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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813570/experimental-and-numerical-characterization-of-the-mechanical-masseter-muscle-response-during-mastication
#1
Johannes Weickenmeier, Mahmood Jabareen, Benjamin J D Le Révérend, Marco Ramaioli, Edoardo Mazza
Predictive simulations of the mastication system would significantly improve our understanding of temporomandibular joint disorders and the planning of cranio-maxillofacial surgery procedures. Respective computational models must be validated by experimental data from in-vivo characterization of the mastication system's mechanical response. The present work introduces a combined experimental and numerical procedure for the validation of a computer model of the masseter muscle during biting. The proposed experimental setup enables simultaneous bite force measurements and ultrasound-based visualization of masseter deformation for the direct comparison with the numerically predicted masseter response...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813431/skeleton-of-an-unusual-cat-sized-marsupial-relative-metatheria-marsupialiformes-from-the-middle-eocene-lutetian-44-43-million-years-ago-of-turkey
#2
A Murat Maga, Robin M D Beck
We describe a near-complete, three-dimensionally preserved skeleton of a metatherian (relative of modern marsupials) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) Lülük member of the Uzunçarşıdere Formation, central Turkey. With an estimated body mass of 3-4 kg, about the size of a domestic cat (Felis catus) or spotted quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), it is an order of magnitude larger than the largest fossil metatherians previously known from the Cenozoic of the northern hemisphere. This new taxon is characterised by large, broad third premolars that probably represent adaptations for hard object feeding (durophagy), and its craniodental morphology suggests the capacity to generate high bite forces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#3
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807935/function-of-the-hypobranchial-muscles-and-hyoidiomandibular-ligament-during-suction-capture-and-bite-processing-in-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks-chiloscyllium-plagiosum
#4
Jason B Ramsay, Cheryl D Wilga
Suction feeding in teleost fish is a power dependant behavior, requiring rapid and forceful expansion of the orobranchial cavity by the hypobranchial and trunk muscles. To increase power production for expansion, many species employ in-series tendons and catch mechanisms to store and release elastic strain energy. Suction feeding sharks such as Chiloscyllium plagiosum lack large in-series tendons on the hypobranchials, yet two of the hypobranchials, the coracohyoideus and coracoarcualis (CH, CA; hyoid depressors), are arranged in-series, and run deep and parallel to a third muscle, the coracomandibularis (CM, jaw depressor)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797552/perforating-cervical-thoracic-and-abdominal-wounds
#5
REVIEW
Marije Risselada
Most body wall injuries in small animals are caused by bite wounds or vehicular trauma. Penetrating gunshot wounds are less common. Bite wounds are characterized by massive trauma to the body wall with associated defects, but fewer internal injuries, whereas gunshot wounds are associated with a high number of internal injuries. Vehicular accident injuries are caused by blunt force trauma and can lead to both body wall defects and internal organ damage. Impalement injuries are rare and are typically associated with internal damage...
August 7, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789647/evaluation-of-muscle-activity-bite-force-and-salivary-cortisol-in-children-with-bruxism-before-and-after-low-level-laser-applied-to-acupoints-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Mônica da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, Carolina Carvalho Bortoletto, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini Horliana, Ana Carolina Costa Mota, Lara Jansiski Motta, Pamella de Barros Motta, Raquel Agnelli MesquitaFerrari, Kristianne Porta Santos Fernandes, Sandra Kalil Bussadori
BACKGROUND: Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints...
