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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544999/mercury-bioaccumulation-in-offshore-reef-fishes-from-waters-of-the-southeastern-usa
#1
Wiley Sinkus, Virginia Shervette, Joseph Ballenger, Lou Ann Reed, Craig Plante, Byron White
Mercury (Hg) concentrations and nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotopic ratios were measured to assess differences in Hg bioaccumulation in four predatory fish species (Mycteroperca microlepis, Lutjanus campechanus, Caulolatilus microps, and Serioli dumerili) of high commercial and recreational importance in Atlantic waters of the southeastern US. Positive relationships existed between Hg and length, weight, and age, for all species, strongest for M. microlepis and L. campechanus. Intraspecific Hg concentrations also strongly correlated with δ(15)N for all species, and δ(13)C for only L...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543631/a-three-dimensional-placoderm-stem-group-gnathostome-pharyngeal-skeleton-and-its-implications-for-primitive-gnathostome-pharyngeal-architecture
#2
Martin D Brazeau, Matt Friedman, Anna Jerve, Robert C Atwood
The pharyngeal skeleton is a key vertebrate anatomical system in debates on the origin of jaws and gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) feeding. Furthermore, it offers considerable potential as a source of phylogenetic data. Well-preserved examples of pharyngeal skeletons from stem-group gnathostomes remain poorly known. Here, we describe an articulated, nearly complete pharyngeal skeleton in an Early Devonian placoderm fish, Paraplesiobatis heinrichsi Broili, from Hunsrück Slate of Germany. Using synchrotron light tomography, we resolve and reconstruct the three-dimensional gill arch architecture of Paraplesiobatis and compare it with other gnathostomes...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542568/nesfatin-1-like-peptide-is-a-novel-metabolic-factor-that-suppresses-feeding-and-regulates-whole-body-energy-homeostasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#3
Kavishankar Gawli, Naresh Ramesh, Suraj Unniappan
Nucleobindin-1 has high sequence similarity to nucleobindin-2, which encodes the anorectic and metabolic peptide, nesfatin-1. We previously reported a nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP), anorectic in fish and insulinotropic in mice islet beta-like cells. The main objective of this research was to determine whether NLP is a metabolic regulator in male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NLP (100 μg/kg BW) decreased food intake and increased ambulatory movement, without causing any change in total activity or energy expenditure when compared to saline-treated rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534072/genotoxic-assessment-of-some-inorganic-compounds-in-desert-pupfish-cyprinodon-macularius-in-the-evaporation-pond-from-a-geothermal-plant
#4
Miguel Flores-Galván, Evarista Arellano-García, Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos, Luis Walter Daesslé
The frequency of micro nucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) from a geothermal effluent pond is determined and compared to organisms kept in an aquarium. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes found in pupfish from the geothermal pond is 2.75 (±2.09) and only 0.44 (±0.52) in captivity organisms. Dissolved As in the ponds doubles the 340 µg L(-1) US-EPA acute quality criteria for aquatic life and Hg equals the 1.77 µg L(-1) chronic criteria. The organisms with high MNE also have significantly high Se, As and Hg concentrations in muscle and liver...
