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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777504/implementation-and-validation-of-constitutive-relations-for-human-dermis-mechanical-response
#1
Alessandra Aldieri, Mara Terzini, Cristina Bignardi, Elisabetta M Zanetti, Alberto L Audenino
Finite element models in conjunction with adequate constitutive relations are pivotal in several physiological and medical applications related to both native and engineered tissues, allowing to predict the tissue response under various loading states. In order to get reliable results, however, the validation of the constitutive models is crucial. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to provide an experimental-computational approach to the biomechanical investigation of soft tissues such as the dermis...
May 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776111/star-polymers-as-unit-cells-for-coarse-graining-cross-linked-networks
#2
Taras Y Molotilin, Salim R Maduar, Olga I Vinogradova
Reducing the complexity of cross-linked polymer networks by preserving their main macroscale properties is key to understanding them, and a crucial issue is to relate individual properties of the polymer constituents to those of the reduced network. Here we study polymer networks in a good solvent, by considering star polymers as their unit elements, and first quantify the interaction between their centers of masses. We then reduce the complexity of a network by replacing sets of its bridged star polymers by equivalent effective soft particles with dense cores...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774779/image-guided-radiation-therapy-for-post-operative-gynaecologic-cancer-patient-set-up-verification-with-and-without-implanted-fiducial-markers
#3
Donna H Murrell, Andrew Warner, Quinn Benwell, Wendy Wells, Danielle Scott, Vikram Velker, George Hajdok, David P D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat gynaecological malignancies in the postoperative setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with fiducial markers for daily localization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single institution study was performed of consecutive cervical or endometrial cancer patients receiving adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (n = 15)...
May 18, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774199/malignant-metastasis-misdiagnosed-as-osteoporotic-compression-fracture-a-case-report
#4
Seul Gi Kim, Chang Il Ju, Hui Sun Wang, Seok Won Kim
In cases of vertebral collapse after a trivial injury in elderly patients with severe osteoporosis, it can be a diagnostic challenge to determine whether the cause is a benign compression fracture or malignant metastasis. A 78-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department for the evaluation of weakness of the left lower limb. He had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty four months earlier after being diagnosed with L3 osteoporotic compression fracture. He was treated with foraminotomy at the L3-4 level after being diagnosed with foraminal stenosis two months earlier at a spine clinic...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773811/coherent-control-schemes-for-the-photoionization-of-neon-and-helium-in-the-extreme-ultraviolet-spectral-region
#5
Luca Giannessi, Enrico Allaria, Kevin C Prince, Carlo Callegari, Giuseppe Sansone, Kiyoshi Ueda, Toru Morishita, Chien Nan Liu, Alexei N Grum-Grzhimailo, Elena V Gryzlova, Nicolas Douguet, Klaus Bartschat
The seeded Free-Electron Laser (FEL) FERMI is the first source of short-wavelength light possessing the full coherence of optical lasers, together with the extreme power available from FELs. FERMI provides longitudinally coherent radiation in the Extreme Ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions, and therefore opens up wide new fields of investigation in physics. We first propose experiments exploiting this property to provide coherent control of the photoionization of neon and helium, carry out numerical calculations to find optimum experimental parameters, and then describe how these experiments may be realized...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772061/an-image-guided-radiotherapy-decision-support-framework-incorporating-a-bayesian-network-and-visualization-tool
#6
Catriona Hargrave, Timothy Deegan, Tomasz Bednarz, Michael Poulsen, Fiona Harden, Kerrie Mengersen
PURPOSE: To describe a Bayesian network (BN) and complementary visualization tool, that aim to support decision-making during online cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-based image guide radiotherapy (IGRT) for prostate cancer patients. METHODS: The BN was created to represent relationships between observed prostate, proximal seminal vesicle (PSV), bladder and rectum volume variations, an image feature alignment score (FASTV _ OAR ), delivered dose and treatment plan compliance (TPC)...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768298/orbital-cellulitis-when-computed-tomography-imaging-is-falsely-reassuring
#7
Arsany Basily, Sasha Mansukhani, Andrew Anzeljc, Peter Gutierrez
An 8-year-old male presented to the pediatric emergency department with subjective fever, blurry vision, and left eye pain. On physical examination, there was mild left lower lid erythema and a subtle left eye elevation deficit. Computed tomography demonstrated preseptal soft tissue swelling without orbital involvement; however, there was varying amounts of paranasal sinus opacification. Despite the negative scan, a diagnosis of orbital cellulitis associated with sinusitis was made and treatment with intravenous antibiotics was initiated...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767426/uncommon-optical-properties-and-silver-responsive-turn-off-on-luminescence-in-a-pt-ii-heteroleptic-dithiolene-complex
#8
Salahuddin S Attar, Flavia Artizzu, Luciano Marchiò, Davide Espa, Luca Pilia, Maria Francesca Casula, Angela Serpe, Maddalena Pizzotti, Alessio Orbelli Biroli, Paola Deplano
The complex [Pt(i-Pr2pipdt)(Quinoxdt)] (i-Pr2pipdt = 1,4-di-isopropyl-piperazine-2,3-dithione; Quinoxdt= [1,4]dithiino[2,3-b]quinoxaline-2,3-dithiolate) exhibits a remarkable green emission at 550 nm (room temperature), which is above the lowest excited state. The complex is characterized by negative solvatochromism as well as a high second-order polarizability. Addition of Ag(I) ions induces i) hypsochromic shift of the lowest frequencies; and ii) reversible quenching of luminescence. The corresponding Ni and Pd complexes have been also prepared and investigated to assist interpretation of optical properties within the triad...
