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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725410/aegean-wall-lizards-switch-foraging-modes-diet-and-morphology-in-a-human-built-environment
#1
Colin M Donihue
Foraging mode is a functional trait with cascading impacts on ecological communities. The foraging syndrome hypothesis posits a suite of concurrent traits that vary with foraging mode; however, comparative studies testing this hypothesis are typically interspecific. While foraging modes are often considered typological for a species when predicting foraging-related traits or mode-specific cascading impacts, intraspecific mode switching has been documented in some lizards. Mode-switching lizards provide an opportunity to test foraging syndromes and explore how intraspecific variability in foraging mode might affect local ecological communities...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721107/bite-force-and-dental-implant-treatment-a-short-review
#2
REVIEW
Dennis Flanagan
Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients' biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706294/assessment-of-occlusion-with-the-t-scan-system-in-patients-undergoing-orthognathic-surgery
#3
Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje, Elke Van de Casteele, Ahmed S Salem, Dickson Anumendem, Eman Shaheen, Yi Sun, Constantinus Politis
Dental occlusion varies among individuals, and achieving correct physiological occlusion after osteotomy is essential for the complex functioning of the stomatognathic system. The T-Scan system records the centre of force, first contact, maximum bite force, and maximum intercuspation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness and consistency of T-Scan in assessing occlusion before and after orthognathic surgery. Occlusal information was evaluated for 30 healthy adults with normal occlusion and 40 patients undergoing orthognathic surgery...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688272/does-pain-in-the-masseter-and-anterior-temporal-muscles-influence-maximal-bite-force
#4
Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim, Amália Moreno, Daniela Micheline Dos Santos, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, Fernanda Pereira de Caxias, Karina Helga Leal Turcio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. METHODS: Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD)...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676294/psychological-stress-relieving-effects-of-chewing-relationship-between-masticatory-function-related-factors-and-stress-relieving-effects
#5
Akinori Tasaka, Manaki Kikuchi, Kousuke Nakanishi, Takayuki Ueda, Shuichiro Yamashita, Kaoru Sakurai
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. METHODS: A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669862/spontaneous-and-bite-evoked-muscle-pain-are-mediated-by-a-common-nociceptive-pathway-with-differential-contribution-by-trpv1
#6
Sheng Wang, Jongseuk Lim, John Joseph, Sen Wang, Feng Wei, Jin Y Ro, Man-Kyo Chung
Spontaneous pain and function-associated pain are prevalent symptoms of multiple acute and chronic muscle pathologies. We established mouse models for evaluating spontaneous pain and bite-evoked pain from masseter muscle, and determined the roles of TRPV1 and the contribution of TRPV1- or NK1-dependent nociceptive pathways. Masseter muscle inflammation increased mouse grimace scale (MGS) scores and face wiping behavior which were attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TRPV1. Masseter inflammation led to a significant reduction in bite force...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668098/the-role-of-mouthguards-in-preventing-and-reducing-sports-related-trauma
#7
James Ij Green
a mouthguard, also known as a gumshield, mouth protector or sports guard is an appliance that covers the teeth and surrounding mucosa with the aim of preventing or reducing trauma to the teeth, gingival tissue, lips and jaws. The device is usually worn on the maxillary arch and works by separating the maxillary and mandibular dentition, protecting the teeth from the surrounding soft tissue, absorbing or redistributing shock and/or stabilising the mandible during traumatic jaw closure. They may also play a role in preventing and reducing concussion by absorbing impact forces that would otherwise be transmitted through the base of the skull to the brain, although the evidence for this is less conclusive...
