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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932262/atcesa8-driven-ossus3-expression-leads-to-largely-enhanced-biomass-saccharification-and-lodging-resistance-by-distinctively-altering-lignocellulose-features-in-rice
#1
Chunfen Fan, Shengqiu Feng, Jiangfeng Huang, Yanting Wang, Leiming Wu, Xukai Li, Lingqiang Wang, Yuanyuan Tu, Tao Xia, Jingyang Li, Xiwen Cai, Liangcai Peng
BACKGROUND: Biomass recalcitrance and plant lodging are two complex traits that tightly associate with plant cell wall structure and features. Although genetic modification of plant cell walls can potentially reduce recalcitrance for enhancing biomass saccharification, it remains a challenge to maintain a normal growth with enhanced biomass yield and lodging resistance in transgenic plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS) is a key enzyme to regulate carbon partitioning by providing UDP-glucose as substrate for cellulose and other polysaccharide biosynthesis...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930157/getting-more-power-from-your-flowers-multi-functional-flower-strips-enhance-pollinators-and-pest-control-agents-in-apple-orchards
#2
Alistair John Campbell, Andrew Wilby, Peter Sutton, Felix Wäckers
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i...
September 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925291/isolation-of-a-novel-compound-mimo2-from-the-methanolic-extract-of-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protective-effects-against-vanadium-induced-cytotoxity
#3
Olumayowa O Igado, Jan Glaser, Mario Ramos-Tirado, Ezgi Eylül Bankoğlu, Foluso A Atiba, Ulrike Holzgrabe, Helga Stopper, James O Olopade
Moringa oleifera is reported to be a miracle plant, with positive effects on practically every system in the animal body. The methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves was fractionated using liquid-liquid fractionation, column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioassay guided fractionation using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to determine the fraction with the highest antioxidative power. Chemical structure was elucidated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921169/effects-of-acute-salt-stress-on-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-a-malaysian-salt-tolerant-indigenous-rice-variety-bajong
#4
Brandon Pei Hui Yeo, Mrinal Bhave, Siaw San Hwang
The small genome size of rice relative to wheat and barley, together with its salt sensitivity, make it an ideal candidate for studies of salt stress response. Transcriptomics has emerged as a powerful technique to study salinity responses in many crop species. By identifying a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) simultaneously after the stress induction, it can provide crucial insight into the immediate responses towards the stressor. In this study, a Malaysian salt-tolerant indigenous rice variety named Bajong and one commercial rice variety named MR219 were investigated for their performance in plant growth and ion accumulation properties after salt stress treatment...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919286/a-novel-optimized-hybrid-fuzzy-logic-intelligent-pid-controller-for-an-interconnected-multi-area-power-system-with-physical-constraints-and-boiler-dynamics
#5
A H Gomaa Haroun, Yin-Ya Li
In the fast developing world nowadays, load frequency control (LFC) is considered to be a most significant role for providing the power supply with good quality in the power system. To deliver a reliable power, LFC system requires highly competent and intelligent control technique. Hence, in this article, a novel hybrid fuzzy logic intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (FLiPID) controller has been proposed for LFC of interconnected multi-area power systems. A four-area interconnected thermal power system incorporated with physical constraints and boiler dynamics is considered and the adjustable parameters of the FLiPID controller are optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO) scheme employing an integral square error (ISE) criterion...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916041/polydopamine-functionalized-poly-ether-ether-ketone-tube-for-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#6
Wei Zhou, Wenpeng Zhang, Yikun Liu, Xinhong Yu, Zilin Chen
