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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921408/evaluation-of-apoptosis-in-the-lung-tissue-of-sulfur-mustard-exposed-individuals
#1
Marjan Mosayebzadeh, Tooba Ghazanfari, Alireza Delshad, Hassan Akbari
Lung exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) results in pulmonary complications, which is the main cause of long-term disability and morbidity. Up to now, the precise mechanisms of SM-induced lung complications has not been identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis in the lung tissue of SM-exposed individuals. The study was performed on archived lung paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of21 patients suffering from pulmonary complications due to previous SM exposure and 9 unexposed patients who had undergone lung resections for another lung disease...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915420/extralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-in-the-middle-mediastinum
#3
Takayuki Fukui, Shuhei Hakiri, Kohei Yokoi
We here report a patients with an uncommon extralobar pulmonary sequestration located in the middle mediastinum in a 42-year-old female. Chest computed tomography showed a middle mediastinal mass of 6.5 × 2.7 × 2.0 cm in size, which consisted of some cystic lesions and a solid component. The mass was completely excised via a 3-port video-assisted thoracoscopic approach. Histopathologic examination revealed a cystic cartilaginous wall lined with ciliated columnar epithelium and edematous lung tissue, resulting in an extralobar pulmonary sequestration...
December 3, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915418/in-vivo-cns-infection-model-of-acanthamoeba-genotype-t4-the-early-stages-of-infection-lack-presence-of-host-inflammatory-response-and-are-a-slow-and-contact-dependent-process
#4
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Ulises Cardenas-Lemus, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Laura Colin-Barenque, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
This study was developed in order to describe the early morphological events observed during the invasion of two pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4); A. castellanii and A. culbertsoni, at the olfactory meatus and cerebral, pulmonary, renal, hepatic and splenic tissues levels, an in vivo invasion study. Histological and immunohistochemical description of the events at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h postintranasal inoculations of BALB/c mice was performed. A. castellanii showed a higher invasion rate than A...
December 3, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913141/acute-lung-injury-and-persistent-small-airway-disease-in-a-rabbit-model-of-chlorine-inhalation
#5
Sadiatu Musah, Connie F Schlueter, David M Humphrey, Karen S Powell, Andrew M Roberts, Gary W Hoyle
Chlorine is a pulmonary toxicant to which humans can be exposed through accidents or intentional releases. Acute effects of chlorine inhalation in humans and animal models have been well characterized, but less is known about persistent effects of acute, high-level chlorine exposures. In particular, animal models that reproduce the long-term effects suggested to occur in humans are lacking. Here, we report the development of a rabbit model in which both acute and persistent effects of chlorine inhalation can be assessed...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911568/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-mesenchymal-transition-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-response-to-chronic-inflammation-by-viral-rna-patterns
#6
Bing Tian, Igor Patrikeev, Lorenzo Ochoa, Gracie Vargas, KarryAnne K Belanger, Julia Litvinov, Istvan Boldogh, Bill T Ameredes, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multi-cellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll like receptor (TLR)3 pathway by extracellular poly(I:C) induces innate signaling through the NFkB transcription factor in human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs), prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition and activation of a fibrotic program...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905026/native-matrix-based-human-lung-alveolar-tissue-model-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reparatory-actions-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Ieva Bruzauskaite, Jovile Raudoniute, Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Sandra Meidute-Abaraviciene, Vaida Simonyte, Daiva Bironaite, Almantas Siaurys, Eiva Bernotiene, Ruta Aldonyte
Studies of lung diseases in vitro often rely on flat, plastic-based monocultures, due to short lifespan of primary cells, complicated anatomy, lack of explants, etc. We hereby present a native 3D model with cues for repopulating epithelial cells. Abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to modulate bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoke-induced injury to pulmonary epithelium were tested in our model. Post-mortem human lung tissue was sliced, cut and decellularized. Resulting matrix pads were reseeded with pulmonary epithelium (A549 line)...
