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Bite force

Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Anne Caroline Oenning, Alexandre Rodrigues Freire, Ana Cláudia Rossi, Felippe Bevilacqua Prado, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria, Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho, Francisco Haiter-Neto
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested a relationship between resorption in second molars and pressure from the eruptive force of the third molar. The aim of this study was to simulate functional forces in a mandible model by means of finite element analysis and then assess the biomechanical response produced by impacted third molars on the roots of the second molar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cone beam computed tomography scan presenting an impacted mandibular third molar was segmented (Mimics V17 software)...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Joy Dierks, Tammy Servies, Tai Do
Introduction: The US Marines operate the Jungle Warfare Training Center (JWTC) in Northern Okinawa, where leptospirosis is endemic. The JWTC endurance course involves prolonged fresh and stagnant water exposures in a simulated jungle warfare environment. Since a leptospirosis outbreak in 1987, JWTC has required prophylactic use of doxycycline at 200 mg weekly during exposure to the endurance course. This policy is based on a 1982 study in a similar environment in Panama. In August and September of 2014, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among 81 Marines training at JWTC...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
S Matsuda, T Memida, N Mizuno, I Ogawa, K Ouhara, M Kajiya, T Fujita, E Sugiyama, H Kurihara
AIM: To report a case of reparative bone-like tissue formation in the tooth of a patient with systemic sclerosis. SUMMARY: A 58-year-old Japanese female patient with systemic sclerosis was referred because of tooth fracture. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) revealed multiple root resorption and the unclear transition from alveolar bone to root profile. A sample from a fractured tooth was analysed histologically. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections revealed the irregular replacement of pulp and dentine by bone-like tissue...
February 26, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Skye F Cameron, Rebecca Wheatley, Robbie S Wilson
Studies of sexual selection primarily focus on morphological traits such as body size and secondary trait dimorphism, with less attention been given to the functional differences between the sexes and even more so their thermal performance capacities. Each sex may benefit from possessing different thermal performance capacities that would allow them to maximise their fitness relative to their different reproductive roles; especially when performances are closely related to reproductive success. Here, we examine sexual divergence in thermal sensitivities of performance across three populations of the Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) over an extensive latitudinal cline...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Ricardo Miguel Godinho, Paul O'Higgins
Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Eva Kiesswetter, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Siliva Migliaccio, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Claire Sulmont-Rossé, Catherine Feart, Aleksandra Suwalska, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis, Wiktor Pałys, Dorota Łojko, Anna Saba, Fiorella Sinesio, Angela Polito, Elisabetta Moneta, Donatella Ciarapica, Johannes Brug, Dorothee Volkert
OBJECTIVE: The identification of determinants of dietary intake is an important prerequisite for the development of interventions to improve diet. The present systematic literature review aimed to compile the current knowledge on individual functional determinants of dietary intake in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Titles, abstracts and full texts were screened according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Anna Lohmann, Ludger Keilig, Friedhelm Heinemann, Christoph Bourauel, Istabrak Hasan
Poor stability of a complete denture is a common problem due to bone atrophy of the edentulous ridge. The aim of the present study was to analyze denture stability after receiving implants and to study the biomechanical properties of denture implants and the bone bed using conventional or mini implants. Five models based on computed tomography (CT) data of edentulous patients were created. The overdentures' connection to the implants was assured by means of ball head abutments and rubber rings. In three models, the denture was supported by two to four conventional implants and in two models, the overdenture was supported by three to five mini implants...
February 8, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Declan T Millett, Susan J Cunningham, Kevin D O'Brien, Philip E Benson, Cesar M de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: A Class II division 2 malocclusion is characterised by upper front teeth that are retroclined (tilted toward the roof of the mouth) and an increased overbite (deep overbite), which can cause oral problems and may affect appearance.This problem can be corrected by the use of special dental braces (functional appliances) that move the upper front teeth forward and change the growth of the upper or lower jaws, or both. Most types of functional appliances are removable and this treatment approach does not usually require extraction of any permanent teeth...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Meg Simione, Chrystel Loret, Benjamin Le Révérend, Brian Richburg, Mirna Del Valle, Marc Adler, Mireille Moser, Jordan R Green
The development of chewing is an essential motor skill that is continually refined throughout early childhood. From a motor control perspective, the advancement of textures is dependent upon the fit between a child's oral anatomic and motor system and food properties. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify age-related changes in chewing motor coordination and control and to determine if these changes are associated with the differing structural properties of solid foods, as well as to explore the role of explanatory variables such as the emergence of teeth and bite force...