August 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762591/ean-consensus-review-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-tick-borne-encephalitis
#7
REVIEW
P Taba, E Schmutzhard, P Forsberg, I Lutsar, U Ljøstad, Å Mygland, I Levchenko, F Strle, I Steiner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and transmitted by ticks, with a variety of clinical manifestations. The incidence of TBE in Europe is increasing due to an extended season of the infection and the enlargement of endemic areas. Our objectives are to provide recommendations on the prevention, diagnosis and management of TBE, based on evidence or consensus decisions. METHODS: For systematic evaluation, the literature was searched from 1970 to 2015 (including early online publications of 2016), and recommendations were based on evidence or consensus decisions of the Task Force when evidence-based data were not available...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761274/comparative-evaluation-of-bite-force-analytical-study-following-mandibular-osteosysthesis-using-three-dimensional-and-conventional-locking-miniplates
#8
Pallav Kumar Kinra, K Jayakumar, C S Soumithran, Manoj Joseph Michael, Deepak Passi, Mahinder Singh
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim is to study the effectiveness of 2 mm three-dimensional (3D) titanium miniplates and 2 mm conventional titanium miniplates in osteosynthesis of mandibular fractures by comparing the change in bite force. METHODOLOGY: The study comprised forty patients of age group 20-40 years, weighing 55-75 kg having mandibular fractures. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups In Group A, twenty patients underwent osteosynthesis using 3D titanium miniplates (2...
January 2017: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760510/structural-cutaneous-adaptations-for-defense-in-toad-rhinella-icterica-parotoid-macroglands
#9
Eduardo Regis-Alves, Simone G S Jared, Beatriz Maurício, Pedro L Mailho-Fontana, Marta M Antoniazzi, Maria Cecília Fleury-Curado, Edmund D Brodie, Carlos Jared
Toads have a pair of glandular accumulations on each side of the dorsal region of the head known as parotoid macroglands. These macroglands consist of secretory units (granular glands), each one capped with an epithelial plug. When threatened, toads point one of the parotoids toward the aggressor, and if the aggressor squeezes the parotoid with its teeth, jets of poison will come out of the secretory units and hit the predator's oral mucosa, thereby causing poisoning. Our study focused on the mechanism of parotoid function by comparing parotoids from toads naturally attacked by dogs with those manually compressed...
July 29, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735790/patient-specific-finite-element-analysis-of-fiber-post-and-ferrule-design
#10
Monise de Paula Rodrigues, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Andréa Dollores Correia Miranda Valdivia, Roberto Sales Pessoa, Crisnicaw Veríssimo, Antheunis Versluis, Carlos José Soares
INTRODUCTION: A ferrule on anterior endodontic-treated teeth has been evaluated using clinical trials, in vitro tests, and finite element analysis (FEA). The patient-specific FEA with a nonuniform ferrule and nonlinear contact biting load associated with clinical validation can be used to predict failure. METHODS: A patient was selected with both maxillary central incisors with different ferrule designs who received endodontic treatment and restoration using a fiber post, composite core, and computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramic crowns...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725410/aegean-wall-lizards-switch-foraging-modes-diet-and-morphology-in-a-human-built-environment
#11
Colin M Donihue
Foraging mode is a functional trait with cascading impacts on ecological communities. The foraging syndrome hypothesis posits a suite of concurrent traits that vary with foraging mode; however, comparative studies testing this hypothesis are typically interspecific. While foraging modes are often considered typological for a species when predicting foraging-related traits or mode-specific cascading impacts, intraspecific mode switching has been documented in some lizards. Mode-switching lizards provide an opportunity to test foraging syndromes and explore how intraspecific variability in foraging mode might affect local ecological communities...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721107/bite-force-and-dental-implant-treatment-a-short-review
#12
REVIEW
Dennis Flanagan
Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients' biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration...
