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Dimitry Bazyka, Anatoly Prysyazhnyuk, Natalya Gudzenko, Iryna Dyagil, David Belyi, Vadim Chumak, Volodymyr Buzunov
This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period...
July 2018: Health Physics
Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Marikunte V Venkataranganna, Nunna Bheema Lingeswara Prasad, Shylaja Hanumanthappa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Colebrookea oppositifolia Smith is one of the extensively used plants to treat neurological conditions such as epilepsy by the various ethnic communities in sub-Himalayan regions of India such as Bhoxa, Tharu and nomadic Gujjars. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of C. oppositifolia methanolic root (MeCO) extract in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MeCO was characterized for total phenolic content and later subjected for detailed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fatemeh Maghuly, Stephan Pabinger, Julie Krainer, Margit Laimer
Mutagenesis in combination with Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) is a powerful tool for introducing variation, studying gene function and identifying causal mutations underlying phenotypes of interest in crop plant genomes. About 400 million paired-end reads were obtained from 82 ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) induced mutants and 14 wild-type accessions of Jatropha curcas for the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Insertion/Deletions (InDels) by two different approaches (nGBS and ddGBS) on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Changsong Zhou, Zijian Song, Hongmin Yang, Hao Wu, Ben Wang, Jie Yu, Lushi Sun
Elemental mercury (Hg0 ) emitted from coal-fired power plants and municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators has caused great harm to the environment and human beings. The strong oxidized • OH radicals produced by UV/H2 O2 advanced oxidation processes were studied to investigate the performance of Hg0 removal from simulated flue gases. The results showed that when H2 O2 concentration was 1.0 mol/L and the solution pH value was 4.1, the UV/H2 O2 system had the highest Hg0 removal efficiency. The optimal reaction temperature was approximately 50 °C and Hg0 removal was inhibited when the temperature was higher or lower...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Islam Javedankherad, Jahangard Mohammadi, Roholla Taghizadeh
Due to directly receiving high volume of untreated urban and industrial sewage and in turn transferring the pollutants to fish and back to humans, the International Anzali Wetland has been considered to be urgently registered in the Montreux Record. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine the spatial distribution of the linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in surface sediments of the wetland and its sewage contamination situation. The surface sediments (sampling stations = 167) were collected from the western, eastern, southwest, and central regions of the wetland...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexander W Peterson, Michael Halter, Alessandro Tona, Anne L Plant, John T Elliott
Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful label-free imaging technique with spatial resolution approaching the optical diffraction limit. The high sensitivity of SPRM to small changes in index of refraction at an interface allows imaging of dynamic protein structures within a cell. Visualization of subcellular features, such as focal adhesions (FAs), can be performed on live cells using a high numerical aperture objective lens with a digital light projector to precisely position the incident angle of the excitation light...
2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Alexandre Poirier, Amélie Banc, Antonio Stocco, Martin In, Laurence Ramos
Gliadins are edible wheat storage proteins well known for their surface active properties. In this paper, we present experimental results on the interfacial properties of acidic solutions of gliadin studied over 5 decades of concentrations, from 0.001 to 110 g/L. Dynamic pendant drop tensiometry reveals that the surface pressure Π of gliadin solutions builds up in a multistep process. The series of curves of the time evolution of Π collected at different bulk protein concentrations C can be merged onto a single master curve when Π is plotted as a function of αt where t is the time elapsed since the formation of the air/water interface and α is a shift parameter that varies with C as a power law with an exponent 2...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lubna, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Hamayun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Rahmatullah Jan, In-Jung Lee, Anwar Hussain
Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Peter Gregorčič, Matevž Zupančič, Iztok Golobič
Nucleate boiling enables effective cooling and heat transfer at low temperature differences between a heated surface and the surrounding fluid. It is utilized in many applications, ranging from large power plants to small microelectronics. To enhance the boiling process by minimization of the surface temperature and increase the maximum attainable heat flux, several approaches for surface modifications were recently developed. However, each of them has at least one important drawback, including challenging and expensive production, mechanical and/or thermal instability or problematic scale-up...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Zhang, Yu Zhao, Hong Bo He, Xu Dong Zhang
Elevated atmospheric CO2 affects plant photosynthesis process and biomass accumulation, furthermore alters the distribution of photosynthetic carbon (C) above- and below-ground. The formation and turnover of soil organic carbon (SOC) depends on the input of photosynthetic C, so the change of plant physiology and metabolism caused by increasing CO2 concentration will further affect the balance of SOC pool. Therefore, stable isotope 13 C technique is powerful for clarifying the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 on C cycling in plant-soil system, including the distribution of photosynthetic C among plant organs, and the transformation and accumulation of photosynthetic C in soil...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jerzy Drzewiecki, Alma Leticia Martinez-Ayala, María A Lozano-Grande, Hanna Leontowicz, Maria Leontowicz, Zenon Jastrzebski, Pawel Pasko, Shela Gorinstein
Electrophoretic, antioxidant, and FTIR profiles of some varieties of amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat seeds and their by products were compared. Water extracts of these products were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method in order to determine total phenolic content. The antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide, ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity radical scavenging assays. FTIR spectra showed the secondary structure of pseudocereals in the ranges of amides I, II, and III shifts...
