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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151188/dry-flue-gas-desulfurization-by-product-application-effects-on-plant-uptake-and-soil-storage-changes-in-a-managed-grassland
#1
Jason R Burgess-Conforti, Kristofor R Brye, David M Miller, Erik D Pollock, Lisa S Wood
Environmental regulations mandate that sulfur dioxide (SO2) be removed from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants, which results in the generation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. These FGD by-products may be a viable soil amendment, but the large amounts of trace elements contained in FGD by-products are potentially concerning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of land application of a high-Ca dry FGD (DFGD) by-product on trace elements in aboveground biomass and soil...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148804/a-nanobionic-light-emitting-plant
#2
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Juan Pablo Giraldo, Min Hao Wong, Volodymyr Koman, Tedrick Lew, Jon Ell, Mark Weidman, Rosalie Sinclair, Markita P Landry, William A Tisdale, Michael S Strano
The engineering of living plants for visible light emission and sustainable illumination is compelling because plants possess independent energy generation and storage mechanisms and autonomous self-repair. Herein, we demonstrate a plant nanobionic approach that enables exceptional luminosity and lifetime utilizing four chemically-interacting nanoparticles, including firefly luciferase conjugated silica (SNP-Luc), D-luciferin releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-LH2), coenzyme A functionalized chitosan (CS-CoA) and semiconductor nanocrystal phosphors for longer wavelength modulation...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147812/geissoschizine-synthase-controls-flux-in-the-formation-of-monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids-in-a-catharanthus-roseus-mutant
#3
Yang Qu, Antje M K Thamm, Matthew Czerwinski, Sayaka Masada, Kyung Hee Kim, Graham Jones, Ping Liang, Vincenzo De Luca
A Catharanthus roseus mutant accumulates high levels of ajmalicine at the expense of catharanthine and vindoline. The altered chemistry depends on increased expression and biochemical activities of strictosidine β-glucosidase and ajmalicine synthase activities and reduced expression and biochemical activity of geissoschizine synthase. The Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] is a commercially important horticultural flower species and is a valuable source for several monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), such as the powerful antihypertensive drug ajmalicine and the antineoplastic agents, vinblastine and vincristine...
November 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142200/potassium-fertilisation-reduces-radiocesium-uptake-by-japanese-cypress-seedlings-grown-in-a-stand-contaminated-by-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-accident
#4
Masabumi Komatsu, Keizo Hirai, Junko Nagakura, Kyotaro Noguchi
We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha(-1)) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). (137)Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123116/india-is-overtaking-china-as-the-world-s-largest-emitter-of-anthropogenic-sulfur-dioxide
#5
Can Li, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Nickolay Krotkov, Simon Carn, Joanna Joiner, David Streets, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Zhanqing Li, Russell R Dickerson
Severe haze is a major public health concern in China and India. Both countries rely heavily on coal for energy, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from coal-fired power plants and industry is a major pollutant contributing to their air quality problems. Timely, accurate information on SO2 sources is a required input to air quality models for pollution prediction and mitigation. However, such information has been difficult to obtain for these two countries, as fast-paced changes in economy and environmental regulations have often led to unforeseen emission changes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117247/a-mobile-loop-near-the-active-site-acts-as-a-switch-between-the-dual-activities-of-a-viral-protease-deubiquitinase
#6
Isabelle Jupin, Maya Ayach, Lucile Jomat, Sonia Fieulaine, Stéphane Bressanelli
The positive-strand RNA virus Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) encodes an ovarian tumor (OTU)-like protease/deubiquitinase (PRO/DUB) protein domain involved both in proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein through its PRO activity, and in removal of ubiquitin chains from ubiquitylated substrates through its DUB activity. Here, the crystal structures of TYMV PRO/DUB mutants and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that an idiosyncratic mobile loop participates in reversibly constricting its unusual catalytic site by adopting "open", "intermediate" or "closed" conformations...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115568/radical-scavenging-linked-anti-adipogenic-activity-of-alnus-firma-extracts
#7
Sun-Il Choi, Jong Seok Lee, Sarah Lee, Jin-Ha Lee, Hee-Sun Yang, Joohong Yeo, Jong-Yea Kim, Boo-Yong Lee, Il-Jun Kang, Ok-Hwan Lee
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effect of extracts from Alnus firma (A. firma), which is an edible plant that grows in mountainous areas. The total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content as well as the antioxidant activity of a 70% ethanolic extract of A. firma (AFE) was assessed. Furthermore, the effects of AFE on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The results revealed that the total phenolic, flavonoid and pro-anthocyanidin content of AFE as 436...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104586/nox-emission-trends-over-chinese-cities-estimated-from-omi-observations-during-2005-to-2015
#8
Fei Liu, Steffen Beirle, Qiang Zhang, Ronald J van der A, Bo Zheng, Dan Tong, Kebin He
Satellite NO2 observations have been widely used to evaluate emission changes. To determine trends in NOx emission over China, we used a method independent of chemical transport models to quantify the NOx emissions from 48 cities and 7 power plants over China, on the basis of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 observations during 2005 to 2015. We found that NOx emissions over 48 Chinese cities increased by 52% from 2005 to 2011 and decreased by 21% from 2011 to 2015. The decrease since 2011 could be mainly attributed to emission control measures in power sector; while cities with different dominant emission sources (i...
