Read by QxMD icon Read


Moges Tsega, F B Dejene
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method at different pH values (3.2-6.8) with a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Raw samples were calcined at 500 °C for 2 h. The effects of pH on the structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. At pH 4.4-6.8, only the anatase phase of TiO2 was observed. Under strong acidic condition at pH 3.2 rutile, brookite and anatase co-exist, but rutile is the predominant phase. The strain value increased and the crystallite size decreased as the HCl content increased...
February 2017: Heliyon
Mark G LeSage, Danielle Burroughs, Peter Muelken, Andrew C Harris
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical abuse liability assessment is an essential component of tobacco regulatory science. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relative abuse liability of smokeless tobacco products in rats using aqueous extracts of those products. These extracts provide exposure to an extensive range of nicotine and non-nicotine tobacco constituents as occurs in humans. METHODS: Rats were trained to self-administer either nicotine alone or extracts of Camel Snus or Kodiak smokeless tobacco at an equivalent nicotine unit dose...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Sirshak Dutta, Dibakar Haldar, Mainak Dutta, Sabyasachi Barik, Kaustuv Das Biswas, Ramanuj Sinha
The present paper attempts to explore the socio-demographic profile of patients with rhinosporidiosis in an endemic area. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a tertiary-care hospital in Purulia district, India, including consecutive patients with histologically-proved rhinosporidiosis. Their socio-demographic profiles were obtained through a pre-designed proforma with given epidemiologic parameters. Data was statistically analyzed with inputs from literature review. Of the 39 patients included, 87 % were fresh/new cases...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Suhail Amin Patigaroo, Nisar Hussain Dar, Aleena Shafi Jallu, Rauf Ahmad
Thyroglossal cyst is the most common congenital neck mass and occurs in 7% of the population. They occur due to failure of thyroglossal duct to involute and atrophy thyroglossal duct cysts often occur in pediatric patients. Majority of them are found infrahyoid region. The purpose of the present study is to report our 5 year clinical experience of thyroglossal cysts in terms of clinical features and surgical findings with special emphasis on naked eye extend of patent thyroglossal duct when present. To the best of our knowledge this is first clinical study which has reported the extend of thyroglossal duct on naked eye...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Youran Gao, Sundas Khan, Meredith Akerman, Keith Sultan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Opiate use for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly high-dose (HD) use, is associated with increased mortality. It's assumed that opiate use is directly related to IBD-related complaints, although this hasn't been well defined. Our goal was to determine the indications for opiate use as a first step in developing strategies to prevent or decrease opiate use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was formed of adults who were diagnosed with IBD and for whom outpatient evaluations from 2009 to 2014 were documented...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
Lu Mao, D Y Lin
The cumulative incidence is the probability of failure from the cause of interest over a certain time period in the presence of other risks. A semiparametric regression model proposed by Fine and Gray (1999) has become the method of choice for formulating the effects of covariates on the cumulative incidence. Its estimation, however, requires modeling of the censoring distribution and is not statistically efficient. In this paper, we present a broad class of semiparametric transformation models which extends the Fine and Gray model, and we allow for unknown causes of failure...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
Deepika Rani, Munish Ahuja
Carboxymethylation of Lepidium sativum polyuronide was carried out to improve its functionality. Carboxymethyl modification was accomplished by reacting it with monochloroacetic acid under alkaline conditions, which yielded a product with degree of carboxymethyl substitution of 1.75. The results of characterization studies revealed that carboxymethylation of Lepidium sativum polyuronide improves its flow property, changes compression behaviour from elastic to plastic, diminishes its viscosity and swelling, and increases its crystallinity...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chen-Ming Lee, Paul E Luner, Karen Locke, Katherine Briggs
The objective of this study was to develop an artificial stomach-duodenum (ASD) dissolution model as an in vitro evaluation tool that would simulate the gastrointestinal physiology of gastric pH-reduced dogs as a method to assess formulations for a poorly soluble free acid compound with ng/mL solubility. After establishing the ASD model with well controlled duodenum pH, five formulations each applying different solubilization principles were developed and their performance in the ASD model and in vivo in dogs was evaluated...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jason Pogue, Keith Kaye
Polymyxins have remained the drug of choice for treatment due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Unfortunately, the utility of these agents has been limited by a lack of pharmacokinetic understanding, a high toxicity rate, and an extremely narrow therapeutic index. Significant advancements have been achieved in the understanding of the polymyxins over the past decade, and have led to the recognition of several differences between available intravenous formulations. The purpose of this review is to discuss the implications of these differences, assess comparative efficacy and safety of the polymyxins, and provide recommendations for polymyxin dosing and selection...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kevin Plourde, Rabeb Mouna Derbali, Arnaud Desrosiers, Céline Dubath, Alexis Vallée-Bélisle, Jeanne Leblond