May 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766758/anti-inflammatory-peptide-attenuates-edema-and-promotes-bmp-2-induced-bone-formation-in-spine-fusion
#9
Juliane D Glaeser, Khosrowdad Salehi, Linda Kanim, Dmitriy Sheyn, Zachary NaPier, Phillip Behrens, Leslie Garcia, Jason M Cuéllar, Hyun W Bae
Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) have been successfully used to enhance bone formation and to induce spinal fusion in humans. However, side effects, such as soft-tissue edema and inflammation, have been reported. NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD) inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of immune response. In this study, we investigated NBD's potential to reduce BMP-2-induced soft-tissue inflammation without affecting BMP-2-mediated spinal fusion in rat...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763506/simplifying-zygomatic-implant-site-preparation-using-ultrasonic-navigation-a-technical-note
#10
Gerardo Pellegrino, Achille Tarsitano, Valerio Taraschi, Tomaso Vercellotti, Claudio Marchetti
Zygomatic implant site preparation could be considered a challenging procedure because of the use of a very long twist drill that could sometimes be difficult to control due to the need for drilling the malar bone on an oblique surface. Ultrasound was recently suggested to achieve better control, but the specific long tips required are not readily available, and the elongated tip also tends to reduce the efficacy. This technical note describes a proposal of a novel computer-aided technique to simplify the procedure of zygomatic implant site preparation...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761555/computational-optimization-of-graft-tension-in-simulated-superior-capsule-reconstructions
#11
Michael W Hast, Elaine Schmidt, John D Kelly, Josh R Baxter
Superior capsular reconstruction has received increased attention as a surgical technique to address massive 'irreparable' rotator cuff tears; however, the functional limitations and surgical techniques associated with this repair have yet to be sufficiently explored. The goal of this study was to utilize a multidisciplinary approach to characterize the biomechanics of this repair by: 1) identifying activities of daily living that may overburden graft, and 2) optimizing surgical techniques used during implantation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761359/ct-colonography-size-reduction-of-submerged-colorectal-polyps-due-to-electronic-cleansing-and-ct-window-settings
#12
Christian Bräuer, Philippe Lefere, Stefaan Gryspeerdt, Helmut Ringl, Ali Al-Mukhtar, Paul Apfaltrer, Dominik Berzaczy, Barbara Füger, Julia Furtner, Christina Müller-Mang, Matthias Pones, Martina Scharitzer, Ramona Woitek, Anno Graser, Michael Weber, Thomas Mang
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether electronic cleansing (EC) of tagged residue and different computed tomography (CT) windows influence the size of colorectal polyps in CT colonography (CTC). METHODS: A database of 894 colonoscopy-validated CTC datasets of a low-prevalence cohort was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with polyps ≥6 mm that were entirely submerged in tagged residue. Ten radiologists independently measured the largest diameter of each polyp, two-dimensionally, before and after EC in colon, bone, and soft-tissue-windows, in randomised order...