May 9, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Adam Varley, Andrew Tyler, Yuri Bondar, Ali Hosseini, Viachaslau Zabrotski, Mark Dowdall
Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hungyen Chen, Ching-Yi Chen, Kwang-Tsao Shao
Long-term time series datasets with consistent sampling methods are rather rare, especially the ones of non-target coastal fishes. Here we described a long-term time series dataset of fish collected by trammel net fish sampling and observed by an underwater diving visual census near the thermal discharges at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Both experimental and control stations of these two investigations were monitored four times per year in the surrounding seas at both plants from 2000 to 2017...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Data
Atsuko Kobayashi, Masamoto Horikawa, Joseph L Kirschvink, Harry N Golash
In supercooled water, ice nucleation is a stochastic process that requires ∼250-300 molecules to transiently achieve structural ordering before an embryonic seed crystal can nucleate. This happens most easily on crystalline surfaces, in a process termed heterogeneous nucleation; without such surfaces, water droplets will supercool to below -30 °C before eventually freezing homogeneously. A variety of fundamental processes depends on heterogeneous ice nucleation, ranging from desert-blown dust inducing precipitation in clouds to frost resistance in plants...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qili Dai, Xiaohui Bi, Baoshuang Liu, Liwei Li, Jing Ding, Wenbin Song, Shiyang Bi, Benjamin C Schulze, Congbo Song, Jianhui Wu, Yufen Zhang, Yinchang Feng, Philip K Hopke
In Xi'an, a city that frequently experiences serious PM pollution in northern China, 1476 PM10 and 1464 PM2.5 valid daily filter samples were collected at six sites from December 2014 to November 2015 and analyzed for 29 species. The annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 149.4 ± 93.1, 108.0 ± 70.9 μg/m3 , respectively. Organic carbon (OC) is the predominant PM2.5 component while crustal material predominated in PM10 . Sulfate concentrations, which was the largest component in Xi'an PM in previous studies, were lower than nitrate...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nikhil Maheshwari, Fahim Halim Khan, Riaz Mahmood
Arsenic (As) is a potent environmental toxicant and chronic exposure to it results in various malignancies in humans. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of As-induced toxicity. This investigated the protective effect of plant antioxidant 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DHB) on sodium meta-arsenite (SA), an As-(III) compound, induced oxidative damage in human red blood cells (RBC). The RBC were first incubated with different concentrations of DHB and then treated with SA at 37°C. Hemolysates were prepared and assayed for various biochemical parameters...
May 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Jose C Tovar, J Steen Hoyer, Andy Lin, Allison Tielking, Steven T Callen, S Elizabeth Castillo, Michael Miller, Monica Tessman, Noah Fahlgren, James C Carrington, Dmitri A Nusinow, Malia A Gehan
Premise of the Study: Image-based phenomics is a powerful approach to capture and quantify plant diversity. However, commercial platforms that make consistent image acquisition easy are often cost-prohibitive. To make high-throughput phenotyping methods more accessible, low-cost microcomputers and cameras can be used to acquire plant image data. Methods and Results: We used low-cost Raspberry Pi computers and cameras to manage and capture plant image data. Detailed here are three different applications of Raspberry Pi-controlled imaging platforms for seed and shoot imaging...
March 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Kun Hua Wei, Jian Ping Xu, Lin Xuan Li, Jin Yuan Cai, Jian Hua Miao, Min Hui Li
Background: Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important medical plant in China. Early researches of S. tonkinensis were focused on rapid propagation and quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlet, and still no research focuses on the plant breeding of and there were no excellent varieties for artificial cultivation of S. tonkinensis . Objective: To set up a method to generate and select the best varieties of S. tonkinensis by polyploid breeding after induction by colchicine treatment...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Joan A Casey, Alison Gemmill, Deborah Karasek, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Dana E Goin, Rachel Morello-Frosch
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the relationship between air pollution and fertility. We used a natural experiment in California when coal and oil power plants retired to estimate associations with nearby fertility rates. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences negative binomial model on the incident rate ratio scale to analyze the change in annual fertility rates among California mothers living within 0-5 km and 5-10 km of 8 retired power plants between 2001 and 2011...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
François Lagacé, Delphine Foucher, Céline Surette, Olivier Clarisse
To assess radium (226 Ra) as a potential indicator of impact in well waters, we investigated its behavior under natural conditions using a case study approach. 226 Ra geochemistry was investigated in 67 private wells of southeastern New Brunswick, Canada, a region targeted for potential shale gas exploitation. Objectives were to i) establish 226 Ra baseline in groundwater; ii) characterize 226 Ra spatial distribution and temporal variability; iii) characterize 226 Ra partitioning between dissolved phase and particulate forms in well waters; and iv) understand the mechanisms controlling 226 Ra mobility under natural environmental settings...
April 18, 2018: Chemosphere
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