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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527861/cellular-computational-generalized-neuron-network-for-frequency-situational-intelligence-in-a-multi-machine-power-system
#1
Yawei Wei, Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy
To prevent large interconnected power system from a cascading failure, brownout or even blackout, grid operators require access to faster than real-time information to make appropriate just-in-time control decisions. However, the communication and computational system limitations of currently used supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can only deliver delayed information. However, the deployment of synchrophasor measurement devices makes it possible to capture and visualize, in near-real-time, grid operational data with extra granularity...
April 4, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523919/editing-plants-for-virus-resistance-using-crispr-cas
#2
J C Green, J S Hu
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505866/spatial-uniformity-in-the-power-grid-system
#3
Mi Jin Lee, Beom Jun Kim
Robust synchronization is indispensable for stable operation of a power grid. Recently, it has been reported that a large number of decentralized generators, rather than a small number of large power plants, provide enhanced synchronization together with greater robustness against structural failures. In this paper, we systematically control the spatial uniformity of the geographical distribution of generators and conclude that the more uniformly generators are distributed, the more enhanced synchronization occurs...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505078/intra-minute-cloud-passing-forecasting-based-on-a-low-cost-iot-sensor-a-solution-for-smoothing-the-output-power-of-pv-power-plants
#4
Primož Sukič, Gorazd Štumberger
Clouds moving at a high speed in front of the Sun can cause step changes in the output power of photovoltaic (PV) power plants, which can lead to voltage fluctuations and stability problems in the connected electricity networks. These effects can be reduced effectively by proper short-term cloud passing forecasting and suitable PV power plant output power control. This paper proposes a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT)-based solution for intra-minute cloud passing forecasting. The hardware consists of a Raspberry PI Model B 3 with a WiFi connection and an OmniVision OV5647 sensor with a mounted wide-angle lens, a circular polarizing (CPL) filter and a natural density (ND) filter...
May 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501780/low-power-continuous-wave-laser-seed-irradiation-effect-on-moringa-oleifera-germination-seedling-growth-and-biochemical-attributes
#5
Urva, Hina Shafique, Yasir Jamil, Zia Ul Haq, Tamveel Mujahid, Aman Ullah Khan, Munawar Iqbal, Mazhar Abbas
Recently, laser application in agriculture has gained much attention since plant characteristics were improved significantly in response of pre-sowing seed treatment. Pre-sowing laser seed treatment effects on germination, seedling growth and mineral profile were studied in Moringa olifera. M. olifera healthy seeds were exposed to 25, 50, 75mJ low power continuous wave laser light and grown under greenhouse conditions. The seedling growth and biochemical attributes were evaluated from 10-day-old seedlings. The germination parameters (percentage, mean germination time), vigor index, seedling growth (root length, seedling length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root dry weight) enhanced considerably...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500764/phylogeny-is-a-powerful-tool-for-predicting-plant-biomass-responses-to-nitrogen-enrichment
#6
Rachel C Wooliver, Zachary H Marion, Christopher R Peterson, Brad M Potts, John K Senior, Joseph K Bailey, Jennifer A Schweitzer
Increasing rates of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment to soils often lead to the dominance of nitrophilic plant species and reduce plant diversity in natural ecosystems. Yet, we lack a framework to predict which species will be winners or losers in soil N enrichment scenarios, a framework that current literature suggests should integrate plant phylogeny, functional trade-offs, and nutrient co-limitation. Using a controlled fertilization experiment, we quantified biomass responses to N enrichment for 23 forest tree species within the genus Eucalyptus that are native to Tasmania, Australia...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499365/investigation-of-dna-repair-related-snps-underlying-susceptibility-to-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-reveals-mgmt-as-a-novel-candidate-gene-in-belarusian-children-exposed-to-radiation
#7
Christine Lonjou, Francesca Damiola, Monika Moissonnier, Geoffroy Durand, Irina Malakhova, Vladimir Masyakin, Florence Le Calvez-Kelm, Elisabeth Cardis, Graham Byrnes, Ausrele Kesminiene, Fabienne Lesueur
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors may influence an individual's sensitivity to ionising radiation and therefore modify his/her risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previously, we reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA damage recognition gene ATM contribute to PTC risk in Belarusian children exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl power plant accident. Here we explored in the same population the contribution of a panel of DNA repair-related SNPs in genes acting downstream of ATM...
