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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926760/epidermal-nerve-fiber-quantification-in-patients-with-erythromelalgia
#1
William G Mantyh, P James B Dyck, Peter J Dyck, Janean K Engelstad, William J Litchy, Paola Sandroni, Mark D P Davis
Importance: Erythromelalgia is a clinical diagnosis based on intermittent warmth, erythema, and pain in the distal extremities. One problem facing physicians is how to objectively test for this disease. Given that other painful conditions of the distal extremities (ie, neuropathy related to human immunodeficiency virus, diabetes, or Fabry disease) can be evaluated with a skin biopsy to visualize pathologically decreased densities of the small nerve fibers that innervate the epidermis, one hypothesis is that erythromelalgia could similarly be associated with a loss of epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD)...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926611/enhanced-anticancer-activity-of-drug-nanoparticles-formulated-with-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin
#2
Honglei Zhan, Tina Jagtiani, Jun F Liang
Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent chemotherapeutic agent that shows a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. However, it is clinically inactive because of poor aqueous solubility, rapid aqueous hydrolysis, and unexpected side effects. Three strategies have extensively been adopted to improve its dissolution rate including reduction of drug particle size to a nanoscale, use of an amorphous state, and the formation of inclusion compounds. In our study, we combined these three strategies together by constructing CPT nanoparticles by creating an inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (BCD)...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926377/brain-tumor-segmentation-from-multimodal-magnetic-resonance-images-via-sparse-representation
#3
Yuhong Li, Fucang Jia, Jing Qin
OBJECTIVE: Accurately segmenting and quantifying brain gliomas from magnetic resonance (MR) images remains a challenging task because of the large spatial and structural variability among brain tumors. To develop a fully automatic and accurate brain tumor segmentation algorithm, we present a probabilistic model of multimodal MR brain tumor segmentation. This model combines sparse representation and the Markov random field (MRF) to solve the spatial and structural variability problem. METHODS: We formulate the tumor segmentation problem as a multi-classification task by labeling each voxel as the maximum posterior probability...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925764/framework-for-assessment-of-children-s-social-competence-with-particular-focus-on-children-with-brain-injuries
#4
Rebecca Ashton
Children's social competence is important for their general wellbeing and life satisfaction. Often it is an area identified as problematic for children brought to the attention of a psychologist, particularly for children with brain injuries. However, it can be difficult to pin down exactly where social difficulties lie, and therefore how best to help. The current article draws together the literature on social competence from brain injury and from more general developmental research. A hierarchical model is presented with three layers: social adjustment, social functioning, and social cognition...
December 7, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925737/generalized-kapchinskij-vladimirskij-distribution-and-beam-matrix-for-phase-space-manipulations-of-high-intensity-beams
#5
Moses Chung, Hong Qin, Ronald C Davidson, Lars Groening, Chen Xiao
In an uncoupled linear lattice system, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution formulated on the basis of the single-particle Courant-Snyder invariants has served as a fundamental theoretical basis for the analyses of the equilibrium, stability, and transport properties of high-intensity beams for the past several decades. Recent applications of high-intensity beams, however, require beam phase-space manipulations by intentionally introducing strong coupling. In this Letter, we report the full generalization of the KV model by including all of the linear (both external and space-charge) coupling forces, beam energy variations, and arbitrary emittance partition, which all form essential elements for phase-space manipulations...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925651/model-based-dose-selection-for-intravaginal-ring-formulations-releasing-anastrozole-and-levonorgestrel-intended-for-the-treatment-of-endometriosis-symptoms
#6
Isabel Reinecke, Marcus-Hillert Schultze-Mosgau, Rüdiger Nave, Heinz Schmitz, Bart A Ploeger
Pharmacokinetics (PK) of anastrozole (ATZ) and levonorgestrel (LNG) released from an intravaginal ring (IVR) intended to treat endometriosis symptoms were characterized, and the exposure-response relationship focusing on the development of large ovarian follicle-like structures was investigated by modeling and simulation to support dose selection for further studies. A population PK analysis and simulations were performed for ATZ and LNG based on clinical phase 1 study data from 66 healthy women. A PK/PD model was developed to predict the probability of a maximum follicle size ≥30 mm and the potential contribution of ATZ beside the known LNG effects...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925605/large-scale-sparse-learning-from-noisy-tags-for-semantic-segmentation
