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Pulmonary epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118338/sialidase-inhibitors-attenuate-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model
#1
Tejas R Karhadkar, Darrell Pilling, Nehemiah Cox, Richard H Gomer
Fibrosis involves increasing amounts of scar tissue appearing in a tissue, but what drives this is unclear. In fibrotic lesions in human and mouse lungs, we found extensive desialylation of glycoconjugates, and upregulation of sialidases. The fibrosis-associated cytokine TGF-β1 upregulates sialidases in human airway epithelium cells, lung fibroblasts, and immune system cells. Conversely, addition of sialidases to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induces accumulation of extracellular TGF-β1, forming what appears to be a sialidase - TGF-β1 - sialidase positive feedback loop...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115527/splunc1-knockout-enhances-lps-induced-lung-injury-by-increasing-recruitment-of-cd11b-gr-1-cells-to-the-spleen-of-mice
#2
Han Zhang, Xiaoling Li, Shan Liao, Heran Wang, Pan Chen, Guangchao Zhu, Yanwei Luo, Guiyuan Li, Yanhong Zhou
Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a tissue-specific gene of nasopharyngeal tissue, and has been recognized as a potential tumor-suppressor gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. As a secreted protein, SPLUNC1 plays an important role in innate immunity including antimicrobial and host defense. However, the related immune cells which are regulated by SPLUNC1 remain elusive. In the present study, an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model was established by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneal injections to wild-type and SPLUNC1-/- mice (5 mg/kg)...
November 1, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110549/a-104-week-pulmonary-toxicity-assessment-of-long-and-short-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes-after-a-single-intratracheal-instillation-in-rats
#3
Kazumasa Honda, Masato Naya, Hiroshi Takehara, Hiromichi Kataura, Katsuhide Fujita, Makoto Ema
We compared long-term pulmonary toxicities after a single intratracheal instillation of two types of dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), namely, those with relatively long or short linear shapes with average lengths of 8.6 and 0.55 µm, respectively. Both types of SWCNTs were instilled intratracheally in male F344 rats at 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg (long SWCNTs) or 1.0 mg/kg (short SWCNTs). Pulmonary responses were characterized at 26, 52 and 104 weeks after a single instillation. Inflammatory changes, test substance deposition, test substance engulfment by macrophages, and alveolar wall fibrosis were observed in the lungs of almost all test rats at 52 and 104 weeks after short nanotube instillation...
November 7, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106997/interferon-response-to-rsv-by-bronchial-epithelium-from-children-with-asthma-is-inversely-correlated-with-pulmonary-function
#4
M C Altman, S R Reeves, A R Parker, E Whalen, K M S Misura, K A Barrow, R G James, T S Hallstrand, S F Ziegler, J S Debley
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infection in early childhood, including that from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), has been previously associated with the development of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether ex vivo RSV infection of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) from children with asthma would induce specific gene expression patterns, and whether such patterns associate with lung function among BEC donors. METHODS: Primary BECs from carefully characterized children with asthma (n=18) and matched healthy children without asthma (n=8) were differentiated at an air-liquid interface (ALI) for 21 days...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096195/lung-epithelium-barrier-immunity-to-inhaled-fungi-and-driver-of-fungal-associated-allergic-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Darin L Wiesner, Bruce S Klein
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. The epithelium that lines our airways is the first point of contact with the frequent encounter of inhaled fungi. Consequently, the lung epithelium has evolved behaviors that instruct the earliest immune events to resist fungal penetration. Although the epithelium efficiently assists in immunity to invasive fungi, it also can be inappropriately triggered, to the detriment of the host, by normally innocuous fungi or fungal components. Thus, there is a tipping point of protective immunity against fungal pathogens versus inflammatory disease caused by an exuberant immune response to harmless fungal antigens...
October 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080401/reactive-oxygen-species-as-signaling-molecules-in-the-development-of-lung-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Francisco J Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Navdeep Chandel, Manu Jain, G R Scott Budinger
Pulmonary fibrosis is a relatively rare but devastating disease characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. The increased matrix results in reduced lung compliance and increased work of breathing, while the obliteration of alveolar-capillary structures can result in hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, which manifests clinically as worsening shortness of breath, respiratory failure, and death. Unbiased genome-wide association studies combined with animal models suggest that damage to the alveolar epithelium is the initiating factor in pulmonary fibrosis...
October 10, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072388/-the-cellular-mechanisms-of-lung-edema-clearance-does-the-alveolar-epithelium-play-a-role
#7
REVIEW
Gidon Berger, Geula Klorin, Reem Ismael-Badarneh, Julia Guetta, Zaher S Azzam
Pulmonary edema develops as a result of either alteration in the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients across the pulmonary circulation and the lung interstitium or due to increased lung permeability. Alveolar fluid clearance is important in keeping the airspaces free of edema. This process is carried out via the alveolar epithelial active transport of Na+ across the alveolo-capillary barrier mostly by apical Na+ channels and basolateral Na,K-ATPases. Several pharmacologic agents such as catecholamines, vasopressin and gene therapy interventions have currently been found to stimulate the active Na+ transport and lung edema clearance...
