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Pulmonary epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731711/identification-of-proteomic-features-to-distinguish-benign-pulmonary-nodules-from-lung-adenocarcinoma
#1
Simona G Codreanu, Megan D Hoeksema, Robbert J C Slebos, Lisa J Zimmerman, S M Jamshedur Rahman, Ming Li, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Heidi Chen, Rosana Eisenberg, Daniel C Liebler, Pierre P Massion
We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 early stage untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium, and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727978/pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cell-hyperplasia-in-hemoglobin-bart-induced-hydrops-fetalis-a-model-for-chronic-intrauterine-hypoxia
#2
Mana Taweevisit, Boochit Theerasantipong, Kanlaya Taothong, Paul Scott Thorner
The pulmonary neuroendocrine system includes pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) and neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) that are distributed throughout respiratory epithelium and regulate lung growth and maturation antenatally. Abnormalities in this system have been linked to many hypoxia-associated pediatric pulmonary disorders. Hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease is a severe form of α-thalassemia resulting in marked intrauterine hypoxia with hydrops fetalis (HF) and usually death in utero. Affected fetuses can serve as a naturally occurring human model for the effects of intrauterine hypoxia, and we postulated that these effects should include changes in the pulmonary neuroendocrine system...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725223/gas-exchange-disturbances-regulate-alveolar-fluid-clearance-during-acute-lung-injury
#3
REVIEW
István Vadász, Jacob I Sznajder
Disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier and accumulation of pulmonary edema, if not resolved, result in poor alveolar gas exchange leading to hypoxia and hypercapnia, which are hallmarks of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) is a major function of the alveolar epithelium and is mediated by the concerted action of apically-located Na(+) channels [epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)] and the basolateral Na,K-ATPase driving vectorial Na(+) transport...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722352/serpine-1-induces-alveolar-type-ii-cell-senescence-through-activating-p53-p21-rb-pathway-in-fibrotic-lung-disease
#4
Chunsun Jiang, Gang Liu, Tracy Luckhardt, Veena Antony, Yong Zhou, A Brent Carter, Victor J Thannickal, Rui-Ming Liu
Senescence of alveolar type 2 (ATII) cells, progenitors of the alveolar epithelium, is implicated in the pathogeneses of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), an aging-related progressive fatal lung disorder with unknown etiology. The mechanism underlying ATII cell senescence in fibrotic lung diseases, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that ATII cells in IPF lungs express higher levels of serpine 1, also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and cell senescence markers p21 and p16, compared to ATII cells in control lungs...
July 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709982/impact-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-air-blood-barrier
#5
Rossella Bengalli, Maurizio Gualtieri, Laura Capasso, Chiara Urani, Marina Camatini
The inhalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) may induce systemic diseases, damages to the alveolar epithelium and inflammatory response to endothelial cells. In this work the use of an in vitro air-blood barrier (ABB) model provided a tool to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the potential effects of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs). The ABB model used is composed of a Transwell co-culture of a lung epithelial cell line (NCI-H441) and an immortalized pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707162/pulmonary-surfactant-associated-proteins-and-inflammatory-factors-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#6
Dongmei Lu, Ayiniger Abulimiti, Ting Wu, Ailigen Abudureyim, Nanfang Li
PURPOSE: Pulmonary surfactant (PS) plays roles in promoting the removal of the liquid, host defense, and immune regulation in the tracheal, bronchial, and alveoli epithelium. PS protein expression level can be regulated by oxygen levels and related free radicals. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is featured with oxygen free radical production for damaging epithelial tissues and thus may affect PS production. The study was to explore the relationship between PS protein and OSA severity. METHODS: We collected serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 35 OSA patients and 22 healthy subjects...
