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Jason N Kuehner, James W Kaufman, Claire Moore
The quality and retrieval of genetic information is imperative to the survival and reproduction of all living cells. Ultraviolet (UV) light induces lesions that obstruct DNA access during transcription, replication, and repair. Failure to remove UV-induced lesions can abrogate gene expression and cell division, resulting in permanent DNA mutations. To defend against UV damage, cells utilize transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) to quickly target lesions within active genes. In cases of long-term genotoxic stress, a slower alternative pathway promotes degradation of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) to allow for global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER)...
July 23, 2017: DNA Repair
Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Miklós Iván, Cecília Miszti, Krisztina Latkóczy, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Edit Urbán
Bacteroides fragilis as a commensal bacterium is a member of the human intestinal flora, but as an opportunistic pathogen it can cause serious infections as well. Some of them, harbouring an enterotoxin gene (bft), may cause diarrhoea mainly in young children. Recently it has been shown that a member of C11 proteases called fragipain (fpn) can activate the enterotoxin, while C10 protease (bfp) is suspected of playing an important role in the invasiveness of the B. fragilis isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of the bft isotypes in 200 Hungarian B...
July 25, 2017: Anaerobe
Simon Andreas Ferløv-Schwensen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, Kia Cirkeline Hansen, Silje Vermedal Hoegh, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalences of resistance and the cfiA carbapenemase-producing gene in historical Bacteroides fragilis group isolates. METHODS: Danish clinical B. fragilis group isolates (n=444) spanning from 1973 to 2015 were identified with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) on the Biotyper platform. Antimicrobial resistance was determined using a disk diffusion screening method and commercial antibiotic gradient strips...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Jessica Yin Man Chan, Mary J Scourboutakos, Mary R L'Abbé
BACKGROUND: Serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts table (NFt) on Canadian packaged foods have traditionally been unregulated and non-standardized. The federal government recently passed legislation to regulate the serving sizes listed on the NFt. The objective of this study was to compare the serving sizes on food product NFts to the recommendations in the 2003 Nutrition Labelling regulation (Schedule M) reference amounts, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) ranges, and Canada's Food Guide recommendations...
May 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
Pak-Leung Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Lok-Yan Ho, Jonathan H K Chen, Eileen L Y Lai, Stephanie W U Lo, Cindy W S Tse, Kin-Hung Chow
AIMS: Carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is emerging and is mainly attributed to insertion sequence (IS)-mediated activation of the carbapenemase gene cfiA. We investigated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the CarbaNP assay for the rapid identification of these strains. METHODS: This study used the Bruker MALDI Biotype system and the mass spectra models generated by 20 B. fragilis reference strains (10 cfiA-positive and 10 cfiA-negative) in the ClinProTools software to identify 404 B...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Árpád Czéh, Miklós Mézes, Francis Mandy, Zsuzsanna Szőke, György Nagyéri, Noémi Laufer, Balázs Kőszegi, Tamás Koczka, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, György Lustyik
At small food processing facilities, the most frequently used test to determine if grain-derived mycotoxin concentrations are compliant with legal limits is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Each kit is designed to detect one of the six dangerous mycotoxins. With the increasing occurrence of coinfection of grain with multiple-mycotoxins in the field and/or during storage, ELISA is no longer a cost effective best assay option. With ELISA, each species of mycotoxin requires different sample preparation/extraction and a 45 min incubation...
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Itaru Nakamura, Kotaro Aoki, Yuri Miura, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Matsumoto
Here, we report a case of fatal sepsis resulting from an intra-abdominal infection caused by a Bacteroides fragilis strain containing a CfiA4 metallo-β-lactamase and an upstream insertion sequence (IS) element. Meropenem was used as empiric therapy for septic shock as a result of the intra-abdominal infection, although two rounds of carbapenem treatment had been administered previously. B. fragilis was isolated from two anaerobic blood culture bottles 4 days after the onset of septic shock. Susceptibility testing revealed that the isolate was non-susceptible to all tested agents except metronidazole and tigecycline...
April 2017: Anaerobe
Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints...
February 2017: Anaerobe
Simon A Schwensen, Ziyap Acar, Thomas V Sydenham, Åsa C Johansson, Ulrik S Justesen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the meropenem and imipenem double-ended Etest ± EDTA and the tablet-based (meropenem and meropenem + dipicolinic acid) KPC/MBL Confirm Kit to detect cfiA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Bacteroides fragilis. METHODS: Well-characterized B. fragilis isolates, most from previously published studies, harbouring the cfiA gene and covering a wide range of meropenem MICs were included (n = 21). RESULTS: The imipenem double-ended Etest showed an indeterminate result in 95% of the included isolates with the cfiA gene (20 of 21), whereas the meropenem double-ended Etest gave an MIC ratio ≥8 (positive test) with all the isolates...