2017: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706294/assessment-of-occlusion-with-the-t-scan-system-in-patients-undergoing-orthognathic-surgery
#13
Jimoh Olubanwo Agbaje, Elke Van de Casteele, Ahmed S Salem, Dickson Anumendem, Eman Shaheen, Yi Sun, Constantinus Politis
Dental occlusion varies among individuals, and achieving correct physiological occlusion after osteotomy is essential for the complex functioning of the stomatognathic system. The T-Scan system records the centre of force, first contact, maximum bite force, and maximum intercuspation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness and consistency of T-Scan in assessing occlusion before and after orthognathic surgery. Occlusal information was evaluated for 30 healthy adults with normal occlusion and 40 patients undergoing orthognathic surgery...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688272/does-pain-in-the-masseter-and-anterior-temporal-muscles-influence-maximal-bite-force
#14
Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim, Amália Moreno, Daniela Micheline Dos Santos, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, Fernanda Pereira de Caxias, Karina Helga Leal Turcio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. METHODS: Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD)...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676294/psychological-stress-relieving-effects-of-chewing-relationship-between-masticatory-function-related-factors-and-stress-relieving-effects
#15
Akinori Tasaka, Manaki Kikuchi, Kousuke Nakanishi, Takayuki Ueda, Shuichiro Yamashita, Kaoru Sakurai
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. METHODS: A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669862/spontaneous-and-bite-evoked-muscle-pain-are-mediated-by-a-common-nociceptive-pathway-with-differential-contribution-by-trpv1
#16
Sheng Wang, Jongseuk Lim, John Joseph, Sen Wang, Feng Wei, Jin Y Ro, Man-Kyo Chung
Spontaneous pain and function-associated pain are prevalent symptoms of multiple acute and chronic muscle pathologies. We established mouse models for evaluating spontaneous pain and bite-evoked pain from masseter muscle, and determined the roles of TRPV1 and the contribution of TRPV1- or NK1-dependent nociceptive pathways. Masseter muscle inflammation increased mouse grimace scale (MGS) scores and face wiping behavior which were attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TRPV1. Masseter inflammation led to a significant reduction in bite force...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668098/the-role-of-mouthguards-in-preventing-and-reducing-sports-related-trauma
#17
James Ij Green
a mouthguard, also known as a gumshield, mouth protector or sports guard is an appliance that covers the teeth and surrounding mucosa with the aim of preventing or reducing trauma to the teeth, gingival tissue, lips and jaws. The device is usually worn on the maxillary arch and works by separating the maxillary and mandibular dentition, protecting the teeth from the surrounding soft tissue, absorbing or redistributing shock and/or stabilising the mandible during traumatic jaw closure. They may also play a role in preventing and reducing concussion by absorbing impact forces that would otherwise be transmitted through the base of the skull to the brain, although the evidence for this is less conclusive...
May 1, 2017: Primary Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643919/mechanobehaviour-in-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-adolescents
#18
J C Nickel, A L Weber, P Covington Riddle, Y Liu, H Liu, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVES: To test whether mechanobehaviour (temporomandibular joint (TMJ) loads, jaw muscle use) was different between facial types and correlated with ramus height (Condylion-Gonion, mm). SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) Orthodontic Clinic. Ten dolichofacial and ten brachyfacial adolescents (Sella-Nasion-Gonion-Gnathion (SN-GoGn) angles ≥37° and ≤27°, respectively) consented to participate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Numerical models calculated TMJ loads for a range of static biting based on subjects' three-dimensional anatomy...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630862/influence-of-deformation-and-stress-between-bone-and-implant-from-various-bite-forces-by-numerical-simulation-analysis
#19
Hsin-Chung Cheng, Boe-Yu Peng, May-Show Chen, Chiung-Fang Huang, Yi Lin, Yung-Kang Shen
Endosseous oral implant is applied for orthodontic anchorage in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis. Its effectiveness under orthodontic loading has been demonstrated clinically and experimentally. This study investigates the deformation and stress on the bone and implant for different bite forces by three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) methods. A numerical simulation of deformation and stress distributions around implants was used to estimate the survival life for implants. The model was applied to determine the pattern and distribution of deformations and stresses within the endosseous implant and on supporting tissues when the endosseous implant is used for orthodontic anchorage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617634/dramatic-fighting-by-male-cuttlefish-for-a-female-mate
#20
Justine J Allen, Derya Akkaynak, Alexandra K Schnell, Roger T Hanlon
Male cuttlefish compete for females with a repertoire of visually dramatic behaviors. Laboratory experiments have explored this system in Sepia officinalis, but corroborative field data have eluded collection attempts by many researchers. While scuba diving in Turkey, we fortuitously filmed an intense sequence of consort/intruder behaviors in which the consort lost and then regained his female mate from the intruder. These agonistic bouts escalated in stages, leading to fast dramatic expression of the elaborate intense zebra display and culminating in biting and inking as the intruder male attempted a forced copulation of the female...
July 2017: American Naturalist
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