May 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494311/bromination-of-petroleum-coke-for-elemental-mercury-capture
#8
Yi Xiao, Deepak Pudasainee, Rajender Gupta, Zhenghe Xu, Yongfa Diao
Activated carbon injection has been proven to be an effective control technology of mercury emission from coal-fired power plants. Petroleum coke is a waste by-product of petroleum refining with large quantities readily available around the world. Due to its high inherent sulfur content, petroleum coke is an attractive raw material for developing mercury capture sorbent, converting a waste material to a value-added product of important environmental applications. In this study, petroleum coke was brominated by chemical-mechanical bromination...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490255/developing-a-taxonomy-of-coordination-behaviors-in-nuclear-power-plant-control-rooms-during-emergencies
#9
Dunxing Wang, Qin Gao, Zhizhong Li, Fei Song, Liang Ma
This study aims to develop a taxonomy of coordination behaviors during emergencies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We summarized basic coordination behaviors from literature in aviation, healthcare, and nuclear field and identified coordination behaviors specific to the nuclear domain by interviewing and surveying control crew operators. The established taxonomy includes seven workflow stages and 24 basic coordination behaviors. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy, we analyzed 12 videos of operators' training sessions by coding coordination behaviors with the taxonomy and the inter-rater reliability was acceptable...
May 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484480/single-event-resolution-of-plant-plasma-membrane-protein-endocytosis-by-tirf-microscopy
#10
Alexander Johnson, Grégory Vert
Endocytosis is a key process in the internalization of extracellular materials and plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors and transporters, thereby controlling many aspects of cell signaling and cellular homeostasis. Endocytosis in plants has an essential role not only for basic cellular functions but also for growth and development, nutrient delivery, toxin avoidance, and pathogen defense. The precise mechanisms of endocytosis in plants remain quite elusive. The lack of direct visualization and examination of single events of endocytosis has greatly hampered our ability to precisely monitor the cell surface lifetime and the recruitment profile of proteins driving endocytosis or endocytosed cargos in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482455/substantial-air-quality-and-climate-co-benefits-achievable-now-with-sectoral-mitigation-strategies-in-china
#11
Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, Fabian Wagner, Denise L Mauzerall
China is the world's top carbon emitter and suffers from severe air pollution. We examine near-term air quality and CO2 co-benefits of various current sector-based policies in China. Using a 2015 base case, we evaluate the potential benefits of four sectoral mitigation strategies. All scenarios include a 20% increase in conventional air pollution controls as well as the following sector-specific fuel switching or technology upgrade strategies. Power sector (POW): 80% replacement of small coal power plants with larger more efficient ones; Industry sector (IND): 10% improvement in energy efficiency; Transport sector (TRA): replacement of high emitters with average vehicle fleet emissions; and Residential sector (RES): replacement of 20% of coal-based stoves with stoves using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470498/ashes-from-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-residual-forest-biomass-recycling-to-soil-as-a-viable-management-option
#12
Nuno C Cruz, Sónia M Rodrigues, Lina Carvalho, Armando C Duarte, Eduarda Pereira, Paul F A M Römkens, Luís A C Tarelho
Although bottom ash (BA) [or mixtures of bottom and fly ash (FA)] from clean biomass fuels is currently used as liming agent, additive for compost, and fertilizer on agricultural and forest soils in certain European countries, in several other countries most of the ashes are currently disposed in landfills. This is due to both a lack of a proper classification of the materials and of regulatory barriers.Chemical characterization including analysis of an array of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) proved that over 100,000 tons of BA currently landfilled every year in Portugal actually complied with legal limits for PTEs for soil fertilizers applied in other countries...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469629/qtl-for-maize-midparent-heterosis-in-the-heterotic-pattern-american-dent-%C3%A3-european-flint-under-corn-borer-pressure
#13
Luis F Samayoa, Rosa A Malvar, Ana Butrón