Aptamer technology has shown much promise in cancer therapeutics for its targeting abilities. However, its potential to improve drug loading and release from nanocarriers has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we employed drug-binding aptamers to actively load drugs into liposomes. We designed a series of DNA aptamer sequences specific to doxorubicin, displaying multiple binding sites and various binding affinities. The binding ability of aptamers was preserved when incorporated into cationic liposomes, binding up to 15equivalents of doxorubicin per aptamer, therefore drawing the drug into liposomes...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Emma Guttman-Yassky, Benjamin Ungar, Kunal Malik, Daniel Dickstein, Maria Suprun, Yeriel D Estrada, Hui Xu, Xiangyu Peng, Margeaux Oliva, Dan Todd, Tord Labuda, Mayte Suarez-Farinas, Robert Bissonnette
BACKGROUND: Atopic Dermatitis (AD) presents a large unmet need for treatments with better safety and efficacy. To facilitate development of topical therapeutics, we need an efficient model for assessing different formulations and concentrations. The "plaque model" has been successfully implemented in psoriasis, another common inflammatory disease, to assess efficacy of topical treatments. This model has not been validated for AD, which has higher placebo responses and less stable lesions than psoriasis...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Damien Mertz, Olivier Sandre, Sylvie Begin-Colin
The use of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to generate non-invasively and spatially a localized heating from a magnetic nano-mediator has become very popular these last years to develop magnetic hyperthermia (MH) as a promising therapeutic modality already used in the clinics. AMF has become highly attractive this last decade over others radiations, as AMF allows a deeper penetration in the body and a less harmful ionizing effect. In addition to pure MH which induces tumor cell death through local T elevation, this AMF-generated magneto-thermal effect can also be exploited as a relevant external stimulus to trigger a drug release from drug-loaded magnetic nanocarriers, temporally and spatially...
February 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sukumar Pal, Delia F Tifrea, Frank Follmann, Peter Andersen, Luis M de la Maza
Two cationic liposomal adjuvants CAF01 and CAF09 were formulated with the native or the recombinant Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (nMOMP and rMOMP). BALB/c mice were immunized with the four vaccine formulations using the subcutaneous followed by the intranasal (i.n.) routes. As positive controls mice were inoculated i.n. with live C. muridarum and negative controls received i.n. minimal essential medium (MEM). Four weeks after the last immunization mice were challenged i.n. with 10(4) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C...
February 23, 2017: Vaccine
Alexander Norbash
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To suggest a methodical approach for refining transitional management abilities, including empowerment of a growing leader, leading in an unfamiliar organization or leading in an organization that is changing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Management approaches based on the body of work dealing with leadership studies and transitions and dealing with leadership during times of transition and change management were consolidated and categorized...
February 24, 2017: Academic Radiology
Ying Wu, Richard J Cook
A model is developed for chronic diseases with an indolent phase that is followed by a phase with more active disease resulting in progression and damage. The time scales for the intensity functions for the active phase are more naturally based on the time since the start of the active phase, corresponding to a semi-Markov formulation. This two-phase model enables one to fit a separate regression model for the duration of the indolent phase and intensity-based models for the more active second phase. In cohort studies for which the disease status is only known at a series of clinical assessment times, transition times are interval-censored, which means the time origin for phase II is interval-censored...
February 26, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Nastassja A Lewinski, Nathan J Liu, Akrivi Asimakopoulou, Eleni Papaioannou, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Michael Riediker
The field of nanomedicine is steadily growing and several nanomedicines are currently approved for clinical use with even more in the pipeline. Yet, while the use of nanotechnology to improve targeted drug delivery to the lungs has received some attention, the use of nanoparticles for inhalation drug delivery has not yet resulted in successful translation to market as compared to intravenous drug delivery. The reasons behind the lack of inhaled nanomedicines approved for clinical use or under preclinical development are unclear, but challenges related to safety are likely to contribute...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shann S Yu
Nanoparticles are increasingly being utilized for in vivo applications, where they are implemented as carriers for drugs, contrast agents for noninvasive medical imaging, or delivery vehicles for macromolecular agents such as DNA or proteins. However, they possess many physical and chemical properties that cause them to become rapidly recognized by the immune system as a foreign body, leading to their clearance and elimination, even before they may accumulate to critical concentrations at anatomic and cellular sites of action...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tanja Hochstrasser, Gianna Lisa Exner, Stella Nyamoya, Christoph Schmitz, Markus Kipp
The chopper chelator cuprizone serves as a valuable chemical tool to induce consistent and reproducible demyelination in the central nervous system. However, the daily preparation of fresh cuprizone powder mixed in finely ground rodent chow might well be a particular health problem. Alternative methods, such as the fabrication of cuprizone-containing pellets, are available. The effectiveness of this method is, however, not known. In the present study, we compared whether intoxication of C57BL/6 mice with 0...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"