May 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532796/oral-vaccination-through-voluntary-consumption-of-the-convict-grouper-epinephelus-septemfasciatus-with-yeast-producing-the-capsid-protein-of-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus
#5
Seo Young Cho, Hyoung Jin Kim, Nguyen Thi Lan, Hyun-Ja Han, Deok-Chan Lee, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Bo Kyu Kang, Sang Yoon Han, Hyoungjoon Moon, Hyun Ah Kang, Hong-Jin Kim
Nervous necrosis viruses (NNV) cause serious economic losses in marine fish cultivation. The red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) is the most common species of NNV worldwide. There have been many efforts to develop prophylactic NNV vaccines, and various types of vaccine candidate have been suggested. However, most were designed as injectable vaccines, which are not suitable for large-scale vaccination and cause too much stress to the fish. Oral vaccination through voluntary feeding is an ideal way to provide protective immunity to fish...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530575/effects-of-ergothioneine-rich-mushroom-extracts-on-lipid-oxidation-and-discoloration-in-salmon-muscle-stored-at-low-temperatures
#6
Jade Pahila, Hisayuki Kaneda, Reiko Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Koyama, Toshiaki Ohshima
The effects of supplementing ergothioneine-rich mushroom extracts (ME) on discoloration and lipid oxidation in astaxanthin-pigmented salmon muscles were evaluated. ME (Flammulina velutipes) were added (in vitro) to minced Oncorhynchus mykiss muscles and stored at -10°C. During several weeks of storage, the ME-treated group showed lower lipid hydroperoxide (HPO) accumulation and higher retained astaxanthin levels than in the control group. The effects of adding concentrated ME (Pleurotus cornucopiae) to Oncorhynchus kisutch diets were also tested over a 2-month feeding trial...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529125/the-evidence-of-apelin-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-feeding-regulation-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#7
Jin Hao, Qing Liu, Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jieyao Zhu, Jinwen Qi, Ni Tang, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Apelin is a peptide, mainly produced in the brain, which participates in several physiologic effects. However, knowledge about the mechanism of appetite regulation in teleosts, including the role of apelin is not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of feeding status on the expression of apelin mRNA in the whole brain and the effects of injection of apelin on food intake in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). In this study, we first cloned the apelin cDNA sequence of the Siberian sturgeon...
May 18, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528516/combined-effects-of-chinese-medicine-feed-and-ginger-extract-bath-on-co-infection-of-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-and-dactylogyrus-ctenopharyngodonid-in-grass-carp
#8
Yao-Wu Fu, Bin Wang, Qi-Zhong Zhang, De-Hai Xu, De-Jie Lin, Xing-Ya Yang, Shu-Qun Zhu, Jing-Yang Pan, Qian Deng, Yan-Meng Liu, Sheng-Yu Zhou
Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two important ectoparasites of freshwater fish. Co-infection by the two parasites leads to high fish mortality and results in heavy economic losses. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of medicated feed and a ginger extract bath against D. ctenopharyngodonid and I. multifiliis on grass carp and investigate the hematological response of grass carp co-infected by the two parasites. These results demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) and thrombocyte percentage among leucocytes significantly decreased after grass carp were co-infected by D...
May 20, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515888/unpacking-brown-food-webs-animal-trophic-identity-reflects-rampant-microbivory
#9
Shawn A Steffan, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Prarthana S Dharampal, Jonathan N Pauli, Christelle Guédot, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Detritivory is the dominant trophic paradigm in most terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems, yet accurate measurement of consumer trophic position within detrital (="brown") food webs has remained unresolved. Measurement of detritivore trophic position is complicated by the fact that detritus is suffused with microbes, creating a detrital complex of living and nonliving biomass. Given that microbes and metazoans are trophic analogues of each other, animals feeding on detrital complexes are ingesting other detritivores (microbes), which should elevate metazoan trophic position and should be rampant within brown food webs...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515869/implications-of-guppy-poecilia-reticulata-life-history-phenotype-for-mosquito-control
#10
Misha L Warbanski, Piata Marques, Therese C Frauendorf, Dawn A T Phillip, Rana W El-Sabaawi
Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are frequently introduced to both natural and artificial water bodies as a mosquito control. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that guppies can consume large numbers of larval mosquitoes. Our study investigates how intraspecific variability in guppy phenotype affects their importance as a mosquito biocontrol and how habitat conditions (natural ponds vs. water storage containers) may influence insect biomass and guppy feeding. Using a blocked experimental design, we established stream-side mesocosm ponds with half receiving gravel substrate to simulate pond-bottom habitat...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515238/labrid-cleaner-fishes-show-kinematic-convergence-as-juveniles-despite-variation-in-morphology