Despite the importance of heterosis and the efforts to comprehend this phenomenon, its molecular bases are still unknown. In this study, we intended to detect Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mid-parent heterosis under infestation with the Mediterranean corn borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) using a North Carolina design III approach with a RIL population derived from a European flint inbred (EP42) × American dent inbred (A637) cross. QTL for heterosis of kernel yield have been positioned in regions corresponding to previously identified QTL for the same trait in different backgrounds...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455492/seasonal-variations-of-leaf-and-canopy-properties-tracked-by-ground-based-ndvi-imagery-in-a-temperate-forest
#14
Hualei Yang, Xi Yang, Mary Heskel, Shucun Sun, Jianwu Tang
Changes in plant phenology affect the carbon flux of terrestrial forest ecosystems due to the link between the growing season length and vegetation productivity. Digital camera imagery, which can be acquired frequently, has been used to monitor seasonal and annual changes in forest canopy phenology and track critical phenological events. However, quantitative assessment of the structural and biochemical controls of the phenological patterns in camera images has rarely been done. In this study, we used an NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) camera to monitor daily variations of vegetation reflectance at visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and found that the infrared camera based NDVI (camera-NDVI) agreed well with the leaf expansion process that was measured by independent manual observations at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454641/design-of-pi-%C3%AE-d-%C3%AE-controller-for-global-power-control-of-pressurized-heavy-water-reactor
#15
M R Bongulwar, B M Patre
In this paper, a robust stabilizing controller design method is presented for global power control of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) under step-back condition scheme using a Fractional Order Proportional Integral Derivative (PI(λ)D(μ)) controller resulting into robust performance. The method is applicable to design a controller for One Non Integer Order Plus Time Delay (NIOPTD-I) plant which satisfies design specifications such as phase margin and gain crossover frequency. Stability boundary locus method is used in (Kp, Ki, Kd) parameter space for NIOPTD-I plants to obtain stability region...
April 25, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441437/quantitative-modeling-of-responses-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-effects
#16
Igor Shuryak
The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE) caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE) caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440574/a-worldview-of-root-traits-the-influence-of-ancestry-growth-form-climate-and-mycorrhizal-association-on-the-functional-trait-variation-of-fine-root-tissues-in-seed-plants
#17
Oscar J Valverde-Barrantes, Grégoire T Freschet, Catherine Roumet, Christopher B Blackwood
Fine-root traits play key roles in ecosystem processes, but the drivers of fine-root trait diversity remain poorly understood. The plant economic spectrum (PES) hypothesis predicts that leaf and root traits evolved in coordination. Mycorrhizal association type, plant growth form and climate may also affect root traits. However, the extent to which these controls are confounded with phylogenetic structuring remains unclear. Here we compiled information about root and leaf traits for > 600 species. Using phylogenetic relatedness, climatic ranges, growth form and mycorrhizal associations, we quantified the importance of these factors in the global distribution of fine-root traits...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434531/surface-properties-of-magnetite-in-high-temperature-aqueous-electrolyte-solutions-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Sonja M Vidojkovic, Marko P Rakin
Deposits and scales formed on heat transfer surfaces in power plant water/steam circuits have a significant negative impact on plant reliability, availability and performance, causing tremendous economic consequences and subsequent increases in electricity cost. Consequently, the improvement of the understanding of deposition mechanisms on power generating surfaces is defined as a high priority in the power industry. The deposits consist principally of iron oxides, which are steel corrosion products and usually present in colloidal form...
August 18, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#19
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416223/study-on-emission-of-hazardous-trace-elements-in-a-350%C3%A2-mw-coal-fired-power-plant-part-2-arsenic-chromium-barium-manganese-lead
#20
Shilin Zhao, Yufeng Duan, Lei Chen, Yaning Li, Ting Yao, Shuai Liu, Meng Liu, Jianhong Lu
Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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