May 1, 2017: Primary Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643919/mechanobehaviour-in-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-adolescents
#8
J C Nickel, A L Weber, P Covington Riddle, Y Liu, H Liu, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVES: To test whether mechanobehaviour (temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loads, jaw muscle use) was different between facial types and correlated with ramus height (Condylion-Gonion, mm). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) Orthodontic Clinic. Ten dolichofacial and ten brachyfacial adolescents (Sella-Nasion-Gonion-Gnathion (SN-GoGn) angles ≥37° and ≤27°, respectively) consented to participate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Numerical models calculated TMJ loads for a range of static biting based on subjects' three-dimensional anatomy...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630862/influence-of-deformation-and-stress-between-bone-and-implant-from-various-bite-forces-by-numerical-simulation-analysis
#9
Hsin-Chung Cheng, Boe-Yu Peng, May-Show Chen, Chiung-Fang Huang, Yi Lin, Yung-Kang Shen
Endosseous oral implant is applied for orthodontic anchorage in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis. Its effectiveness under orthodontic loading has been demonstrated clinically and experimentally. This study investigates the deformation and stress on the bone and implant for different bite forces by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) methods. A numerical simulation of deformation and stress distributions around implants was used to estimate the survival life for implants. The model was applied to determine the pattern and distribution of deformations and stresses within the endosseous implant and on supporting tissues when the endosseous implant is used for orthodontic anchorage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617634/dramatic-fighting-by-male-cuttlefish-for-a-female-mate
#10
Justine J Allen, Derya Akkaynak, Alexandra K Schnell, Roger T Hanlon
Male cuttlefish compete for females with a repertoire of visually dramatic behaviors. Laboratory experiments have explored this system in Sepia officinalis, but corroborative field data have eluded collection attempts by many researchers. While scuba diving in Turkey, we fortuitously filmed an intense sequence of consort/intruder behaviors in which the consort lost and then regained his female mate from the intruder. These agonistic bouts escalated in stages, leading to fast dramatic expression of the elaborate intense zebra display and culminating in biting and inking as the intruder male attempted a forced copulation of the female...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601734/effect-of-interocclusal-appliance-on-bite-force-sleep-quality-salivary-cortisol-levels-and-signs-and-symptoms-of-temporomandibular-dysfunction-in-adults-with-sleep-bruxism
#11
João Vicente Rosar, Taís de Souza Barbosa, Ilo Odilon Villa Dias, Fernanda Yukie Kobayashi, Yuri Martins Costa, Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Paula Midori Castelo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to evaluate the effect interocclusal appliance therapy on bite force (BF), sleep quality and salivary cortisol levels in adults with SB diagnosed by polysomnography. As a secondary aim, signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) were evaluated. DESIGN: Forty-three adults (19-30 y/o) were divided into two groups: experimental group (GSB), composed of 28 subjects with SB, and control group (GC), without SB and TMD (n=15). GSB was treated with stabilization interocclusal splint and evaluated at time intervals: before (baseline), one month (T1) and two months (T2) after therapy began, to collect data related to BF, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), salivary cortisol levels and TMD...
May 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600825/temporomandibular-dysfunction-in-adult-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-dm1
#12
REVIEW
C Mejersjö, S Kiliaridis
Myotonic muscle dystrophy is a systemic disease with early engagement of the facial muscles. Our aim was to study dysfunction of the temporomandibular system in patients with 'classic' dystrophia myotonica (DM1) and compare it with TMD patients and healthy controls. The study included 27 referred patients with DM1, 18 women and 9 men, aged 30-62 years, and two matched control groups: patients with temporomandibular disorders symptoms (TMD) and healthy controls, both groups were consecutive patients. The patients answered questions regarding facial pain, jaw function and dysfunction...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598182/masticatory-parameters-of-children-with-and-without-clinically-diagnosed-caries-in-permanent-dentition
#13
M S Kaya, S Akyuz, B Guclu, D Diracoglu, A Yarat
AIM: Mastication turns food into a bolus and prepares it for chemical digestion. Any condition affecting tooth structure and position may have an impact on mastication. The aim of this study is to compare masticatory performance (MP) and maximum bite force (MBF) between children with and without clinically visible caries in permanent first molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 50 children in good general condition aged 12-14 years (25 girls, 25 boys) with no orthodontic/skeletal anomalies and no missing teeth due to dental trauma or extraction...
June 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587819/prodepressant-and-anxiogenic-like-effects-of-serotonin-selective-but-not-noradrenaline-selective-antidepressant-agents-in-mice-lacking-%C3%AE-2-containing-gabaa-receptors
#14
Rebecca S Benham, Nishani B Hewage, Raymond F Suckow, Elif Engin, Uwe Rudolph
Deficits in neuronal inhibition via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder and the therapeutic effects of current antidepressant treatments, however, the relevant GABAA-R subtype as defined by its alpha subunit is still unknown. We previously reported anxiety- and depressive-like behavior in alpha2+/- and alpha2-/- mice, respectively (Vollenweider, 2011). We sought to determine whether this phenotype could be reversed by chronic antidepressant treatment...
