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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441437/quantitative-modeling-of-responses-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-effects
#1
Igor Shuryak
The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE) caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE) caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440574/a-worldview-of-root-traits-the-influence-of-ancestry-growth-form-climate-and-mycorrhizal-association-on-the-functional-trait-variation-of-fine-root-tissues-in-seed-plants
#2
Oscar J Valverde-Barrantes, Grégoire T Freschet, Catherine Roumet, Christopher B Blackwood
Fine-root traits play key roles in ecosystem processes, but the drivers of fine-root trait diversity remain poorly understood. The plant economic spectrum (PES) hypothesis predicts that leaf and root traits evolved in coordination. Mycorrhizal association type, plant growth form and climate may also affect root traits. However, the extent to which these controls are confounded with phylogenetic structuring remains unclear. Here we compiled information about root and leaf traits for > 600 species. Using phylogenetic relatedness, climatic ranges, growth form and mycorrhizal associations, we quantified the importance of these factors in the global distribution of fine-root traits...
April 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434531/surface-properties-of-magnetite-in-high-temperature-aqueous-electrolyte-solutions-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Sonja M Vidojkovic, Marko P Rakin
Deposits and scales formed on heat transfer surfaces in power plant water/steam circuits have a significant negative impact on plant reliability, availability and performance, causing tremendous economic consequences and subsequent increases in electricity cost. Consequently, the improvement of the understanding of deposition mechanisms on power generating surfaces is defined as a high priority in the power industry. The deposits consist principally of iron oxides, which are steel corrosion products and usually present in colloidal form...
August 18, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#4
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416223/study-on-emission-of-hazardous-trace-elements-in-a-350%C3%A2-mw-coal-fired-power-plant-part-2-arsenic-chromium-barium-manganese-lead
#5
Shilin Zhao, Yufeng Duan, Lei Chen, Yaning Li, Ting Yao, Shuai Liu, Meng Liu, Jianhong Lu
Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414632/analysis-of-the-spatial-pattern-of-strawberry-angular-leaf-spot-in-california-nursery-production
#6
Christophe Gigot, William W Turechek, Neil McRoberts
In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. As the spatial pattern of a disease can offer insight into pathogen source, mode of dissemination, and how current crop management practices affect epidemic development, an understanding of the spatial pattern of ALS would allow nursery growers to make informed decisions regarding disease management. Ninety seven field assessments of disease incidence were performed at different nursery locations in 2014 and 2015 to quantify ALS spatial pattern under commercial conditions...
April 17, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413256/dynamics-of-postcombustion-co2-capture-plants-modeling-validation-and-case-study
#7
Adam van de Haar, Carsten Trapp, Kai Wellner, Robert de Kler, Gerhard Schmitz, Piero Colonna
The capture of CO2 from power plant flue gases provides an opportunity to mitigate emissions that are harmful to the global climate. While the process of CO2 capture using an aqueous amine solution is well-known from experience in other technical sectors (e.g., acid gas removal in the gas processing industry), its operation combined with a power plant still needs investigation because in this case, the interaction with power plants that are increasingly operated dynamically poses control challenges. This article presents the dynamic modeling of CO2 capture plants followed by a detailed validation using transient measurements recorded from the pilot plant operated at the Maasvlakte power station in the Netherlands...
February 22, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409159/nutritional-composition-and-phytochemical-antioxidative-and-antifungal-activities-of-pergularia-tomentosa-l
#8
Imen Lahmar, Hafedh Belghith, Ferjani Ben Abdallah, Karima Belghith
Crude extracts from a medicinal Tunisian plant, Pergularia tomentosa L., were the investigated natural material. Butanolic extract of roots analyzed with IR spectra revealed the presence of hydroxyl, alcoholic, and carboxylic groups and sugars units. Analysis of some secondary metabolites, total phenolic, flavonoids, flavonols, and procyanidins, was performed using different solvents following the increased gradient of polarity. Fruits and leaves contained the highest amounts of all these compounds. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by the determination of free radical scavenging activity and the reducing power of methanolic extracts...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406448/development-of-a-new-high-sensitivity-2000-kg-mechanical-balance
#9
Jian Wang
Mass measurement of more than 500 kg on an electronic mass comparator has no better repeatability and linearity of measurement for meeting the calibration requirement of over class F1 weights from pharmacy and power generation plants. For this purpose, a new 2000 kg mechanical balance was developed by the National Institute of Metrology (NIM). The advantages of measurement of more than 500 kg on a new 2000 kg mechanical balance are introduced in the paper. In order to obtain high measurement uncertainty, four vertical forces of two sides of beam are measured and used as reference for adjustment of the beam position...
April 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396926/comparison-of-microbial-community-shifts-in-two-parallel-multi-step-drinking-water-treatment-processes
#10
Jiajiong Xu, Wei Tang, Jun Ma, Hong Wang
Drinking water treatment processes remove undesirable chemicals and microorganisms from source water, which is vital to public health protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treatment processes and configuration on the microbiome by comparing microbial community shifts in two series of different treatment processes operated in parallel within a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southeast China. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of water samples demonstrated little effect of coagulation/sedimentation and pre-oxidation steps on bacterial communities, in contrast to dramatic and concurrent microbial community shifts during ozonation, granular activated carbon treatment, sand filtration, and disinfection for both series...