January 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Canay Yılmaz Asan, Nükhet Kütük, Gökmen Kurt, Alper Alkan
PURPOSE: Class 3 malocclusions with maxillary deficiency, which are treated surgically and/or ordonotically, are common among adult patients. The aim of this study was to develop a three-directional bone-borne distractor that would allow the transverse expansion and sagittal advancement of the maxilla simultaneously. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography images of a patient with maxillary deficiency were transmitted to a software program, and a distractor was designed with different sizes (D1, D2, D3) and manufactured from titanium alloy...
March 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Abdullah Abdulrahman Alshareef, Abdulaziz Alkhuriaf, Sharat Chandra Pani
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in bite characteristics of children before and after the placement of multiple stainless steel crowns (SSCs) under general anesthesia (GA). METHODS: Twenty children scheduled for treatment under general anesthesia who needed SSCs in three or more posterior quadrants were included in this study. The bite was digitally analyzed and recorded preoperatively and at one and four weeks postoperatively. The occlusion time, number of force outliers, and distribution of force at each visit was recorded and compared...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
Abigail A Curtis, Sharlene E Santana
Diet and feeding behavior in mammals is strongly linked to the morphology of their feeding apparatus. Cranio-muscular morphology determines how wide, forcefully, and quickly the jaw can be opened or closed, which limits the size and material properties of the foods that a mammal can eat. Most studies of feeding performance in mammals have focused on skull form and jaw muscles involved in generating bite force, but few explore how jaw abduction is related to feeding performance. In this study, we explored how the morphology of the digastric muscle, the primary jaw abducting muscle in mammals, and its jaw lever mechanics are related to diet in morphologically diverse noctilionoid bats...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jonathan M G Perry
The jaw adductor muscles of extinct mammals are often reconstructed to elucidate paleoecological relationships and to make broad comparisons among taxa. Muscle lever arms, bite load arms, muscle dimensions, and gape are often also reconstructed to better understand feeding. Several different approaches to these and related goals are discussed here. A protocol for reconstructing muscle dimensions and bite force using biomechanically informative skull measurements and osteological proxies of muscle dimensions is described and applied to a case study of subfossil Malagasy lemurs...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Samuel Ginot, Anthony Herrel, Julien Claude, Lionel Hautier
Rodentia is a species-rich group with diversified modes of life and diets. Although rodent skull morphology has been the focus of a voluminous literature, the functional significance of its variations has yet to be explored in live animals. Myomorphous rodents, including murids, have been suggested to represent "high-performance generalists." We measured in vivo bite force in 14 species of wild and lab-reared murid rodents of various sizes and diets to investigate potential morphofunctional differences between them...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Chan-Woo Jeong, Kyung-Ho Kim, Hyo-Won Jang, Hye-Sun Kim, Jong-Ki Huh
Objective The relationship between bite force and torus palatinus or mandibularis remains to be explained. The major aim of this study was to determine the correlation between bite force and oral tori. Methods The bite force of 345 patients was measured with a bite force recorder; impressions of the shape and size of the oral tori were taken on plaster models prior to orthodontic treatments. Subsequently, the relationship between oral tori and bite force was analyzed. Results The size, shape, and incidence of torus palatinus was not significantly correlated with bite force...
January 12, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Justin A Ledogar, Theodora H Y Luk, Jonathan M G Perry, Dimitri Neaux, Stephen Wroe
We analyzed feeding biomechanics in pitheciine monkeys (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao), a clade that specializes on hard-husked unripe fruit (sclerocarpy) and resistant seeds (seed predation). We tested the hypothesis that pitheciine crania are well-suited to generate and withstand forceful canine and molar biting, with the prediction that they generate bite forces more efficiently and better resist masticatory strains than the closely-related Callicebus, which does not specialize on unripe fruits and/or seeds...
2018: PloS One
Tim Peterson, Gerd B Müller
Advances in imaging and modeling facilitate the calculation of biomechanical forces in biological specimens. These factors play a significant role during ontogenetic development of cichlid pharyngeal jaws, a key innovation responsible for one of the most prolific species diversifications in recent times. MicroCT imaging of radiopaque-stained vertebrate embryos were used to accurately capture the spatial relationships of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus in two cichlid species (Haplochromis elegans and Amatitlania nigrofasciata) for the purpose of creating a time series of developmental stages using finite element models, which can be used to assess the effects of biomechanical forces present in a system at multiple points of its ontogeny...
2018: PloS One
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