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which the polyimide coating at the end of the capillary is exposed to the solution, and this phenomenon can result in current instability, irregular electrospray and clogging at outlet after prolonged use...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914771/geminiviruses-and-plant-hosts-a-closer-examination-of-the-molecular-arms-race
#7
REVIEW
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Pranav P Sahu, Manoj Prasad, Shelly Praveen, Hanu R Pappu
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting viruses characterized by a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome. Geminivirus-derived proteins are multifunctional and effective regulators in modulating the host cellular processes resulting in successful infection. Virus-host interactions result in changes in host gene expression patterns, reprogram plant signaling controls, disrupt central cellular metabolic pathways, impair plant's defense system, and effectively evade RNA silencing response leading to host susceptibility...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914183/enhancing-mercury-removal-across-air-pollution-control-devices-for-coal-fired-power-plants-by-desulfurization-wastewater-evaporation
#8
Hu Bin, Yi Yang, Liang Cai, Yang Linjun, Szczepan Roszak
Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. It had been studied that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature, and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911682/relation-between-salt-tolerance-and-biochemical-changes-in-cumin-cuminum-cyminum%C3%A2-l-seeds
#9
Iness Bettaieb Rebey, Soumaya Bourgou, Fatma Zohra Rahali, Kamel Msaada, Riadh Ksouri, Brahim Marzouk
In this study, the effects of salinity on growth, fatty acid, essential oil, and phenolic composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds as well as the antioxidant activities of their extracts were investigated. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl treatment: 0, 50, 75, and 125 mmoL. Plant growth was significantly reduced with the severity of saline treatment. This also caused important reductions in the seed yield and yield components. Besides, NaCl treatments affected fatty acid composition...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887328/experimental-evolution-in-photoautotrophic-microorganisms-as-a-means-of-enhancing-chloroplast-functions
#10
REVIEW
Dario Leister
The term 'experimental evolution' refers to short-term evolutionary experiments with microorganisms under controlled conditions in which selection is expected to occur. In combination with whole-genome sequencing and genetic engineering, the method has become a powerful tool to study evolutionary mechanisms and engineer new microbial variants. It has been most extensively used in the model species Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but more recently photosynthetic microorganisms have been subjected to experimental evolution...
September 7, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886873/estimation-of-air-to-grass-mass-interception-factors-for-iodine
#11
N Karunakara, P Ujwal, I Yashodhara, K Sudeep Kumara, M P Mohan, K Bhaskar Shenoy, P V Geetha, B N Dileep, Joshi P James, P M Ravi
Air-to-grass mass interception factors for radionuclide are important basic input parameter for the estimation of radiation dose to the public around a nuclear power plant. In this paper, we present the determination of air-to- grass mass interception factors for iodine using a 2 m × 2 m × 2 m (l × b × h) size environmental chamber. The temperature, humidity, and rainfall inside the environmental chamber was controlled to required values to simulate different environmental conditions. Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum), grown in pots, was kept inside the environmental chamber and stable iodine in elemental form was sublimed quickly inside the chamber to simulate an accidental release of iodine to the environment...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885181/chip-seq-a-powerful-tool-for-studying-protein-dna-interactions-in-plants
#12
Xifeng Chen, Vijai Bhadauria, Bojun Ma
DNA-binding proteins, including transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers, control gene expressions in plants. To pinpoint the binding sits of DNA-binding proteins in genome is crucial for decoding gene regulatory networks. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to identify the DNA regions bound by a specific protein in vivo. The information generated from ChIP-Seq has tremendously advanced our understanding on the mechanism of transcription factors, cofactors and histone modifications in regulating gene expression...