October 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066090/genetic-variants-associated-with-susceptibility-to-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-people-of-european-ancestry-a-genome-wide-association-study
#8
Richard J Allen, Joanne Porte, Rebecca Braybrooke, Carlos Flores, Tasha E Fingerlin, Justin M Oldham, Beatriz Guillen-Guio, Shwu-Fan Ma, Tsukasa Okamoto, Alison E John, Ma'en Obeidat, Ivana V Yang, Amanda Henry, Richard B Hubbard, Vidya Navaratnam, Gauri Saini, Norma Thompson, Helen L Booth, Simon P Hart, Mike R Hill, Nik Hirani, Toby M Maher, Robin J McAnulty, Ann B Millar, Philip L Molyneaux, Helen Parfrey, Doris M Rassl, Moira K B Whyte, William A Fahy, Richard P Marshall, Eunice Oballa, Yohan Bossé, David C Nickle, Don D Sin, Wim Timens, Nick Shrine, Ian Sayers, Ian P Hall, Imre Noth, David A Schwartz, Martin D Tobin, Louise V Wain, R Gisli Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with high mortality, uncertain cause, and few treatment options. Studies have identified a significant genetic risk associated with the development of IPF; however, mechanisms by which genetic risk factors promote IPF remain unclear. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility and provide mechanistic insight using gene and protein expression analyses. METHODS: We used a two-stage approach: a genome-wide association study in patients with IPF of European ancestry recruited from nine different centres in the UK and controls selected from UK Biobank (stage 1) matched for age, sex, and smoking status; and a follow-up of associated genetic variants in independent datasets of patients with IPF and controls from two independent US samples from the Chicago consortium and the Colorado consortium (stage 2)...
November 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050117/-pediatric-idiopathic-hypereosinophilic-syndrome-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
N Dong, X Y Dong
Objective: To explore clinical features of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome combined with pulmonary embolism. Method: A retrospective analysis of a patient with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and pulmonary embolism diagnosed and treated in the Respiratory Department of Shanghai Children's Hospital in September 2016 was performed. A literature search was performed with"Eosinophils increased, thrombosis"as the Chinese keywords in Wanfang database and"idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, deep vein thrombosis"as the English key words in PubMed database...
October 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028602/toxicity-of-zno-nanoparticles-nps-to-a549-cells-and-a549-epithelium-in-vitro-interactions-with-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine-dppc
#10
Tong He, Jimin Long, Juan Li, Liangliang Liu, Yi Cao
Once inhaled, nanoparticles (NPs) will first interact with lung surfactant system, which may influence the colloidal aspects of NPs and consequently the toxic potential of NPs to pulmonary cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component in lung surfactant, on stability and toxicity of ZnO NPs. The presence of DPPC increased the UV-vis spectra, hydrodynamic size, Zeta potential and dissolution rate of ZnO NPs, which indicates that DPPC might interact with NPs and affect the colloidal stability of NPs...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026201/dual-contribution-of-trpv4-antagonism-in-the-regulatory-effect-of-vasoinhibins-on-blood-retinal-barrier-permeability-diabetic-milieu-makes-a-difference
#11
David Arredondo Zamarripa, Ramsés Noguez Imm, Ana María Bautista Cortés, Osvaldo Vázquez Ruíz, Michela Bernardini, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Dimitra Gkika, Natalia Prevarskaya, Fernando López-Casillas, Wolfgang Liedtke, Carmen Clapp, Stéphanie Thébault
Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), as occurs in diabetic retinopathy and other chronic retinal diseases, results in vasogenic edema and neural tissue damage, causing vision loss. Vasoinhibins are N-terminal fragments of prolactin that prevent BRB breakdown during diabetes. They modulate the expression of some transient receptor potential (TRP) family members, yet their role in regulating the TRP vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) remains unknown. TRPV4 is a calcium-permeable channel involved in barrier permeability, which blockade has been shown to prevent and resolve pulmonary edema...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962156/pilot-application-of-lipoxin-a4-analog-and-lipoxin-a4-receptor-agonist-in-asthmatic-children-with-acute-episodes
#12
Xia Kong, Sheng-Hua Wu, Li Zhang, Xiao-Qing Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that lipoxin A4 (LXA4) analogs blocked both airway hyper-responsiveness and pulmonary inflammation in a murine model of asthma. The present pilot study investigated the initial efficacy and safety of inhaled 5(S),6(R)-LXA4 methyl ester and BML-111, a LXA4 agonist, in the treatment of asthmatic children with acute episodes. A total of 50 asthmatic children diagnosed with acute moderate asthma were randomly assigned into groups and subjected to an inhalation challenge with pulmicort (n=10), ventolin (n=10), 5(S),6(R)-LXA4 methyl ester (n=10), BML-111 (n=10) or normal saline as a placebo (n=10)...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948165/expression-and-role-of-oct3-4-in-injury-repair-process-of-rat-alveolar-epithelium-after-5-fu-treatment
#13
Wen-Ya Li, Xu-Lv Ye, Xin-Shan Jia, Lan-Ling Jia
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how the embryonic stem cell-related gene Oct3/4 changes during the injury-repair process of distal pulmonary epithelium induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). METHODS: We have developed the lung injury model induced by 5-Fu and observed the dynamic changes of Oct3/4 by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence double staining was used to compare the positions of Oct3/4(+) cells and other reported alveolar epithelial stem cells...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936122/depletion-of-club-cells-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#14
