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Pulmonary epithelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933915/airway-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-copd-role-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#1
Mahyar Aghapour, Pourya Raee, Seyed Javad Moghaddam, Pieter S Hiemstra, Irene H Heijink
The epithelial lining of the airway forms the first barrier against environmental insults such as inhaled cigarette smoke, which is the primary risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The barrier is formed by airway epithelial junctions, which are interconnected structures that restrict permeability to inhaled pathogens and environmental stressors. Destruction of the epithelial barrier not only exposes subepithelial layers to hazardous agents in the inspired air, but also alters the normal function of epithelial cells, which may eventually contribute to the development of COPD...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924092/extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-in-two-pinniped-species
#2
Shotaro Nakagun, Hirotaka Watanabe, Kenji Ochiai, Kaoru Kohyama, Wataru Goshima, Yoko Goto, Yumi Kobayashi, Kennichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Jun Sasaki, Masanobu Goryo, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Two cases of extralobar pulmonary sequestrations from a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) are described in the present study. Grossly, an independent, soft unilocular cystic mass was found within the abdominal cavities of both animals, adherent to the diaphragm in O. rosmarus and attached to the cardia of the stomach in E. jubatus. Histopathologically, the cysts were lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with abundant goblet cells, while the wall comprised of glands, hyaline cartilage, bronchiole- and alveolus-like structures, smooth muscles, and large, well-developed elastic and muscular arteries...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916279/the-role-of-il-6-released-from-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-in-diesel-ufp-induced-endothelial-activation
#3
Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Sara Marchetti, Maria C Proverbio, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their ultrafine fraction (UFP) are known to induce cardiovascular effects in exposed subjects. The mechanisms leading to these outcomes are still under investigation, but the activation of respiratory endothelium is likely to be involved. Particles translocation through the air-blood barrier and the release of mediators from the exposed epithelium have been suggested to participate in the process. Here we used a conditioned media in vitro model to investigate the role of epithelial-released mediators in the endothelial cells activation...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915071/transcriptional-response-of-respiratory-epithelium-to-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#4
Masashi Matsuyama, Andrew J Martins, Shamira Shallom, Olena Kamenyeva, Anuj Kashyap, Elizabeth P Sampaio, Juraj Kabat, Kenneth N Olivier, Adrian M Zelazny, John S Tsang, Steven M Holland
RATIONALE: The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease is increasing, but host responses in respiratory epithelium infected with NTM are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify infection-relevant gene expression signatures of NTM infection of the respiratory epithelium. METHODS: We infected air-liquid interface (ALI) primary respiratory epithelial cell cultures with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAC) or Mycobacterium abscessuss subsp...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903389/epithelial-ho-1-stat3-affords-the-protection-of-subanesthetic-isoflurane-against-zymosan-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#5
Ling Wang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ning-Ning Liu, Xiao-Shan Zhu, Qin-Qin Liu, Hai-Yu Mei, Li-Feng Wang, An-Gang Yang, Chun-Fang Gao, Jun-Tang Li
Epithelial dysfunction is a key characteristic of acute lung injury (ALI). Isoflurane (ISO) confers lung protection via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the specific role and potential mechanisms of subanesthetic ISO in lung epithelium protection during zymosan-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, zymosan increased the expression and activity of beneficial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the lung and isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs-II) from wild-type (WT) mice, which was further enhanced by ISO treatment...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899426/benign-metastasizing-leiomyoma-presenting-as-multiple-cystic-pulmonary-nodules-a-case-report
#6
Yeong Hun Choe, So Yeon Jeon, Yoon Chae Lee, Myung Ja Chung, Seung Yong Park, Yong Chul Lee, So Ri Kim
BACKGROUND: Benign metastatic leiomyoma (BML) is an extremely rare disease. Although uterine leiomyomas are benign histologically, they can metastasize to distant sites. While the incidence is very low, the lung is the organ most frequently affected by BML. Pulmonary BML usually presents as numerous well-defined nodules of various sizes, while the cavitary or cystic features in the nodules are rarely observed on radiologic images. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old woman complained of cough and dyspnea for one month...
