector AvrBsT, a member of the YopJ/AvrRxv family, suppresses plant defense responses in susceptible hosts, but triggers cell death signaling leading to hypersensitive response (HR) and defense responses in resistant plants...
December 7, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928159/effect-of-trem-1-blockade-and-single-nucleotide-variants-in-experimental-renal-injury-and-kidney-transplantation
#18
A Tammaro, J Kers, D Emal, I Stroo, G J D Teske, L M Butter, N Claessen, J Damman, M Derive, G Navis, S Florquin, J C Leemans, M C Dessing
Renal ischemia reperfusion (IR)-injury induces activation of innate immune response which sustains renal injury and contributes to the development of delayed graft function (DGF). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a pro-inflammatory evolutionary conserved pattern recognition receptor expressed on a variety of innate immune cells. TREM-1 expression increases following acute and chronic renal injury. However, the function of TREM-1 in renal IR is still unclear. Here, we investigated expression and function of TREM-1 in a murine model of renal IR using different TREM-1 inhibitors: LP17, LR12 and TREM-1 fusion protein...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928016/promising-role-of-toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-in-concert-with-prostratin-for-activation-of-silent-hiv
#19
M A Rochat, E Schlaepfer, R F Speck
: The persistence of latently HIV-infected cells in patients under combined anti-retroviral treatment (cART) remains the major hurdle for HIV eradication. Thus far, individual compounds have not been sufficiently potent to reactivate latent virus and guarantee its elimination in vivo Thus, we hypothesized that transcriptional enhancers, in concert with compounds triggering the innate immune system, are more efficient in reversing latency by creating a Th1 supportive milieu that acts against latently HIV-infected cells at various levels...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927774/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-sunitinib-efficacy-in-clear-cell-ovarian-carcinoma
#20
Lindsay DeVorkin, Matthew Hattersley, Paul Kim, Jenna Ries, Jaeline Spowart, Michael S Anglesio, Samuel M Levi, David G Huntsman, Ravi K Amaravadi, Jeffrey D Winkler, Anna V Tinker, Julian J Lum
: Clear cell ovarian carcinoma (CCOC) is an aggressive form of epithelial ovarian cancer that exhibits low response rates to systemic therapy and poor patient outcomes. Multiple studies in CCOC have revealed expression profiles consistent with increased hypoxia, and our previous data suggests that hypoxia is correlated with increased autophagy in CCOC. Hypoxia-induced autophagy is a key factor promoting tumor cell survival and resistance to therapy. Recent clinical trials with the molecular-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor sunitinib have demonstrated limited activity...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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