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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911900/clinical-and-pharmacological-investigation-of-myotoxicity-in-sri-lankan-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-envenoming
#1
Anjana Silva, Christopher Johnston, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Daniela Kneisz, Kalana Maduwage, Oded Kleifeld, A Ian Smith, Sisira Siribaddana, Nicholas A Buckley, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
BACKGROUND: Sri Lankan Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming is reported to cause myotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are different to the effects of envenoming by most other populations of Russell's vipers. This study aimed to investigate evidence of myotoxicity in Russell's viper envenoming, response to antivenom and the toxins responsible for myotoxicity. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Clinical features of myotoxicity were assessed in authenticated Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a Sri Lankan teaching hospital...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893561/finite-element-evaluation-of-different-osteosynthesis-variations-that-used-after-segmental-mandibular-resection
#2
Koray Onur Şanal, Bora Özden, Burcu Baş
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different reconstruction plates and screw combinations on stress distribution of segmental resected mandibles using finite element analysis. METHODS: Lateral (L) and lateral-central (LC) defects were simulated by a computer aided design modeling. The straight (s) and angular (a) titanium locking reconstruction plates of 2.5 mm (12 holes for L defects and 16 holes for LC defects) were modeled. Each screw was 2...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891455/unmasking-the-effect-of-analgesics-on-endodontic-diagnosis-using-a-novel-bite-force-sensor-device-a-prospective-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Sushil Kishnani, Suparna Ganguly Saha, Anuj Bhardwaj, Sandeep Dubey, Mainak Saha, Shubham Kala, Sohini Jain, Shweta Narwani
INTRODUCTION: A definitive diagnosis is of primary importance before initiating any endodontic treatment; yet, there are occasions when the dental professional is unable to accurately reproduce the patient's chief complaint, as it can pose a dilemma and may require consideration of multiple variables in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. So to overcome this problem, a methodical approach in providing endodontic treatment should be implemented which includes diagnosis, definitive dental treatment and adjunctive drug therapy, known as the "3D" strategy...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880779/a-mighty-claw-pinching-force-of-the-coconut-crab-the-largest-terrestrial-crustacean
#4
Shin-Ichiro Oka, Taketeru Tomita, Kei Miyamoto
Crustaceans can exert a greater force using their claws than many animals can with other appendages. Furthermore, in decapods, the chela is a notable organ with multifunctional roles. The coconut crab, Birgus latro, is the largest terrestrial crustacean and has a remarkable ability to lift weights up to approximately 30 kg. However, the pinching force of this crab's chelae has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we measured the pinching force of the chelae in 29 wild coconut crabs (33-2,120 g in body weight)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869350/skeletogenesis-of-myiopsitta-monachus-psittaciformes-and-sequence-heterochronies-in-aves
#5
Julieta Carril, Claudia P Tambussi
The ossification sequence of Myiopsitta monachus was determined. Myiopsitta has a similar sequence to other altricial birds, with delayed skeletons compared to precocial species. The hindlimbs ossify before the forelimbs, a condition that could be linked to altriciality. To determine the stability of the sequences of ossification across birds, we selected species of different groups of Aves and used event-pairing method and character mapping on a phylogeny. Our results show that the homogeneity in the development of birds was supported by 56...