September 12, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875163/functional-vascularized-lung-grafts-for-lung-bioengineering
#7
N Valerio Dorrello, Brandon A Guenthart, John D O'Neill, Jinho Kim, Katherine Cunningham, Ya-Wen Chen, Mauer Biscotti, Theresa Swayne, Holly M Wobma, Sarah X L Huang, Hans-Willem Snoeck, Matthew Bacchetta, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
End-stage lung disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lung disease, new therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting lung repair and increasing the number of donor lungs available for transplantation are being explored. Because of the extreme complexity of this organ, previous attempts at bioengineering functional lungs from fully decellularized or synthetic scaffolds lacking functional vasculature have been largely unsuccessful...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867724/justicia-procumbens-extract-dw2008-selectively-suppresses-th2-cytokines-in-splenocytes-and-ameliorates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-asthma
#8
Jihyun Youm, Hyunyong Lee, Hwan Bong Chang, Jihyun Jeon, Mi Hee Yoon, Ji Young Woo, Min-Soo Choi, Yunha Hwang, Seungkyoo Seong, Kyuheum Na, Joobyoung Yoon
DW2008 is an anhydrous ethanol extract of Justicia procumbens produced by Dong-Wha Pharmaceutical, Inc., Co. as a candidate anti-asthmatic drug. In this study, DW2008 selectively reduced T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines in mouse splenocytes and ameliorated ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by downregulating pulmonary infiltration of differential inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines more than a decoction or ethanol extract of J. procumbens did in a mouse asthma model. DW2008 also significantly inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness and reduced the thickness of the airway epithelium...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864214/microrna-218-acts-by-repressing-tnfr1-mediated-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-which-is-involved-in-muc5ac-hyper-production-and-inflammation-in-smoking-induced-bronchiolitis-of-copd
#9
Hui Xu, Qian Sun, Lu Lu, Fei Luo, Liang Zhou, Jianping Liu, Lei Cao, Qiushi Wang, Junchao Xue, Qianlei Yang, Ping Yang, Jiachun Lu, Quanyong Xiang, Qizhan Liu
Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is largely attributable to cigarette smoke (CS). However, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on CS-induced mucus hypersecretion and the inflammatory response in the airway epithelium, which are pathological characteristics of COPD-related chronic bronchiolitis. As determined in the present investigation, population-based data indicate that smokers with COPD had serious airflow obstruction and inflammation, whereas smokers without COPD had mild airflow obstruction and inflammation...
August 31, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863172/regulation-of-xanthine-dehydrogensase-gene-expression-and-uric-acid-production-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#10
Ryan D Huff, Alan C-Y Hsu, Kristy S Nichol, Bernadette Jones, Darryl A Knight, Peter A B Wark, Philip M Hansbro, Jeremy A Hirota
INTRODUCTION: The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855136/ipratropium-is-luminally-recycled-by-an-inter-play-between-apical-uptake-and-efflux-transporters-in-calu-3-bronchial-epithelial-cell-layers
#11
Vijender Panduga, Michael J Stocks, Cynthia Bosquillon
The mechanism by which quaternized anticholinergic bronchodilators permeate the airway epithelium remains controversial to date. In order to elucidate the role of drug transporters, ipratropium bidirectional transport as well as accumulation and release studies were performed in layers of the broncho-epithelial cell line Calu-3 grown at an air-liquid interface, in presence or absence of a range of transporter inhibitors. Unexpectedly, a higher transepithelial permeability was observed in the secretory direction, with an apparent efflux ratio of > 4...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838957/vascular-endothelium-plays-a-key-role-in-directing-pulmonary-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#12
Jiayi Yao, Pierre J Guihard, Xiuju Wu, Ana M Blazquez-Medela, Melissa J Spencer, Medet Jumabay, Peter Tontonoz, Alan M Fogelman, Kristina I Boström, Yucheng Yao
The vascular endothelium is critical for induction of appropriate lineage differentiation in organogenesis. In this study, we report that dysfunctional pulmonary endothelium, resulting from the loss of matrix Gla protein (MGP), causes ectopic hepatic differentiation in the pulmonary epithelium. We demonstrate uncontrolled induction of the hepatic growth factor (HGF) caused by dysregulated cross talk between pulmonary endothelium and epithelium in Mgp-null lungs. Elevated HGF induced hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (Hnf4a), which competed with NK2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831683/oligopeptide-transport-in-rat-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells-is-mediated-by-pept2
#13
Hovhannes J Gukasyan, Tomomi Uchiyama, Kwang-Jin Kim, Carsten Ehrhardt, Sharon K Wu, Zea Borok, Edward D Crandall, Vincent H L Lee
PURPOSE: Studies were conducted in primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers to characterize peptide transporter expression and function. METHODS: Freshly isolated rat lung alveolar epithelial cells were purified and cultured on permeable support with and without keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Messenger RNA and protein expression of Pept1 and Pept2 in alveolar epithelial type I- and type II-like cell monolayers (±KGF, resp.) were examined by RT-PCR and Western blotting...