April 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395265/current-and-future-emissions-of-primary-pollutants-from-coal-fired-power-plants-in-shaanxi-china
#11
Yong Xu, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Hongke Hao, Dexiang Wang, Hongliang Zhang
A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392463/the-functional-genomic-studies-of-curcumin
#12
REVIEW
Lukasz Huminiecki, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G Atanasov
Curcumin is a natural plant-derived compound that has attracted a lot of attention for its anti-cancer activities. Curcumin can slow proliferation of and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines, but the precise mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. However, many lines of evidence suggested that curcumin has a potent impact on gene expression profiles; thus, functional genomics should be the key to understanding how curcumin exerts its anti-cancer activities. Here, we review the published functional genomic studies of curcumin focusing on cancer...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388506/integrated-membrane-and-microbial-fuel-cell-technologies-for-enabling-energy-efficient-effluent-re-use-in-power-plants
#13
Namita Shrestha, Govinda Chilkoor, Lichao Xia, Catalina Alvarado, James E Kilduff, John J Keating, Georges Belfort, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty
Municipal wastewater is an attractive alternative to freshwater sources to meet the cooling water needs of thermal power plants. Here we offer an energy-efficient integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC)/ultrafiltration (UF) process to purify primary clarifier effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for use as cooling water. The microbial fuel cell was shown to significantly reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the primary settled wastewater effluent upstream of the UF module, while eliminating the energy demand required to deliver dissolved oxygen in conventional aerobic treatment...
March 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386896/antimicrobial-activity-of-aqueous-extracts-from-four-plants-on-bacterial-isolates-from-periodontitis-patients
#14
Leila Arbia, Nassima Chikhi-Chorfi, Ilhem Betatache, Chuong Pham-Huy, Selma Zenia, Nabil Mameri, Nadjib Drouiche, Hakim Lounici
Four aqueous extracts of different plant organs are the following: Artemisia herba-alba, Opuntia ficus-indica, Camellia sinensis and Phlomis crinita were evaluated against two bacterial strains: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which are implicated in periodontal diseases. By using a disc method, these plant extracts demonstrated powerful bacterial activity against these Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the four plant extracts varied between 0.03 and 590...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365409/new-caffeic-acid-derivative-from-tithonia-diversifolia-hemsl-a-gray-butanolic-extract-and-its-antioxidant-activity
#15
Kriss Dayana Pantoja Pulido, Ana Julia Colmenares Dulcey, José Hipólito Isaza Martínez
Tithonia diversifolia, Asteraceae, a promising alternative for insect control such as leaf-cutting ants, have revealed repellent and insecticidal activity against Atta cephalotes. The different biological activities of T. diversifolia, are due to the existence of sesquiterpene lactones and phenolic compounds. Some phenolic compounds have antioxidant activity and curiously also exhibited tyrosinase inhibitory activity, key enzyme in insect metamorphosis. To expand the plant phytochemical knowledge, especially for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds not yet discovered in the polar extracts, a new caffeic acid derivative was isolated from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia...
March 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363014/chromosomal-aberrations-in-large-japanese-field-mice-apodemus-speciosus-captured-near-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant
#16
Taiki Kawagoshi, Naoko Shiomi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshito Watanabe, Shoichi Fuma, Kazutaka Doi, Isao Kawaguchi, Masanari Aoki, Masahide Kubota, Yoshiaki Furuhata, Yusaku Shigemura, Masahiko Mizoguchi, Fumio Yamada, Morihiko Tomozawa, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Satoshi Yoshida, Yoshihisa Kubota
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a major concern. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (translocations and dicentrics) in the splenic lymphocytes of large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture. A. speciosus chromosomes 1, 2, and 5 were flow-sorted in order to develop A. speciosus chromosome-specific painting probes, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) was performed using these painting probes to detect the translocations and dicentrics...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348973/kidney-stone-formation-and-antioxidant-effects-of-cynodon-dactylon-decoction-in-male-wistar-rats
#17
Alireza Golshan, Parichehr Hayatdavoudi, Mousa Al-Reza Hadjzadeh, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Nema Mohamadian Roshan, Abbasali Abbasnezhad, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Roghayeh Pakdel, Batool Zarei, Azita Aghaee
OBJECTIVES: The antioxidant capacity impairs in kidney and urinary bladder of animals with stone disease. Herbal medicine can improve the antioxidant condition of renal tissue. Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is a medicinal plant with antioxidative and diuretic properties and different preparations of this plant have shown promising effects in stone disease. Assessment of the whole plant decoction to prevent kidney stone disease as well as its antioxidant effects was the aim of this paper...
March 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347309/chemical-composition-and-pharmacological-activities-of-pisum-sativum
#18
Md Nazmul Hasan Zilani, Tamanna Sultana, S M Asabur Rahman, Md Anisuzzman, Md Amirul Islam, Jamil A Shilpi, Md Golam Hossain
BACKGROUND: Consumption of vegetables has been proven to be effective in the prevention of different diseases. Traditionally edible aerial part of Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum (Fabaceae) is used to treat diabetes, heart diseases and as blood purifier. Present study was aimed to explore the traditional use of aerial parts of P. sativum as a source of antidiabetic agent. In addition, antioxidant activity and chemical composition was carried out. METHODS: Total polyphenol content was spectrophotometrically determined using Folin Chiocalteu's reagent while the flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay...
March 27, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337628/study-of-plasma-off-gas-treatment-from-spent-ion-exchange-resin-pyrolysis
#19
Hernán Ariel Castro, Vittorio Luca, Hugo Luis Banchi
Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including (14)C, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (129)I, and (137)Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330287/transformation-of-lactuca-sativa-l-with-rol-c-gene-results-in-increased-antioxidant-potential-and-enhanced-analgesic-anti-inflammatory-and-antidepressant-activities-in-vivo
#20
Hammad Ismail, Erum Dilshad, Mohammad Tahir Waheed, Moniba Sajid, Waqas Khan Kayani, Bushra Mirza
Lettuce is an important edible crop which possesses various medicinal properties. In this study Lactuca sativa L. (cv Grand Rapids) was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with rol C gene. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transformed extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in rats. The transformed plants showed 53-98 % increase in total phenolic and 45-58 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared with untransformed plants...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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