June 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586692/functional-innovations-and-the-conquest-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-oceans-by-acanthomorph-fishes
#15
REVIEW
Peter C Wainwright, Sarah J Longo
The world's oceans are home to many fantastic creatures, including about 16,000 species of actinopterygian, or ray-finned, fishes. Notably, 85% of marine fish species come from a single actinopterygian subgroup, the acanthomorph or spiny-rayed fishes. Here, we review eight functional innovations found in marine acanthomorphs that have been instrumental in the adaptive radiation of this group in the marine realm. Jaw protrusion substantially enhances the suction feeding mechanism found in all fish. Fin spines serve as a major deterrent to predators and enhance the locomotor function of fins...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585258/masticatory-muscle-architecture-in-a-water-rat-from-australasia-murinae-hydromys-and-its-implication-for-the-evolution-of-carnivory-in-rodents
#16
P-H Fabre, A Herrel, Y Fitriana, L Meslin, L Hautier
Murines are well known for their generalist diet, but several of them display specializations towards a carnivorous diet such as the amphibious Indo-Pacific water-rats. Despite the fact that carnivory evolved repeatedly in this group, few studies have investigated associated changes in jaw muscle anatomy and biomechanics. Here, we describe the jaw muscles and cranial anatomy of a carnivorous water-rat, Hydromys chrysogaster. The architecture of the jaw musculature of six specimens captured both on Obi and Papua were studied and described using dissections...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579157/compound-mechanism-of-fatal-neck-injury-a-case-report-of-a-tiger-attack-in-a-zoo
#17
Łukasz Szleszkowski, Agata Thannhäuser, Tomasz Jurek
Fatal injuries caused by attacks by large wild cats are extremely rare in forensic medical practice in Europe. There are very few cases described in the forensic medical literature concerning incidents in zoos similar to the tiger attack on a 58-year-old male zoo employee that we present here. While preparing a runway for tigers, the man was attacked by a male Sumatran tiger. Another zoo employee was an eyewitness to the accident; in his testimony he described the sequence of events in detail. The autopsy showed the injuries typical of a tiger attack: traces of claws and canine teeth indicating that the victim of the attack was knocked down from behind, along with deep and extensive fatal wounds to the neck...
May 20, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566353/sex-reversal-induces-size-and-performance-differences-among-females-of-the-african-pygmy-mouse-mus-minutoides
#18
Samuel Ginot, Julien Claude, Julie Perez, Frederic Veyrunes
Differences in biological performance, at both intra- and inter-specific levels, have often been linked to morphology but seldom to behavioural or genotypic effects. We tested performance at the intraspecific level by measuring bite force in the African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides. This species displays an unusual sex determination system, with sex-reversed, X*Y females carrying a feminizing X* chromosome. X*Y females cannot be differentiated from XX females based on external or gonadal morphology; however, they are known to be more aggressive...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553859/the-relationship-between-selected-parameters-of-a-cephalometric-analysis-determining-the-vertical-morphology-of-facial-skeleton-and-bite-force
#19
Jolanta Szymańska, Łukasz Sidorowicz
BACKGROUND: There are few studies devoted to an assessment of the relation between bite force and detailed results of cephalometric analysis that determine craniofacial structure. The purpose of the study was to assess the correlation between the selected criteria determining the craniofacial structure and bite force in patients with normal and increased vertical relation of the bases of jaws and skull. METHODS: The study material included 120 patients, aged between 7 and 17 years, who presented for examination and possible orthodontic treatment...
May 29, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548304/delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-doms-does-not-influence-occlusal-sensitivity-and-position-sense-of-the-mandible
#20
Rosaria Bucci, Frank Lobbezoo, Ambrosina Michelotti, Christina Orfanou, Michail Koutris
BACKGROUND: Masticatory muscle-pain patients often complain about sensorimotor changes, but the effects of pain on the psychophysical properties remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) on the jaw's position sense (PS) and occlusal sensitivity (OS). METHODS: Twelve participants underwent intense concentric-eccentric jaw exercises. Self-reported muscle fatigue and pain, pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO), pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) at right and left masseter and right and left anterior temporalis, maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF), PS, and OS were recorded before, immediately after, 24h, 48h, and one week after the exercises...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
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