August 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830544/il-18-associated-with-lung-lymphoid-aggregates-drives-ifn%C3%AE-production-in-severe-copd
#14
Emmanuel Briend, G John Ferguson, Michiko Mori, Gautam Damera, Katherine Stephenson, Natasha A Karp, Sanjay Sethi, Christine K Ward, Matthew A Sleeman, Jonas S Erjefält, Donna K Finch
BACKGROUND: Increased interferon gamma (IFNγ) release occurs in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lungs. IFNγ supports optimal viral clearance, but if dysregulated could increase lung tissue destruction. METHODS: The present study investigates which mediators most closely correlate with IFNγ in sputum in stable and exacerbating disease, and seeks to shed light on the spatial requirements for innate production of IFNγ, as reported in mouse lymph nodes, to observe whether such microenvironmental cellular organisation is relevant to IFNγ production in COPD lung...
August 22, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814671/antifibrotic-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Lynne A Murray, David M Habiel, Miriam Hohmann, Ana Camelo, Huilan Shang, Yang Zhou, Ana Lucia Coelho, Xueyan Peng, Mridu Gulati, Bruno Crestani, Matthew A Sleeman, Tomas Mustelin, Meagan W Moore, Changwan Ryu, Awo D Osafo-Addo, Jack A Elias, Chun G Lee, Buqu Hu, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Darryl A Knight, Cory M Hogaboam, Erica L Herzog
The chronic progressive decline in lung function observed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) appears to result from persistent nonresolving injury to the epithelium, impaired restitution of the epithelial barrier in the lung, and enhanced fibroblast activation. Thus, understanding these key mechanisms and pathways modulating both is essential to greater understanding of IPF pathogenesis. We examined the association of VEGF with the IPF disease state and preclinical models in vivo and in vitro. Tissue and circulating levels of VEGF were significantly reduced in patients with IPF, particularly in those with a rapidly progressive phenotype, compared with healthy controls...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814666/rapamycin-reversal-of-vegf-c-driven-lymphatic-anomalies-in-the-respiratory-tract
#16
Peter Baluk, Li-Chin Yao, Julio C Flores, Dongwon Choi, Young-Kwon Hong, Donald M McDonald
Lymphatic malformations are serious but poorly understood conditions that present therapeutic challenges. The goal of this study was to compare strategies for inducing regression of abnormal lymphatics and explore underlying mechanisms. CCSP-rtTA/tetO-VEGF-C mice, in which doxycycline regulates VEGF-C expression in the airway epithelium, were used as a model of pulmonary lymphangiectasia. After doxycycline was stopped, VEGF-C expression returned to normal, but lymphangiectasia persisted for at least 9 months...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801643/the-role-of-pge2-in-alveolar-epithelial-and-lung-microvascular-endothelial-crosstalk
#17
Thomas Bärnthaler, Jovana Maric, Wolfgang Platzer, Viktoria Konya, Anna Theiler, Carina Hasenöhrl, Benjamin Gottschalk, Sandra Trautmann, Yannick Schreiber, Wolfgang F Graier, Rudolf Schicho, Gunther Marsche, Andrea Olschewski, Dominique Thomas, Rufina Schuligoi, Akos Heinemann
Disruption of the blood-air barrier, which is formed by lung microvascular endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells, is a hallmark of acute lung injury. It was shown that alveolar epithelial cells release an unidentified soluble factor that enhances the barrier function of lung microvascular endothelial cells. In this study we reveal that primarily prostaglandin (PG) E2 accounts for this endothelial barrier-promoting activity. Conditioned media from alveolar epithelial cells (primary ATI-like cells) collected from BALB/c mice and A549 cells increased the electrical resistance of pulmonary human microvascular endothelial cells, respectively...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#18
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen that contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with influenza A virus (IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2) as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#19
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780147/stem-cells-in-pulmonary-disease-and-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Rohan R Nadkarni, Soumeya Abed, Jonathan S Draper
The epithelial cells lining the mammalian lung are subjected to constant interaction with the external environment, necessitating robust regeneration strategies to deal with cell loss due to natural turnover or damage arising from inhaled agents or disease. Since lung epithelial function extends beyond respiratory gas exchange to include roles such as immune defense and mucociliary clearance, a diverse complement of epithelial cell types exists that are regionally distributed along the respiratory tree and extensive surface area of the alveolar interface...
August 2, 2017: Chest
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