November 21, 2016: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866879/differences-in-bite-force-between-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-individuals-side-of-mastication-gender-weight-and-height
#6
Paulo Roberto Quiudini, Daniel Humberto Pozza, Ary Dos Santos Pinto, Mauricio Ferraz de Arruda, Antonio Sergio Guimarães
PURPOSE: Due to the bite force importance in functionality of the masticatory system, this study aimed to characterize it in dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals. METHODS: A sample comprised by 190 patients was divided into two groups: 90 severe dolichofacial, and 100 severe brachyfacial individuals classified according to the VERT index and the face height ratio (Jarabak quotient). Bite force was measured by using an adjusted digital dynamometer and proper methodology...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866310/prediction-of-difficult-laryngoscopy-using-spirometry-a-pilot-study
#7
Serkan Dogru, Tugba Karaman, Aynur Sahin, Hakan Tapar, Serkan Karaman, Semih Arici, Mustafa Suren, Ziya Kaya, Battal Tahsin Somuk
Prediction of difficult laryngoscopy is still the uncovered secret of anesthetic practice. This pilot study is aimed to assess the efficacy of spirometry measurements in predicting difficult laryngoscopy compared with conventional airway assessment techniques. We enrolled 202 adults, ages 18-40 years, with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists score of I or II, scheduled for elective surgery and undergoing general anesthesia. Spirometry was used for lung capacity measurements before the operation. The Mallampati classification, neck circumference, sternomental distance, thyromental distance, maximum mouth-opening measurement, and upper lip bite test of the subjects were measured...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853575/the-impact-of-gape-on-the-performance-of-the-skull-in-chisel-tooth-digging-and-scratch-digging-mole-rats-rodentia-bathyergidae
#8
Andrew F McIntosh, Philip G Cox
The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) are a family of rodents highly adapted for life underground. Previous research has shown that chisel-tooth digging mole-rats (which use their incisors to dig burrows) are clearly distinguishable from scratch diggers (which only use the forelimbs to tunnel) on the basis of morphology of the skull, and that the differences are linked to the production of high bite forces and wide gapes. We hypothesized that the skull of a chisel-tooth digging mole-rat would perform better at wider gapes than that of a scratch digging mole-rat during incisor biting...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833164/periodontal-tactile-input-activates-the-prefrontal-cortex
#9
Nobuaki Higaki, Takaharu Goto, Tetsuo Ichikawa
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a role in complex cognitive behavioural planning, decision-making, and social behaviours. However, the effects of sensory integration during motor tasks on PFC activation have not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral sensory information and external information on PFC activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was increased around bilateral Brodmann areas 46 and 10 during visual and auditory information integration during an occlusal force (biting) task...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816416/a-comparative-study-of-piscine-defense-the-scales-of-arapaima-gigas-latimeria-chalumnae-and-atractosteus-spatula
#10
Vincent R Sherman, Haocheng Quan, Wen Yang, Robert O Ritchie, Marc A Meyers
We compare the characteristics of the armored scales of three large fish, namely the Arapaima gigas (arapaima), Latimeria chalumnae (coelacanth), and Atractosteus spatula (alligator gar), with specific focus on their unique structure-mechanical property relationships and their specialized ability to provide protection from predatory pressures, with the ultimate goal of providing bio-inspiration for manmade materials. The arapaima has flexible and overlapping cycloid scales which consist of a tough Bouligand-type arrangement of collagen layers in the base and a hard external mineralized surface, protecting it from piranha, a predator with extremely sharp teeth...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765151/comparative-biomechanics-of-australopithecus-sediba-mandibles
#11
David J Daegling, Kristian J Carlson, Paul Tafforeau, Darryl J de Ruiter, Lee R Berger
Fossils attributed to Australopithecus sediba are described as having phylogenetic affinities with early Homo to the exclusion of other South African australopiths. With respect to functional anatomy of mastication, one implication of this hypothesis is that A. sediba mandibles should exhibit absolutely and relatively reduced stiffness and strength in comparison to Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus jaws. Examination of cortical bone distribution in the MH 1 and MH 2 mandibles of A. sediba (evaluated against samples of Pan, early and modern Homo as well as A...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759845/post-operative-hemimaxillectomy-rehabilitation-using-prostheses-supported-by-zygoma-implants-and-remaining-natural-teeth
#12
Xing Zhou Qu, Ming Yi Wang, Hui Shan Ong, Chen Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757323/metallic-fixation-of-mandibular-segmental-defects-graft-immobilization-and-orofacial-functional-maintenance
#13
Narges Shayesteh Moghaddam, Ahmadreza Jahadakbar, Amirhesam Amerinatanzi, Mohammad Elahinia, Michael Miller, David Dean
: The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of the healthy mandible under maximum molar bite force to demonstrate the problems associated with the current standard of care procedures for mandibular segmental defect reconstruction (ie, use of Ti-6Al-4V hardware and either a single- or double-barrel fibular graft). With current Ti-6Al-4V mandibular reconstruction hardware, there is a significant stiffness mismatch among the hardware, graft, and the remaining host anatomy. How the distribution of mechanical forces through the mandible is altered after a segmental bone loss and reconstruction is incompletely understood...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756441/study-protocol-for-a-multi-center-randomized-controlled-trial-to-develop-japanese-denture-adhesive-guidelines-for-patients-with-complete-dentures-the-denture-adhesive-guideline-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Suguru Kimoto, Yasuhiko Kawai, Atsuko Gunji, Hisatomo Kondo, Taro Nomura, Tomohiko Murakami, Akito Tsuboi, Guang Hong, Shunsuke Minakuchi, Yusuke Sato, Gaku Ohwada, Tetsuya Suzuki, Katsuhiko Kimoto, Noriyuki Hoshi, Makiko Saita, Yoshikazu Yoneyama, Yohei Sato, Masakazu Morokuma, Joji Okazaki, Takeshi Maeda, Kenichiro Nakai, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Kan Nagao, Keiko Fujimoto, Hiroshi Murata, Tadafumi Kurogi, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Masahiro Nishimura, Yasuhiro Nishi, Mamoru Murakami, Toshio Hosoi, Taizo Hamada
BACKGROUND: Denture adhesives, characterized as medical products in 1935 by the American Dental Association, have been considered useful adjuncts for improving denture retention and stability. However, many dentists in Japan are hesitant to acknowledge denture adhesives in daily practice because of the stereotype that dentures should be inherently stable, without the aid of adhesives. The aim of this study is to verify the efficacy of denture adhesives to establish guidelines for Japanese users...