December 1, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899769/the-role-of-club-cell-phenoconversion-and-migration-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Jutaro Fukumoto, Ramani Soundararajan, Joseph Leung, Ruan Cox, Sanjay Mahendrasah, Neha Muthavarapu, Travis Herrin, Alexander Czachor, Lee C Tan, Nima Hosseinian, Priyanshi Patel, Jayanthraj Gone, Mason T Breitzig, Young Cho, Andrew J Cooke, Lakshmi Galam, Venkata Ramireddy Narala, Yashwant Pathak, Richard F Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related multifactorial disease featuring non-uniform lung fibrosis. The decisive cellular events at early stages of IPF are poorly understood. While the involvement of club cells in IPF pathogenesis is unclear, their migration has been associated with lung fibrosis. In this study, we labeled club cells immunohistochemically in IPF lungs using a club cell marker Claudin-10 (Cldn10), a unique protein based on the recent report which demonstrated that the appearance of Cldn10 in developing and repairing lungs precedes other club cell markers including club cell secretory protein (CCSP)...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894999/matched-comparative-modeling-of-normal-and-diseased-human-airway-responses-using-a-microengineered-breathing-lung-chip
#9
Kambez H Benam, Richard Novak, Janna Nawroth, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Thomas C Ferrante, Youngjae Choe, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, James C Weaver, Anthony Bahinski, Kevin K Parker, Donald E Ingber
Smoking represents a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is difficult to characterize smoke-induced injury responses under physiological breathing conditions in humans due to patient-to-patient variability. Here, we show that a small airway-on-a-chip device lined by living human bronchiolar epithelium from normal or COPD patients can be connected to an instrument that "breathes" whole cigarette smoke in and out of the chips to study smoke-induced pathophysiology in vitro...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887617/increased-expression-of-trop2-in-airway-basal-cells-potentially-contributes-to-airway-remodeling-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Qixiao Liu, Haijun Li, Qin Wang, Yuke Zhang, Wei Wang, Shuang Dou, Wei Xiao
BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoes aberrant repair and remodeling after repetitive injury following exposure to environmental factors. Abnormal airway regeneration observed in COPD is thought to originate in the stem/progenitor cells of the airway epithelium, the basal cells (BCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Here, trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2), a protein implicated in the regulation of stem cell activity, was examined in lung tissue samples from COPD patients...
November 25, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882474/effects-of-cck-8-and-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-hydrogen-sulfide-system-on-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#11
Fengjun Tian, Yiling Ling, Yuqin Chen, Zhiyong Wang
Acute lung injury (ALI) is mainly characterized by diffusive injuries to lung epithelium and increased permeability of alveolar-capillary membranes caused by various factors, which leads to pulmonary edema and pulmonary closure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is the main component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most important factors causing pulmonary infection and ALI. More and more reports have indicated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is closely correlated with ALI and has anti-inflammation function, while the specific mechanism needs further investigation...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868161/neutrophil-plasticity-enables-the-development-of-pathological-microenvironments-implications-for-cystic-fibrosis-airway-disease
#12
REVIEW
Camilla Margaroli, Rabindra Tirouvanziam
INTRODUCTION: The pathological course of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, features an aberrant innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. In cystic fibrosis, neutrophil burden and activity of neutrophil elastase in the extracellular fluid have been identified as strong predictors of lung disease severity. REVIEW: Although neutrophils are generally considered to be rigid, pre-programmed effector leukocytes, recent studies suggest extensive plasticity in how neutrophil functions unfold upon recruitment to peripheral tissues, and how they choose their ultimate fate...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865842/decreasing-smpd1-activity-in-beas-2b-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cells-results-in-increased-nrf2-activity-cytokine-synthesis-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#13
Elyse MacFadden-Murphy, Lucie Roussel, Guy Martel, Julie Bérubé, Simon Rousseau
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable levels of impairment in sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) activity. Lung involvement is the most important prognostic factor in NPD-B, with recurrent respiratory infections starting in infancy being the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased SMPD1 activity impaired airway epithelium host defense response. SMPD1 activity was reduced using inducible shRNA. Surprisingly, decreasing SMPD1 activity by 50%, resulted in increased neutrophil recruitment, both at baseline and in response to bacterial stimulation...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864069/microencapsulated-sln-an-innovative-strategy-for-pulmonary-protein-delivery
