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Angharad E Green, Alejandro Amézquita, Yvan Le-Marc, Matthew J Bull, Thomas R Connor, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common contaminant associated with product recalls in the home and personal care (HPC) industry. Preservation systems are used to prevent spoilage and protect consumers, but greater knowledge is needed of preservative resistance mechanisms used by P. aeruginosa contaminants. We aimed to identify genetic pathways associated with preservative exposure by using an industrial P. aeruginosa strain and implementing RNA-Seq to understand gene expression changes in response to industry relevant conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Igor Mandric, Sergey Knyazev, Alex Zelikovsky
Summary: Genomic sequences are assembled into a variable, but large number of contigs that should be scaffolded (ordered and oriented) for facilitating comparative or functional analysis. Finding scaffolding is computationally challenging due to misassemblies, inconsistent coverage across the genome, and long repeats. An accurate assessment of scaffolding tools should take into account multiple locations of the same contig on the reference scaffolding rather than matching a repeat to a single best location...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Gregory D Bowden, Kirkwood M Land, Roberta M O'Connor, Heather M Fritz
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is the primary etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a serious neurologic disease of horses. Many horses in the U.S. are at risk of developing EPM; approximately 50% of all horses in the U.S. have been exposed to S. neurona and treatments for EPM are 60-70% effective. Advancement of treatment requires new technology to identify new drugs for EPM. To address this critical need, we developed, validated, and implemented a high-throughput screen to test 725 FDA-approved compounds from the NIH clinical collections library for anti-S...
February 16, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Saverio Affatato, Alessandro Ruggiero, Sami Abdel Jaber, Massimiliano Merola, Pierangiola Bracco
Given the long-term problem of polyethylene wear, medical interest in the new improved cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), with or without the adding of vitamin E, has risen. The main aim of this study is to gain further insights into the mutual effects of radiation cross-linking and addition of vitamin E on the wear performance of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). We tested four different batches of polyethylene (namely, a standard one, a vitamin E-stabilized, and two cross-linked) in a hip joint simulator for five million cycles where bovine calf serum was used as lubricant...
March 16, 2018: Materials
Dalibor Hr Scaron Ak, Morten Steen Nørby, Sonia Coriani, Jacob Kongsted
We present a formulation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) method in combination with the complex polarization propagator (CPP) method for the calculation of absorption spectra of molecules in solutions. The method is particularly useful for the calculation of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra. We compare the performance of PDE-CPP with the previously formulated polarizable embedding (PE) CPP model for the calculation of the NEXAFS spectra of adenine, formamide, glycine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in water at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges, as well as of formamide and glycine at the oxygen K-edge...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Manuela Gander, Diana Diamond, Anna Buchheim, Kathrin Sevecke
Forced displacements and their psychosocial consequences in adolescent refugees and their families have received increasing attention in recent years. Although supportive family relations play a key role in buffering the impact of traumatization in adolescents, parental ability to provide such is often subject to extreme pressure. Under conditions of forced dislocation and fear, maladaptive interpersonal strategies in the parent-child relationships may develop, contributing to the onset of psychopathology. We explore new aspects of attachment-related issues for the understanding and treatment of adolescent refugees who have experienced multiple traumas in their childhood...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Saskia Reibe, Marit Hjorth, Mark A Febbraio, Martin Whitham
Exercise stimulates a wide array of biological processes, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Many previous studies have adopted transcriptomic analyses of skeletal muscle to address particular research questions, a process that ultimately results in the collection of large amounts of publicly available data that has not been fully integrated or interrogated. To maximize the use of these available transcriptomic exercise data sets, we have downloaded and re-analyzed them and formulated the data into a searchable online tool, geneXX...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Carrie L McCarthy, Richard L Brutchey
Solution processing has emerged as a promising option for the preparation of functional materials with methods that tend to be cheap, less energy intensive, and allow for high throughput and large area deposition. A recently developed method, whereby a binary thiol-amine solvent mixture is used to dissolve bulk oxides, chalcogenides, or elemental materials to yield molecular precursor inks for the deposition of phase pure chalcogenide materials, has recently garnered attention for applications in optoelectronics, thermoelectrics, and electrocatalysis...
March 16, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Roberta Venturella, Alberto Vaiarelli, Laura Buffo, Pietro D'alessandro, Silvia Colamaria, Sara Pedri, Costantino Di Carlo, Erminia Alviggi, Marina Forte, Federica Faustini, Fulvio Zullo, Laura Rienzi, Flippo M Ubaldi
We aimed to evaluate patients' perspectives on a progesterone subcutaneous formulation for endometrial preparation for frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer. In this prospective study, women with at least one experience with vaginal progesterone, undergone endometrial preparation with oral estradiol valerate and daily subcutaneous progesterone administered from the fifth day before the transfer until the day of the beta-hCG test. Patients completed three questionnaires, at enrollment (Q1), for gathering information on the experience with vaginal treatment and expectations about the subcutaneous route and then at the time of the transfer (Q2) and eight days later (Q3)...