September 8, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881438/host-induced-gene-silencing-of-an-important-pathogenicity-factor-pscpk1-in-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-enhances-resistance-of-wheat-to-stripe-rust
#13
Tuo Qi, Xiaoguo Zhu, Chenlong Tan, Peng Liu, Jia Guo, Zhensheng Kang, Jun Guo
Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and cause a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. To overcome this rapidly loss of varieties resistance, we generated stable transgenic wheat plants expressing short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting potentially vital genes of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Protein kinase A (PKA) has been proved to play important roles in regulating the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi. PsCPK1, a PKA catalytic subunit gene from Pst, is highly induced at the early infection stage of Pst...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879476/impact-assessment-of-atmospheric-dust-on-foliage-pigments-and-pollution-resistances-of-plants-grown-nearby-coal-based-thermal-power-plants
#14
Manisha Hariram, Ravi Sahu, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874466/an-alternative-stat-signaling-pathway-acts-in-viral-immunity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Mélanie Tanguy, Louise Véron, Przemyslaw Stempor, Julie Ahringer, Peter Sarkies, Eric A Miska
Across metazoans, innate immunity is vital in defending organisms against viral infection. In mammals, antiviral innate immunity is orchestrated by interferon signaling, activating the STAT transcription factors downstream of the JAK kinases to induce expression of antiviral effector genes. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks the interferon system, the major antiviral response so far described is RNA interference (RNAi), but whether additional gene expression responses are employed is not known...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856839/comparison-of-cauliflower-insect-fungus-interactions-and-pesticides-for-cabbage-root-fly-control
#16
Jaka Razinger, Metka Žerjav, Meta Zemljič-Urbančič, Špela Modic, Matthias Lutz, Hans-Josef Schroers, Jürg Grunder, Simon Fellous, Gregor Urek
Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040 based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on non-formulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T...
August 30, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846985/lake-sediment-record-of-pah-mercury-and-fly-ash-particle-deposition-near-coal-fired-power-plants-in-central-alberta-canada
#17
Benjamin D Barst, Jason M E Ahad, Neil L Rose, Josué J Jautzy, Paul E Drevnick, Paul R Gammon, Hamed Sanei, Martine M Savard
We report a historical record of atmospheric deposition in dated sediment cores from Hasse Lake, ideally located near both currently and previously operational coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada. Accumulation rates of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), an unambiguous marker of high-temperature fossil-fuel combustion, in the early part of the sediment record (pre-1955) compared well with historical emissions from one of North America's earliest coal-fired power plants (Rossdale) located ∼43 km to the east in the city of Edmonton...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840434/robust-rnai-mediated-resistance-to-infection-of-seven-potyvirids-in-soybean-expressing-an-intron-hairpin-nib-rna
#18
Xiangdong Yang, Lu Niu, Wei Zhang, Hongli He, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Dongquan Guo, Qian Du, Xueyan Qian, Yao Yao, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong
Viral pathogens, such as soybean mosaic virus (SMV), are a major constraint in soybean production and often cause significant yield loss and quality deterioration. Engineering resistance by RNAi-mediated gene silencing is a powerful strategy for controlling viral diseases. In this study, a 248-bp inverted repeat of the replicase (nuclear inclusion b, NIb) gene was isolated from the SMV SC3 strain, driven by the leaf-specific rbcS2 promoter from Phaseolus vulgaris, and introduced into soybean. The transgenic lines had significantly lower average disease indices (ranging from 2...
August 24, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829689/theoretical-and-experimental-investigations-of-mercury-adsorption-on-hematite-surfaces
#19
Ji-Eun Jung, Simona Liguori, Adam D Jew, Gordon E Brown, Jennifer Wilcox
One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg), which is toxic metal. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials in the flue gas stream. In this study, atomic-scale theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with lab-scale experimental studies to investigate the adsorption behavior of Hg on hematite (?-Fe2O3)...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812706/a-decade-of-insights-into-grassland-ecosystem-responses-to-global-environmental-change
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Borer, James B Grace, W Stanley Harpole, Andrew S MacDougall, Eric W Seabloom
Earth's biodiversity and carbon uptake by plants, or primary productivity, are intricately interlinked, underlie many essential ecosystem processes, and depend on the interplay among environmental factors, many of which are being changed by human activities. While ecological theory generalizes across taxa and environments, most empirical tests of factors controlling diversity and productivity have been observational, single-site experiments, or meta-analyses, limiting our understanding of variation among site-level responses and tests of general mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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