2017: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104240/elliptic-fourier-analysis-in-the-study-of-the-male-genitalia-to-discriminate-three-macrolophus-species-hemiptera-miridae
#9
A M Jauset, E Edo-Tena, P M Parés-Casanova, C Castañé, N Agustí, O Alomar
Within the genus Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae), the species M. costalis (Fieber), M. melanotoma (Costa) and M. pygmaeus (Rambur) are present in the Mediterranean region on a wide variety of plant species. While M. costalis can easily be separated from the other two by the black tip at the scutellum, M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma are cryptic species, extremely similar to one another in external traits, which has resulted in misidentifications. M. pygmaeus is an efficient biological control agent, both in greenhouse and field crops...
November 1, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099990/transfer-of-a-starch-phenotype-from-wild-wheat-to-bread-wheat-by-deletion-of-a-locus-controlling-b-type-starch-granule-content
#10
Tansy Chia, Nikolai M Adamski, Benedetta Saccomanno, Andy Greenland, Alastair Nash, Cristobal Uauy, Kay Trafford
Our previous genetic analysis of a tetraploid wild wheat species, Aegilops peregrina, predicted that a single gene per haploid genome, Bgc-1, controls B-type starch granule content in the grain. To test whether bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has orthologous Bgc-1 loci, we screened a population of γ-irradiated bread wheat cv. Paragon for deletions of the group 4 chromosomes spanning Bgc-1. Suitable deletions, each encompassing ~600-700 genes, were discovered for chromosomes 4A and 4D. These two deletions are predicted to have 240 homoeologous genes in common...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097681/using-phage-display-technology-to-obtain-crybodies-active-against-non-target-insects
#11
Tania Domínguez-Flores, María Dolores Romero-Bosquet, Diana Marcela Gantiva-Díaz, María José Luque-Navas, Colin Berry, Antonio Osuna, Susana Vílchez
The insecticidal Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are increasingly important in the biological control of insect pests and vectors of human disease. Markets for Bt products and transgenic plants expressing their toxins are driven by their specificity, safety and the move away from chemical control agents. However, the high specificity of Cry toxins can also prove to be a limitation when there is no known Cry toxin active against a particular target. Novel activities can be discovered by screening natural Bt isolates or through modifications of the Cry proteins...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072399/free-radical-scavenging-properties-of-annona-squamosa
#12
Biba Vikas, S Akhil B, Remani P, K Sujathan
Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070517/host-induced-gene-silencing-of-the-mapkk-gene-psfuz7-confers-stable-resistance-to-wheat-stripe-rust
#13
Xiaoguo Zhu, Tuo Qi, Qian Yang, Fuxin He, Chenglong Tan, Wei Ma, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful genetic tool to accelerate research in plant biotechnology and to control biotic stresses by manipulating target gene expression. However, the potential of RNAi in wheat to efficiently and durably control the devastating stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), remained largely under explored, so far. To address this issue, we generated transgenic wheat lines expressing double-stranded RNA targeting PsFUZ7 transcripts of Pst. We analyzed expression of PsFUZ7 and related genes, and resistance traits of the transgenic wheat lines...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055753/dielectric-spectroscopy-study-of-water-hyacinth-collected-from-different-media
#14
Ragab Mahani, Fatma Atia, Mohammed M Al Neklawy, Amin Fahem
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) study has been shown that the water hyacinth plant is an effective tool for the removals of heavy metals (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn and Zr) and metal oxides (SiO2, K2O, CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, MnO, P2O5, SO3 and TiO2) from agriculture (media 1) and agriculture wastewaters drainage polluted with municipal wastewater (media 2). As a general description, the heavy metals and metal oxides were found at higher levels in the plant collected from media 1 than those in the plant collected from media 2...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051723/autopilot-mind-wandering-and-the-out-of-the-loop-performance-problem
#15
REVIEW
Jonas Gouraud, Arnaud Delorme, Bruno Berberian