July 13, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705614/tracing-molecular-and-structural-changes-upon-mucolysis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-human-airway-mucus
#7
Branko Vukosavljevic, Xabier Murgia, Konrad Schwarzkopf, Ulrich F Schaefer, Claus-Michael Lehr, Maike Windbergs
The conducting airways of the human lungs are lined by mucus, which lubricates the lung epithelium and provides a first-line protection against airborne threats. As a novel approach for visualization of the human mucus microstructure, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a label-free and chemically selective technique. We were successfully able to chemically resolve the pulmonary surfactant from the mucus matrix and show its spatial distribution, as well as to visualize the structural changes within the freeze-dried mucus mesh upon chemical mucolysis...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696894/preference-of-aerosolized-pirfenidone-to-oral-intake-an-experimental-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis-by-paraquat
#8
Rokhsana Rasooli, Hamid Rajaian, Abbas Pardakhty, Ali Mandegary
BACKGROUND: Inhalation drug delivery is a fast, effective, and safe route of delivering medication directly to the lungs. Thanks to the large surface area and highly vascularized epithelium in lung, pulmonary drug delivery has been considered as an effective route to deliver drugs to the systemic circulation. Pirfenidone (PF), an oral antifibrotic agent, has been shown to slow down the progression of the lung fibrosis. Inhalation or intrapulmonary delivery of PF appears to be a good alternative to optimize drug delivery and minimize the dosage, adverse and nonspecific effects...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684161/vitamin-e-isoform-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-protects-against-emphysema-in-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd
#9
Hong Yong Peh, W S Daniel Tan, Tze Khee Chan, Chen Wei Pow, Paul S Foster, W S Fred Wong
Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to emphysema in COPD. Although corticosteroids are the standard of care for COPD, they do not reduce oxidative stress, and a subset of patients is steroid-resistant. Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that may protect against emphysema. We aimed to establish the therapeutic potential of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models in comparison with prednisolone. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks or 2 months...
July 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667071/pulmonary-immunity-to-viruses
#10
REVIEW
S Rameeza Allie, Troy D Randall
Mucosal surfaces, such as the respiratory epithelium, are directly exposed to the external environment and therefore, are highly susceptible to viral infection. As a result, the respiratory tract has evolved a variety of innate and adaptive immune defenses in order to prevent viral infection or promote the rapid destruction of infected cells and facilitate the clearance of the infecting virus. Successful adaptive immune responses often lead to a functional state of immune memory, in which memory lymphocytes and circulating antibodies entirely prevent or lessen the severity of subsequent infections with the same virus...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658660/epithelial-ho-1-stat3-affords-the-protection-of-subanesthetic-isoflurane-against-zymosan-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#11
Ling Wang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ning-Ning Liu, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qin-Qin Liu, Hai-Yu Mei, Li-Feng Wang, An-Gang Yang, Chun-Fang Gao, Jun-Tang Li
Epithelial dysfunction is a key characteristic of acute lung injury (ALI). Isoflurane (ISO) confers lung protection via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the specific role and potential mechanisms of subanesthetic ISO in lung epithelium protection during zymosan-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, zymosan increased the expression and activity of beneficial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the lung and isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs-II) from wild-type (WT) mice, which was further enhanced by ISO treatment...
June 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642621/variants-of-the-abca3-gene-might-contribute-to-susceptibility-to-interstitial-lung-diseases-in-the-chinese-population
#12
Wei Zhou, Yi Zhuang, Jiapeng Sun, Xiaofen Wang, Qingya Zhao, Lizhi Xu, Yaping Wang
ATP-binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) is a phospholipid carrier that is mainly expressed in the alveolar epithelium. Biallelic mutations of ABCA3 has been associated with fatal respiratory distress syndrome and interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children. However, whether variations in ABCA3 have a role in the development of adult ILD, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), remains to be addressed. In this study, we screened for germline variants of ABCA3 by exons-sequencing in 30 patients with sporadic IPF and in 30 matched healthy controls...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627346/-study-on-rac1-mapk-erk-pathway-mediated-mechanism-and-role-in-rats-with-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#13
Guanghua Tao, Linghui Pan, Ren Jing, Fei Lin, Huijun Dai, Wanyun Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Rac1/MAPK/ERK) signal pathway in rats with ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) and its mechanism. METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into spontaneous respiration group, normal tidal volume (VT) group and high VT group with 10 rats in each group. The rats in spontaneous respiration group were kept their spontaneous breathing...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620266/mechanistic-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-smoking-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-on-the-nasal-epithelium
#14
Marja Talikka, Florian Martin, Alain Sewer, Grégory Vuillaume, Patrice Leroy, Karsta Luettich, Nveed Chaudhary, Michael J Peck, Manuel C Peitsch, Julia Hoeng