May 14, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758608/glass-transition-of-soft-colloids
#13
Adrian-Marie Philippe, Domenico Truzzolillo, Julian Galvan-Myoshi, Philippe Dieudonné-George, Véronique Trappe, Ludovic Berthier, Luca Cipelletti
We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τ_{α} of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τ_{α} on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757668/a-case-of-parasitic-twinning-or-caudal-duplication-in-a-dog
#14
Janet A Grimes, Adrien-Maxence Hespel, Robert C Cole, A Ray Dillon
A 6 mo old 13.5 kg (29.7 lb) male intact American Staffordshire terrier was evaluated for a history of supernumerary pelvic limbs, with malodorous discharge from a supernumerary penis. Imaging (radiographs, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography with excretory urogram) showed a supernumerary pelvis with associated pelvic limbs, no osseous continuity with the primary spinal column, a colonic diverticulum extending to the supernumerary pelvis, an enlarged left kidney with a ureter connecting to a single bladder, right renal aplasia, a single descended testicle in the primary scrotum, an intra-abdominal cryptorchid testicle, and two unidentifiable soft tissue masses...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756940/dynamic-displacement-disorder-of-cubic-batio_-3
#15
M Paściak, T R Welberry, J Kulda, S Leoni, J Hlinka
The three-dimensional distribution of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity of BaTiO_{3} has been recorded in a synchrotron experiment and simultaneously computed using molecular dynamics simulations of a shell model. Together, these have allowed the details of the disorder in paraelectric BaTiO_{3} to be clarified. The narrow sheets of diffuse scattering, related to the famous anisotropic longitudinal correlations of Ti ions, are shown to be caused by the overdamped anharmonic soft phonon branch. This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of narrow sheets of diffuse scattering agrees with a displacive picture of the cubic phase of this textbook ferroelectric material...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755584/development-and-validation-of-an-age-specific-lower-extremity-finite-element-model-for-simulating-pedestrian-accidents
#16
Jing Huang, Yongcheng Long, Yu Yan, Lin Hu
The objective of the present study is to develop an age-specific lower extremity finite element model for pedestrian accident simulation. Finite element (FE) models have been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms and assess injury risk during crashes. However, current computational models only represent certain ages in the population, the age spectrum of the pedestrian victims is very large, and the geometry of anatomical structures and material property of the lower extremities changes with age for adults, which could affect the injury tolerance, especially in at-risk populations such as the elderly...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755270/histiocytic-lesions-of-the-orbit-a-study-of-9-cases
#17
A Kaan Gündüz, Emine Temel
Purpose: To describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of patients with histiocytic lesions of the orbit. Methods: Retrospective study of 9 patients treated and followed up between October 2001 and January 2018. Results: Eight patients in our series were males and one patient was female. The mean age at presentation was 16.8 years (range, 1 to 42 years). All patients had unilateral disease. The most common presenting complaint was upper eyelid swelling in 8 of 9...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754856/three-dimensional-dental-and-craniofacial-manifestations-in-patients-with-late-diagnosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-report-of-2-cases
#18
Rafaela de Oliveira Torres, Andréa Vaz Braga Pintor, Fábio Ribeiro Guedes, Lucia Helena Soares Cevidanes, Liana Bastos Freitas-Fernandes, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de Souza
The objective of this study was to report the clinical evaluation results and 3-dimensional (3-D) dental and craniofacial characteristics observed in 2 male patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. The patients were evaluated clinically (soft tissue evaluation, evaluation of occlusion, periodontal and dental examinations) and by using craniofacial computed tomography, with evaluation of 3-D images in ITK-Snap v. 2.2 (Penn Image Computing and Science Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA; http://www.itksnap.org/) and 3-D Slicer (http://www...
April 16, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752637/robust-path-planning-for-flexible-needle-insertion-using-markov-decision-processes
#19
Xiaoyu Tan, Pengqian Yu, Kah-Bin Lim, Chee-Kong Chui
PURPOSE: Flexible needle has the potential to accurately navigate to a treatment region in the least invasive manner. We propose a new planning method using Markov decision processes (MDPs) for flexible needle navigation that can perform robust path planning and steering under the circumstance of complex tissue-needle interactions. METHODS: This method enhances the robustness of flexible needle steering from three different perspectives. First, the method considers the problem caused by soft tissue deformation...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752509/current-concepts-and-future-perspectives-in-computer-assisted-navigated-total-knee-replacement
#20
REVIEW
Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Naoki Nakano, John E Lawrence, Vikas Khanduja
BACKGROUND: Total knee replacements (TKR) aim to restore stability of the tibiofemoral and patella-femoral joints and provide relief of pain and improved quality of life for the patient. In recent years, computer-assisted navigation systems have been developed with the aim of reducing human error in joint alignment and improving patient outcomes. METHODS: We examined the current body of evidence surrounding the use of navigation systems and discussed their current and future role in TKR...
May 12, 2018: International Orthopaedics
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