February 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
József Sóki, Maria Hedberg, Sheila Patrick, Balázs Bálint, Róbert Herczeg, István Nagy, David W Hecht, Elisabeth Nagy, Edit Urbán
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the antibiotic resistance profiles, antibiotic resistance mechanisms and possible 'clonal' nature of some MDR Bacteroides fragilis strains that simultaneously harboured cfiA, nimB, IS1186 and IS4351. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Etests and antibiotic resistance genes and different genetic elements were detected by applying PCR methods. The environments of the cfiA and nimB genes were also determined by sequencing...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Gajendra B Baktavachalam, Bryan Delaney, Tracey L Fisher, Gregory S Ladics, Raymond J Layton, Mary Eh Locke, Jean Schmidt, Jennifer A Anderson, Natalie N Weber, Rod A Herman, Steven L Evans
Maize (Zea mays) is a widely cultivated cereal that has been safely consumed by humans and animals for centuries. Transgenic or genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize, are commercially grown on a broad scale. Event TC1507 (OECD unique identifier: DAS-Ø15Ø7-1) or the Herculex®(#) I trait, an insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant maize expressing Cry1F and PAT proteins, has been registered for commercial cultivation in the US since 2001. A science-based safety assessment was conducted on TC1507 prior to commercialization...
2015: GM Crops & Food
Nina Ank, Thomas V Sydenham, Lene H Iversen, Ulrik S Justesen, Mikala Wang
Here we describe a patient undergoing extensive abdominal surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy due to primary adenocarcinoma in the sigmoid colon with peritoneal carcinomatosis. During hospitalisation the patient suffered from bacteraemia with a multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolate. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolate resulted in identification of nimE, cfiA and ermF genes corresponding to metronidazole, carbapenem and clindamycin resistance.
July 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Clarisse Dupin, Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori, Elodie Ehrmann, Anais Dupont, Frédérique Barloy-Hubler, Latifa Bousarghin, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Anne Jolivet-Gougeon
Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm...
February 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham, József Sóki, Henrik Hasman, Mikala Wang, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
Bacteroides fragilis constitutes the most frequent anaerobic bacterium causing bacteremia in humans. The genetic background for antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis is diverse with some genes requiring insertion sequence (IS) elements inserted upstream for increased expression. To evaluate whole genome shotgun sequencing as a method for predicting antimicrobial resistance properties, one meropenem resistant and five multidrug-resistant blood culture isolates were sequenced and antimicrobial resistance genes and IS elements identified using ResFinder 2...
February 2015: Anaerobe
Rosemary Meggersee, Valerie Abratt
Bacteroides fragilis, an anaerobic gut commensal and opportunistic pathogen, is a leading cause of anaerobic abscesses and bacteraemias. Treatment of infections is complicated by the emergence of resistance to several of the antibiotics used in the clinical setting. Genetic analysis of 23 B. fragilis isolates found that none of the metronidazole resistant strains carried the nimA-J genes, and no cfxA or ermF genes were detected. All of the tetracycline resistant isolates contained the tetQ gene and were sensitive to tigecycline...
April 2015: Anaerobe
Edit Székely, Zsuzsa Eitel, Szabolcs Molnár, Izabella Éva Szász, Doina Bilca, József Sóki
As part of an ESCMID Study Group on Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI) project, a study was conducted to measure the antibiotic susceptibilities and corresponding gene contents of 53 Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated in Romania. The antibiotic resistance data was comparable with the data found for other East-European countries. Here, no resistant isolate was found for imipenem, metronidazole and tigecycline. An increasing role of the cepA, cfxA and cfiA genes was observed in their corresponding antibiotic resistances...
February 2015: Anaerobe
Laura Fitzpatrick, JoAnne Arcand, Mary L'Abbe, Mengying Deng, Tara Duhaney, Norm Campbell
The accuracy of the Nutrition Facts table (NFt) has a significant impact on Canadian efforts to reduce dietary sodium and monitor sodium content in foods. This study assessed the accuracy of sodium (and calories, trans fat, saturated fat, sugar) reported on the NFt for selected foods and beverages in Canada. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) sampled over 1000 foods and beverages from supermarkets, bakeries, and restaurants across Canada between January 2006 and December 2010. The samples were analyzed in CFIA laboratories...
August 2014: Nutrients
Åsa Johansson, Elisabeth Nagy, József Sóki
Rapid identification of isolates in positive blood cultures are of great importance to secure correct treatment of septicaemic patients. As antimicrobial resistance is increasing, rapid detection of resistance is crucial. Carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis associated with cfiA-encoded class B metallo-beta-lactamase is emerging. In our study we spiked blood culture bottles with 26 B. fragilis strains with various cfiA-status and ertapenem MICs. By using main spectra specific for cfiA-positive and cfiA-negative B...
August 2014: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Asa Johansson, Elisabeth Nagy, József Sóki
Today resistance against carbapenems is considered an emerging problem in Bacteroides fragilis. Carbapenemase activities produced by aerobic bacteria have been detected by looking at hydrolysis of carbapenems with MALDI-TOF MS, but this technique was never used for anaerobic bacteria. We have developed a protocol for detection and verification of carbapenemase production in B. fragilis within 2.5 h. Twenty-eight strains of B. fragilis were tested. Of the sixteen cfiA-positive strains all showed hydrolysis of ertapenem, whereas the twelve cfiA-negative strains showed no hydrolysis...
April 2014: Anaerobe
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