Tetsuya Yokoyama, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Kunihiro Suzuki, Naoki Hamada, Kazuya Tsubouchi, Saiko Ogata-Suetsugu, Hironori Mikumo, Chika Ikeda-Harada, Takashige Maeyama, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoichi Nakanishi
BACKGROUND: The role of bronchiolar epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has not been clarified. We previously demonstrated DNA damage in murine bronchioles in the early stages of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis that subsequently extended to alveolar cells at the advanced stages of the disease. Club cells are progenitor cells for bronchioles and are known to play protective roles against lung inflammation and damage. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of club cells in the development of pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933915/airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-copd-role-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#15
Mahyar Aghapour, Pourya Raee, Seyed Javad Moghaddam, Pieter S Hiemstra, Irene H Heijink
The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924092/extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-in-two-pinniped-species
#16
Shotaro Nakagun, Hirotaka Watanabe, Kenji Ochiai, Kaoru Kohyama, Wataru Goshima, Yoko Goto, Yumi Kobayashi, Kennichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Jun Sasaki, Masanobu Goryo, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Two cases of extralobar pulmonary sequestrations from a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) are described in the present study. Grossly, an independent, soft unilocular cystic mass was found within the abdominal cavities of both animals, adherent to the diaphragm in O. rosmarus and attached to the cardia of the stomach in E. jubatus. Histopathologically, the cysts were lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with abundant goblet cells, while the wall comprised of glands, hyaline cartilage, bronchiole- and alveolus-like structures, smooth muscles, and large, well-developed elastic and muscular arteries...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916279/the-role-of-il-6-released-from-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-in-diesel-ufp-induced-endothelial-activation
#17
Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Sara Marchetti, Maria C Proverbio, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their ultrafine fraction (UFP) are known to induce cardiovascular effects in exposed subjects. The mechanisms leading to these outcomes are still under investigation, but the activation of respiratory endothelium is likely to be involved. Particles translocation through the air-blood barrier and the release of mediators from the exposed epithelium have been suggested to participate in the process. Here we used a conditioned media in vitro model to investigate the role of epithelial-released mediators in the endothelial cells activation...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915071/transcriptional-response-of-respiratory-epithelium-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#18
Masashi Matsuyama, Andrew J Martins, Shamira Shallom, Olena Kamenyeva, Anuj Kashyap, Elizabeth P Sampaio, Juraj Kabat, Kenneth N Olivier, Adrian M Zelazny, John S Tsang, Steven M Holland
RATIONALE: The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but host responses in respiratory epithelium infected with NTM are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify infection-relevant gene expression signatures of NTM infection of the respiratory epithelium. METHODS: We infected air-liquid interface (ALI) primary respiratory epithelial cell cultures with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessuss subsp...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903389/epithelial-ho-1-stat3-affords-the-protection-of-subanesthetic-isoflurane-against-zymosan-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#19
Ling Wang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ning-Ning Liu, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qin-Qin Liu, Hai-Yu Mei, Li-Feng Wang, An-Gang Yang, Chun-Fang Gao, Jun-Tang Li
Epithelial dysfunction is a key characteristic of acute lung injury (ALI). Isoflurane (ISO) confers lung protection via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the specific role and potential mechanisms of subanesthetic ISO in lung epithelium protection during zymosan-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, zymosan increased the expression and activity of beneficial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the lung and isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs-II) from wild-type (WT) mice, which was further enhanced by ISO treatment...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899426/benign-metastasizing-leiomyoma-presenting-as-multiple-cystic-pulmonary-nodules-a-case-report
#20
Yeong Hun Choe, So Yeon Jeon, Yoon Chae Lee, Myung Ja Chung, Seung Yong Park, Yong Chul Lee, So Ri Kim
BACKGROUND: Benign metastatic leiomyoma (BML) is an extremely rare disease. Although uterine leiomyomas are benign histologically, they can metastasize to distant sites. While the incidence is very low, the lung is the organ most frequently affected by BML. Pulmonary BML usually presents as numerous well-defined nodules of various sizes, while the cavitary or cystic features in the nodules are rarely observed on radiologic images. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old woman complained of cough and dyspnea for one month...
September 12, 2017: BMC Women's Health
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