#7
Aoxue Li, Zhiwu Lu, Liwei Wang, Peng Han, Ji-Rong Wen
In this paper, we present a large-scale sparse learning (LSSL) approach to solve the challenging task of semantic segmentation of images with noisy tags. Different from the traditional strongly supervised methods that exploit pixel-level labels for semantic segmentation, we make use of much weaker supervision (i.e., noisy tags of images) and then formulate the task of semantic segmentation as a weakly supervised learning (WSL) problem from the view point of noise reduction of superpixel labels. By learning the data manifolds, we transform the WSL problem into an LSSL problem...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925590/modality-invariant-image-classification-based-on-modality-uniqueness-and-dictionary-learning
#8
Seungryong Kim, Rui Cai, Kihong Park, Sunok Kim, Kwanghoon Sohn
We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925415/utilization-of-red-light-emitting-cdte-nanoparticles-for-the-trace-level-detection-of-harmful-herbicides-in-adulterated-food-and-agricultural-crops
#9
Nilanjan Dey, Deepa Bhagat, Durgadas Cherukaraveedu, Santanu Bhattacharya
Red-light-emitting water-soluble semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using a wide variety of commercially available thiol-type capping agents. QDs with a negatively charged nanosurface showed excellent selectivity for paraquat (PQ) at pH 7.4 over other commonly encountered pesticides/herbicides, including diquat (DQ). The presence of a 4,4'-bis-pyridinium unit in PQ enabled it to initiate long-range aggregation, thereby leading to the formation of nanostructures with excellent emission-quenching behavior...
November 7, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925414/a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-providers-perceptions-and-suggestions-for-developing-cancer-survivorship-care-models-in-south-korea
#10
J W Lim, E J Shon, E J Yang
This study aimed to explore healthcare providers' perceptions of the issues and problems as well as suggestions regarding the development of cancer survivorship care models in South Korea. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was conducted with eight Korean healthcare providers using individual interviews. Purposive sampling was performed in a university hospital in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Three concepts of the Chronic Care Model (CCM) were employed to identify the issues and problems with developing a survivorship care model for Korean cancer survivors...
December 7, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925249/inhibition-of-glucuronidation-and-oxidative-metabolism-of-buprenorphine-using-gras-compounds-or-dietary-constituents-supplements-in-vitro-proof-of-concept
#11
Neha V Maharao, Anand A Joshi, Phillip M Gerk
The present study investigated the potential of generally recognized as safe compounds or dietary substances to inhibit the presystemic metabolism of buprenorphine and increase its oral bioavailability. Using IVIVE, the buprenorphine extraction ratios in intestine and liver were predicted as 96% and 71%, respectively. In addition, the relative fraction of buprenorphine metabolized by oxidation and glucuronidation in these two organs was estimated using pooled human intestinal and liver microsomes. In both organs, oxidation appeared to be the major metabolic pathway with a six and four fold higher intrinsic clearance than glucuronidation in intestine and liver, respectively...
December 7, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925191/dysbiosis-and-disease-many-unknown-ends-is-it-time-to-formulate-guidelines-for-dysbiosis-research
#12
Sudhakar Veeranki, Suresh C Tyagi
Dysbiosis has been implicated in modulation of disease and treatment outcome. It also has been linked to the reproducibility concerns. However, research community needs guidelines on animal models and dysbiosis research to tackle the complexities associated with it. There is a necessity for multi-disciplinary collaborative approach in setting up certain guidelines to hasten the dysbiosis research in a hassle-free manner. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925034/formulation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-carbopol-934-based-modified-clotrimazole-gel-for-topical-application
#13
Muhammad Ubaid, Sadaf Ilyas, Sadullah Mir, Abida K Khan, Rehana Rashid, Muhammad Z U Khan, Zainab G Kanwal, Ahmad Nawaz, Amna Shah, Ghulam Murtaza
The aim of present study was to enhance topical permeation of clotrimazole gel preparation by using various permeability enhancers such as coconut oil, pistachio oil and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Clotrimazole gel preparations were prepared and optimized by using three factor, five level central composite design. A second-order polynomial equation was generated in order to estimate the effect of independent variables i.e. coconut oil (X1), pistachio oil (X2) and sodium lauryl sulphate (X3) at various dependent variables i...