#14
Diana P Gaspar, Carmen Serra, Paulo R Lino, Lídia Gonçalves, Pablo Taboada, Carmen Remuñán-López, António J Almeida
Associating protein with nanoparticles is an interesting strategy to improve their bioavailability and biological activity. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been sought as carriers for therapeutic proteins transport to the lung epithelium. Nevertheless, because of their low inertia, nanoparticles intended for pulmonary application usually escape from lung deposition. To overcome this problem, the production of spray-dried powders containing nanoparticles has been recently reported. Herein we developed new hybrid microencapsulated SLN for pulmonary administration, containing a model protein (papain, PAP)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863308/in-vitro-biopharmaceutical-evaluation-of-ciprofloxacin-metal-cation-complexes-for-pulmonary-administration
#15
J Brillault, F Tewes, W Couet, J C Olivier
Pulmonary delivery of fluoroquinolones (FQs) is an interesting approach to treat lung infections as it may lead to high local concentrations while minimizing systemic exposure. However, FQs have a rapid diffusion through the lung epithelium giving the pulmonary route no advantage compared to the oral route. Interactions between FQs and metal cations form complexes which limit the diffusion through the epithelial barrier and would reduce the absorption of FQs and maintain high concentrations in the lung. The effects of this complexation depend on the FQ and the metal cations and optimum partners should be selected through in vitro experiments prior to aerosol drug formulation...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861515/involvement-of-igf1r-in-bronchiolar-epithelial-regeneration-role-during-repair-kinetics-after-selective-club-cell-ablation
#16
Icíar P López, Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Rosete S Pais, Raquel Torrens, Andreas Hoeflich, José G Pichel
Regeneration of lung epithelium is vital for maintaining airway function and integrity. An imbalance between epithelial damage and repair is at the basis of numerous chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factors) signaling has been associated with most of these respiratory pathologies, although their mechanisms of action in this tissue remain poorly understood. Expression profiles analyses of IGF system genes performed in mouse lung support their functional implication in pulmonary ontogeny...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853654/tumor-necrosis-factor-links-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-k-ras-mutant-lung-cancer-through-induction-of-an-immunosuppressive-pro-tumor-microenvironment
#17
Lei Gong, Mauricio da Silva Caetano, Amber M Cumpian, Soudabeh Daliri, Alejandra Garza Flores, Seon Hee Chang, Cesar E Ochoa, Christopher M Evans, Zhentao Yu, Seyed Javad Moghaddam
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836807/surfactant-protein-a-a-key-player-in-lung-homeostasis
#18
Nadia Nathan, Jessica Taytard, Philippe Duquesnoy, Guillaume Thouvenin, Harriet Corvol, Serge Amselem, Annick Clement
The respiratory tract is continually exposed to various insults that are a permanent threat to the maintenance of lung homeostasis. Repair of the parenchyma structure, particularly of the alveolar epithelium, requires complex cellular strategies. Among the molecular components that play an important role in these processes are the surfactant proteins (SPs), particularly SP-A. The present review examines current evidence regarding the role of SP-A in lung host defence mechanisms through its implication in innate/adaptive immunity of the lung and epithelium integrity and repair...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825108/runx2-a-novel-regulator-for-goblet-cell-differentiation-and-asthma-development
#19
Ning Shi, Jing Zhang, Shi-You Chen
Airway goblet-cell differentiation and related mucus overproduction are critical processes in the development of respiratory diseases, including asthma. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not fully understood. We identified Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) as a novel regulator for goblet-cell differentiation. Runx2 was up-regulated by 6.4-fold during IL-13-induced goblet-cell differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells. Knockdown of Runx2 attenuated the IL-13-induced differentiation/mucus production by 67%...
October 17, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818348/evaluation-of-the-tobacco-heating-system-2-2-part-6-90-day-oecd-413-rat-inhalation-study-with-systems-toxicology-endpoints-demonstrates-reduced-exposure-effects-of-a-mentholated-version-compared-with-mentholated-and-non-mentholated-cigarette-smoke
#20
Alberto Oviedo, Stefan Lebrun, Ulrike Kogel, Jenny Ho, Wei Teck Tan, Bjoern Titz, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Monali Bera, Florian Martin, Gregory Rodrigo, Marco Esposito, Ruth Dempsey, Nikolai V Ivanov, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck
The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l)...
November 3, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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