October 18, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747636/effect-of-bite-force-in-occlusal-adjustment-of-dental-implants-on-the-distribution-of-occlusal-pressure-comparison-among-three-bite-forces-in-occlusal-adjustment
#15
Sho Kayumi, Yoshiyuki Takayama, Atsuro Yokoyama, Nana Ueda
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of occlusal forces (the contractile force of masticatory muscles) exerted during occlusal adjustment on the distribution of the forces among teeth, implants, and temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in intercuspal clenching in cases with bilateral missing molars and premolars by using finite element analysis. METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model of the mandible with eight implants in the premolar and molar regions was constructed...
December 2015: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743403/blood-oxygenation-of-masseter-muscle-during-sustained-elevated-muscle-activity-in-healthy-participants
#16
S Suzuki, E E Castrillon, T Arima, Y Kitagawa, P Svensson
Myofascial pain associated with temporomandibular disorders has often been linked to pathological muscle hyperactivity. As a result, localised disturbances of intramuscular blood flow could lead to a lower level of oxygen distribution, hypoxia and microcirculatory changes. To assess haemodynamic changes in the masseter muscle during sustained elevated muscle activity (SEMA). Sixteen healthy participants performed thirty 1-min bouts of SEMA with intervals of 1-min 'rest' periods between the bouts on a bite force transducer device...
December 2016: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707910/musculoskeletal-modelling-under-an-evolutionary-perspective-deciphering-the-role-of-single-muscle-regions-in-closely-related-insects
#17
Sina David, Johannes Funken, Wolfgang Potthast, Alexander Blanke
Insects show a remarkable diversity of muscle configurations, yet the factors leading to this functional diversity are poorly understood. Here, we use musculoskeletal modelling to understand the spatio-temporal activity of an insect muscle in several dragonfly species and to reveal potential mechanical factors leading to a particular muscle configuration. Bite characteristics potentially show systematic signal, but absolute bite force is not correlated with size. Muscle configuration and inverse dynamics show that the wider relative area of muscle attachment and the higher activity of subapical muscle groups are responsible for this high bite force...
October 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706865/occlusal-pressure-redistribution-with-single-implant-restorations
#18
Miguel A Roque, German O Gallucci, Sang J Lee
PURPOSE: To describe the occlusal pressure redistribution in dental arches following placement of single posterior implant-supported restorations in occlusion with natural dentitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients who presented for successfully osseointegrated single posterior implant restorations participated in the study. Cement-retained, all-ceramic implant crowns were fabricated and delivered after adjustment for interproximal contacts, fit, and uniform occlusal contacts...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696615/elastic-properties-of-lithium-disilicate-versus-feldspathic-inlays-effect-on-the-bonding-by-3d-finite-element-analysis
#19
Flávia Zardo Trindade, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Niek de Jager, Marco Antônio Bottino, Cornelis Johannes Kleverlaan
PURPOSE: To determine the elastic properties of five ceramic systems with different compositions (lithium disilicate vs. feldspathic ceramics) and processing methods and compare the stress distribution in premolars in the interface with inlays made with these systems loaded with the maximum normal bite force (665 N) using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The elastic properties of five ceramic restoration materials (IPS e.max Press, IPS e...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690364/maximum-bite-force-of-edentulous-patients-before-and-after-dental-implant-rehabilitation-long-term-follow-up-and-facial-type-influence
#20
Ana Cláudia M Melo, Ingrid M Ledra, Rogéria A Vieira, Edivaldo R Coró, Ivete Aparecida de M Sartori
PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate patients' long-term maximum bite force (MBF) after rehabilitation with mandibular implant-supported prosthesis, (2) to assess the influence of facial pattern in MBF, and (3) to evaluate the relation between the dominant chewing side and MBF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients were selected. Pre- (T0) and immediate post-rehabilitation (T1) data of MBF were collected. In a follow-up visit 3 to 5 years after rehabilitation (T2), 24 patients participated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
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