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major causes of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of markers of COPD onset is hampered by the lack of accessibility to the primary target tissue, and there is a need to consider other sample sources as surrogates for biomarker research. Airborne toxicants pass through the nasal epithelium before reaching the lower airways, and the similarity with bronchial histology makes it an attractive surrogate for lower airways. In this work, we describe the transcriptomics findings from the nasal epithelia of subjects enrolled in a clinical study focusing on the identification of COPD biomarkers...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613916/human-cd8-t-cells-damage-non-infected-epithelial-cells-during-influenza-virus-infection-in-vitro
#15
Carolien E van de Sandt, Montserrat Bárcena, Abraham J Koster, Jennifer Kasper, Charles J Kirkpatrick, Dana P Scott, Rory D de Vries, Susanne Herold, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Thijs Kuiken, Kirsty R Short
During severe influenza A virus (IAV) infections a large amount of damage to the pulmonary epithelium is the result of the anti-viral immune response. Specifically, whilst CD8+ T cells are important for killing IAV-infected cells, during a severe IAV infection they can damage uninfected epithelial cells. At present, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Here, we used a novel in vitro co-culture model of human NCl-H441 cells and CD8+ T cells in order to provide a new insight into how CD8+ T cells may affect uninfected epithelial cells during severe IAV infections...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602698/early-growth-response-factor-1-is-essential-for-cigarette-smoke-induced-muc5ac-expression-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#16
Shao-Bin Wang, Chao Zhang, Xu-Chen Xu, Feng Xu, Jie-Sen Zhou, Yan-Ping Wu, Chao Cao, Wen Li, Hua-Hao Shen, Jiao-Fei Cao, Zhi-Hua Chen
Early growth response factor 1 (Egr-1) is a zinc finger transcription factor which responses rapidly to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Previous studies have suggested that Egr-1 exerts pathological functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by regulation of cigarette smoking-induced autophagy, cell death, and inflammation. However, little is known about the role of Egr-1 in regulation of mucus production in airway epithelium. In this study, we observed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced a successive expression of Egr-1 and MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596268/application-of-euclidean-distance-mapping-for-assessment-of-basement-membrane-thickness-distribution-in-asthma
#17
Leila B Mostaco-Guidolin, Soheil M Hajimohammadi, Dragos Mihai Vasilescu, Tillie-Louise Hackett
Abnormal thickening of the airway basement membrane is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in asthma. Current protocols for measuring the basement membrane involve the use of stained tissue sections and measurements of the basement membrane thickness at certain intervals, followed by the calculation of the geometric mean thickness for each airway. This report describes an automated, unbiased approach which uses colour segmentation to identify structures of interest on stained sections and euclidean distance mapping to measure the thickness distribution of airway structures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588583/hypercapnia-impairs-enac-cell-surface-stability-by-promoting-phosphorylation-polyubiquitination-and-endocytosis-of-%C3%AE-enac-in-a-human-alveolar-epithelial-cell-line
#18
Paulina Gwoździńska, Benno A Buchbinder, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Rory E Morty, Werner Seeger, István Vadász
Acute lung injury is associated with formation of pulmonary edema leading to impaired gas exchange. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require mechanical ventilation to improve oxygenation; however, the use of relatively low tidal volumes (to minimize further injury of the lung) often leads to further accumulation of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). Hypercapnia has been shown to impair alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), thereby causing retention of pulmonary edema, and may lead to worse outcomes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576552/poisoning-in-goats-by-the-monofluoracetate-containing-plant-palicourea-aeneofusca-rubiaceae
#19
Temístocles Soares de Oliveira Neto, Franklin Riet-Correa, Stephen T Lee, Daniel Cook, Francisca Maria Sousa Barbosa, José Ferreira da Silva Neto, Sara Vilar Dantas Simões, Ricardo Barbosa Lucena
The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of a spontaneous outbreak of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in goats are reported. The main clinical signs were motor incoordination, generalized muscle tremors, broad-based posture, tachypnea, tachycardia, vocalization and respiratory distress. Two goats died 5 and 20 min after the observation of the first clinical signs. Another that was found recumbent died 80 h later. One goat with mild clinical signs recovered. Congestion and hemorrhages were observed macroscopically and histologically in most organs...
May 31, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570981/ethyl-pyruvate-alleviates-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#20
Baoqing Chen, Feifei Na, Hui Yang, Rui Li, Mengqian Li, Xiaowen Sun, Binbin Hu, Guodong Huang, Jie Lan, He Xu, Ruizhan Tong, Xianming Mo, Jianxin Xue, You Lu
OBJECTIVE: Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common complication of thoracic cancer radiation therapy. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) was reported to have an ameliorating effect on a variety of systemic inflammation reactions, including acute lung injury. However, the protective effect of EP on RILI has not been explored. MATERIALS/METHODS: RILI was induced by a single thoracic irradiation of 16Gy X-rays in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into four groups: control, radiation, 100mg/kg EP, and 200mg/kg dexamethasone...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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