To satisfy the increasing demand for safer critical systems, engineers have integrated higher levels of automation, such as glass cockpits in aircraft, power plants, and driverless cars. These guiding principles relegate the operator to a monitoring role, increasing risks for humans to lack system understanding. The out of the loop performance problem arises when operators suffer from complacency and vigilance decrement; consequently, when automation does not behave as expected, understanding the system or taking back manual control may be difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043459/mobility-of-pb-zn-cu-and-as-in-disturbed-forest-soils-affected-by-acid-rain
#16
Yulia V Kochergina, Martin Udatný, Vít Penížek, Martin Mihaljevič
Early efforts at remediation of contaminated soils involve overturn or removal of the uppermost soil horizons. We find that such disruption is counterproductive, as it actually increases the mobility of the heavy metals involved. In our study, we sought to replicate in a controlled manner this commonly used remediation strategy and measure Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentrations in all soil horizons-both prior to and 1 year after disruption by trenching. BCR analyses (sequential leaching) indicate that Pb is affected to the greatest degree and is most highly mobile; however, Zn and As remain insoluble, thus partially ameliorating the detrimental effect...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040267/protecting-cows-in-small-holder-farms-in-east-africa-from-tsetse-flies-by-mimicking-the-odor-profile-of-a-non-host-bovid
#17
Rajinder K Saini, Benedict O Orindi, Norber Mbahin, John A Andoke, Peter N Muasa, David M Mbuvi, Caroline M Muya, John A Pickett, Christian W Borgemeister
BACKGROUND: For the first time, differential attraction of pathogen vectors to vertebrate animals is investigated for novel repellents which when applied to preferred host animals turn them into non-hosts thereby providing a new paradigm for innovative vector control. For effectively controlling tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing nagana, repellents more powerful than plant derived, from a non-host animal the waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa, have recently been identified...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032091/molecular-level-insights-into-mercury-removal-mechanism-by-pyrite
#18
Yingju Yang, Jing Liu, Feng Liu, Zhen Wang, Sen Miao
Natural pyrite (FeS2) has been regarded as a kind of potential sorbents to control mercury emission from coal-fired power plants because of its low cost and high affinity between mercury and FeS2. Theoretical investigations based on density functional theory (DFT) were carried out to discern mercury adsorption, reaction and desorption mechanisms over pyrite surface. DFT calculation results indicate that Hg(0) adsorption on FeS2(100) and FeS2(110) surfaces is dominated by physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms, respectively...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020934/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-sr45-to-be-a-neutral-splicing-regulator-and-a-suppressor-of-innate-immunity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Xiao-Ning Zhang, Yifei Shi, Jordan J Powers, Nikhil B Gowda, Chong Zhang, Heba M M Ibrahim, Hannah B Ball, Samuel L Chen, Hua Lu, Stephen M Mount
BACKGROUND: Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing diversifies protein products and affects many biological processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Serine/Arginine-rich 45 (SR45), regulates pre-mRNA splicing by interacting with other regulatory proteins and spliceosomal subunits. Although SR45 has orthologs in diverse eukaryotes, including human RNPS1, the sr45-1 null mutant is viable. Narrow flower petals and reduced seed formation suggest that SR45 regulates genes involved in diverse processes, including reproduction...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993022/atmospheric-nitrogen-deposition-in-the-yangtze-river-basin-spatial-pattern-and-source-attribution
#20
Wen Xu, Yuanhong Zhao, Xuejun Liu, Anthony J Dore, Lin Zhang, Lei Liu, Miaomiao Cheng
The Yangtze River basin is one of the world's hotspots for nitrogen (N) deposition and likely plays an important role in China's riverine N output. Here we constructed a basin-scale total dissolved inorganic N (DIN) deposition (bulk plus dry) pattern based on published data at 100 observational sites between 2000 and 2014, and assessed the relative contributions of different reactive N (Nr) emission sectors to total DIN deposition using the GEOS-Chem model. Our results show a significant spatial variation in total DIN deposition across the Yangtze River basin (33...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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