December 1, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925030/production-of-crispy-bread-snacks-containing-chicken-meat-and-chicken-meat-powder
#14
Hulya Cakmak, Burak Altinel, Seher Kumcuoglu, Duygu Kisla, Sebnem Tavman
Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples...
December 1, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924817/in-vitro-human-epidermal-permeation-of-nicotine-from-electronic-cigarette-refill-liquids-and-implications-for-dermal-exposure-assessment
#15
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
Nicotine plus flavorings in a propylene glycol (PG) vehicle are the components of electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids), which are vaporized and inhaled by the user. Dermal exposure to nicotine and e-liquids may occur among workers in mixing and filling of e-cigarettes in the manufacturing process. Inadvertent skin contact among consumers is also a concern. In vitro nicotine permeation studies using heat-separated human epidermis were performed with surrogate and two commercial e-liquids, neat and aqueous nicotine donor formulations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924727/metabolomics-of-healthy-berry-fruits
#16
Gilda D Urso, Sonia Piacente, Cosimo Pizza, Paola Montoro
The consumption of berry-type fruits has become very popular in recent years because of their positive effects on human health. Berries are in fact widely known for their health-promoting benefits, including prevention of chronic disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Berries are a rich source of bioactive metabolites, such as vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies recognized the health effects of berries and their function as bioactive modulators of various cell functions associated with oxidative stress...
December 5, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924726/neurodegenerative-disease-a-perspective-on-cell-based-therapy-in-the-new-era-of-cell-free-nano-therapy
#17
Su M Metcalfe, Sean Bickerton, Tarek Fahmy
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) result in irreversible loss of neurons. Dementia develops when disease-induced neuronal loss becomes sufficient to impair both memory and cognitive functioning and, globally, dementia is increasing to epidemic proportions as populations age. In the current era of regenerative medicine intense activity is asking, can loss of endogenous neurons be compensated by replacement with exogenously derived cells that have either direct, or indirect, neurogenic capacity? But, more recently, excitement is growing around an emerging alternative to the cell-based approach - here nanotechnology for targeted delivery of growth factor aims to support and expand resident central nervous system (CNS) stem cells for endogenous repair...
December 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924684/fifteen-years-of-epidemiologic-virologic-and-syndromic-influenza-surveillance-a-focus-on-type-b-virus-and-the-effects-of-vaccine-mismatch-in-liguria-region-italy
#18
Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Andrea Orsi, Chiara Paganino C, Ilaria Barberis, Federico Grammatico, Paola Canepa, Emanuela Rappazzo, Bianca Bruzzone, Laura Sticchi, Filippo Ansaldi
In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from three surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924469/a-methylcellulose-and-collagen-based-temperature-responsive-hydrogel-promotes-encapsulated-stem-cell-viability-and-proliferation-in-vitro
#19
Christina Payne, Eimear B Dolan, Janice O'Sullivan, Sally-Ann Cryan, Helena M Kelly
With the number of stem cell-based therapies emerging on the increase, the need for novel and efficient delivery technologies to enable therapies to remain in damaged tissue and exert their therapeutic benefit for extended periods, has become a key requirement for their translation. Hydrogels, and in particular, thermoresponsive hydrogels, have the potential to act as such delivery systems. Thermoresponsive hydrogels, which are polymer solutions that transform into a gel upon a temperature increase, have a number of applications in the biomedical field due to their tendency to maintain a liquid state at room temperature, thereby enabling minimally invasive administration and a subsequent ability to form a robust gel upon heating to physiological temperature...
December 6, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924468/whether-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-can-overcome-the-problem-of-biofilms-in-respiratory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Kamal Dua, Shakti D Shukla, Rakesh K Tekade, Philip M Hansbro
Biofilm comprises a community of microorganisms which form on medical devices and can lead to various threatening infections. It is a major concern in various respiratory diseases like cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. The treatment strategies for such infections are difficult due to the resistance of the microflora existing in the biofilms against various antimicrobial agents, thus posing threats to the patient population. The present era witnesses the beginning of research to understand the biofilm physiology and the associated microfloral diversity by applying -omics approaches...
December 6, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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