March 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
David Bonnel, Raphaël Legouffe, André H Eriksson, Rasmus W Mortensen, Fabien Pamelard, Jonathan Stauber, Kim T Nielsen
Generation of skin distribution profiles and reliable determination of drug molecule concentration in the target region are crucial during the development process of topical products for treatment of skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Imaging techniques like mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) offer sufficient spatial resolution to generate meaningful distribution profiles of a drug molecule across a skin section. In this study, we use matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to generate quantitative skin distribution profiles based on tissue extinction coefficient (TEC) determinations of four different molecules in cross sections of human skin explants after topical administration...
March 15, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sylvain Bart, Sacha Roudine, Joël Amossé, Christian Mougin, Alexandre R R Péry, Céline Pelosi
The risk assessment of pesticides on soil fauna is an issue to protect agroecosystem sustainability. Enchytraeids are recognized as relevant soil bioindicators of chemical stress in agroecosystems. In laboratory, the reproduction test was found to be sensitive to reveal chemical impacts on enchytraeids. However, it does not allow to assess the impacts on ecological functions in which enchytraeids are involved. The objectives of this study were (i) to explore the feasibility of the bait-lamina test with enchytraeids under laboratory conditions and (ii) to compare its sensitivity with the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vaishnavi Rohitkumar Shah, Pardeep K Gupta
PURPOSE: Despite the fact that r-hGH was first approved for use by FDA in 1995 and the conventional dosage form in the market has a limitation of daily subcutaneous injections, there remains a lack of sustained delivery system in the market. Nutropin depot, a long-acting dosage form of r-hGH was approved for marketing by FDA in 1999, however, it was discontinued in 2004. Since then, unabating efforts have been made to develop biodegradable polymer based formulations for r-hGH delivery...
March 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Dietmar Hübner
The prospect of creating and using human-animal chimeras and hybrids (HACHs) that are significantly human-like in their composition, phenotype, cognition, or behavior meets with divergent moral judgments: on the one side, it is claimed that such beings might be candidates for human-analogous rights to protection and care; on the other side, it is supposed that their existence might disturb fundamental natural and social orders. This paper tries to show that both positions are paradoxically intertwined: they rely on two kinds of species arguments, "individual species arguments" and "group species arguments," which formulate opposing demands but are conceptually interdependent...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Chiaki Yoshioka, Yoshimasa Ito, Noriaki Nagai
Cilostazol (CLZ), an anti-platelet agent, is primarily used following the onset of cerebral infarction. However, as CLZ is only marginally soluble in water, a strategy for patients with serious secondary conditions, such as impaired consciousness or aphagia, is required. In the present study, topical formulations containing CLZ nanocrystals (CLZnano ) were designed to enhance percutaneous absorption. In addition, the mechanism of penetration of CLZnano through rat skin was investigated. A topical formulation containing CLZ nanoparticles (CLZnano gel patch) was prepared using a combination of recrystallization and ball milling of an aqueous gel...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Felix Weissenberger, Marcelo Matheus Gauy, Johannes Lengler, Florian Meier, Angelika Steger
In computational neuroscience, synaptic plasticity rules are often formulated in terms of firing rates. The predominant description of in vivo neuronal activity, however, is the instantaneous rate (or spiking probability). In this article we resolve this discrepancy by showing that fluctuations of the membrane potential carry enough information to permit a precise estimate of the instantaneous rate in balanced networks. As a consequence, we find that rate based plasticity rules are not restricted to neuronal activity that is stable for hundreds of milliseconds to seconds, but can be carried over to situations in which it changes every few milliseconds...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alfonso Ruiz-Herrera
In this study, I explored the impact of constructing a new dispersal route between two different patches in a metapopulation. My results indicated that its success/failure on the population abundance greatly depends on the patches directly involved and negligibly on the network topology. Specifically, constructing a dispersal route is highly recommended if it connects a source to a source that is close to becoming a sink or a sink that is close to becoming a source. This biological property is the basis for understanding the influence of the network topology on the population abundance...
March 12, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
Yuan Ding, Kent A Nielsen, Bruno P Nielsen, Niels W Bøje, Rainer H Müller, Sung Min Pyo
Nicotine, obtained from tobacco leaves, has been used to promote the cessation of smoking and reduce the risk of COPD and lung cancer. Incorporating the active in lipid nanoparticles is an effective tool to minimize its irritation potential and to use the particles as intermediate to produce final products. However, as a hydrophilic active, it is a challenge to prepare nicotine loaded lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading. In this study, lipid-drug-conjugates (LDC) were formed by nicotine and different fatty acids to enable the production of sufficiently loaded nicotine lipid nanoparticles...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sandrina Lampis, Maura Carboni, Daniela Steri, Sergio Murgia, Maura Monduzzi
Lipid based formulations, endowed of long term stability as a result of the formation of lamellar liquid crystals, were prepared using the natural lipids lecithin and glycerol trioleate in water, and characterized using optical microscopy, SAXRD and NMR. The formulations, designed as possible carriers for lysozyme and caffeine, were evaluated for structural features and stability after the loading of the guest molecules. Release experiments were performed at 37 °C using the PBS medium. No burst release was observed either for lysozyme or caffeine...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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