#11
Vikram B Baliga, Ze'ev J Bernstein, Shivani Sundaram, Rita S Mehta
Cleaning, a dietary strategy in which ectoparasites or mucous are removed and consumed off other taxa, is performed facultatively or obligately in a variety of species. We explored whether species in the Labridae (wrasses, parrotfishes) of varying ecological specialization employ similar mechanisms of prey capture. In investigating feeding on attached prey among juveniles of 19 species of wrasses, we found that patterns of biting in wrasses are influenced by the interaction between the maxilla and a feature of the premaxilla which we term the maxillary crest...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515206/widespread-ecomorphological-convergence-in-multiple-fish-families-spanning-the-marine-freshwater-interface
#12
Aaron M Davis, Ricardo Betancur-R
The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating diverse aspects of morphology, dietary data, habitat affiliation and phylogeny to assess convergence across several well-known tropical-temperate fish families in the percomorph suborder Terapontoidei, a clade with considerable phenotypic and ecological diversity radiating in both marine and freshwater environments...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515081/flexible-ammonia-handling-strategies-using-both-cutaneous-and-branchial-epithelia-in-the-highly-ammonia-tolerant-pacific-hagfish
#13
Alexander M Clifford, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Susan L Edwards, Michael P Wilkie, Greg G Goss
Hagfish consume carrion, potentially exposing them to hypoxia, hypercarbia, and high environmental ammonia (HEA). We investigated branchial and cutaneous ammonia handling strategies by which Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) tolerate and recover from high ammonia loading. Hagfish were exposed to HEA (20 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h to elevate plasma total ammonia (TAmm) levels before placement into divided chambers for a 4 h recovery period in ammonia-free seawater where ammonia excretion (JAmm) was measured independently in the anterior and posterior compartments...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512864/fish-kairomones-induce-spine-elongation-and-reduce-predation-in-marine-crab-larvae
#14
Corie L Charpentier, Alexander J Wright, Jonathan H Cohen
Specialized defense strategies are induced in zooplankton upon detection of predator chemical cues or kairomones. These defenses are well-described for freshwater zooplankters, with morphological defenses being particularly striking, but few studies have reported kairomone-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton. Here, we compare morphological responses to kairomones in the larvae of two marine crab species, estuarine mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) and Asian shore crabs (Hemigrapsus sanguineus)...
May 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507821/the-density-and-biomass-of-mesozooplankton-and-ichthyoplankton-in-the-negro-and-the-amazon-rivers-during-the-rainy-season-the-ecological-importance-of-the-confluence-boundary
#15
Ryota Nakajima, Elvis V Rimachi, Edinaldo N Santos-Silva, Laura S F Calixto, Rosseval G Leite, Adi Khen, Tetsuo Yamane, Anthony I Mazeroll, Jomber C Inuma, Erika Y K Utumi, Akira Tanaka
The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507408/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-of-fermented-fish-silage-on-serum-biochemical-parameters-of-broiler-japanese-quails-coturnix-coturnix-japonica
#16
Sasmita Panda, Laxman Kumar Babu, Arun Kumar Panda, Tanuja S, Anurag Mohanty, Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy, Pinaki Samal
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented fish silage (FFS) on serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 192, 7-day-old broiler Japanese quail chicks of either sex, were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments with four replicates in each group having 12 chicks in each replicate pen. The dietary treatments were T1 - Control diet, T2 - Diet containing 5% FFS, T3 - Diet containing 10% FFS, and T4 - Diet containing 15% FFS...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#17
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506428/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-heavy-metals-in-the-cispata-bay-colombia-a-marine-tropical-ecosystem
#18
Saudith Burgos-Núñez, Amado Navarro-Frómeta, José Marrugo-Negrete, Germán Enamorado-Montes, Iván Urango-Cárdenas
The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were evaluated in shallow sediments, water, fish and seabird samples from the Cispata Bay, Colombia. The heavy metals concentrations in the sediment was in the following order: Cu>Pb>Hg>Cd. The heavy metal concentration was different (p<0.05) in juvenile and adult birds. High concentrations of mercury were registered in the seabird (10.19±4.99mgkg(-1)) and fish (0.67μgg(-1)) samples. The total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 7...
May 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504353/cmip-haploinsufficiency-in-two-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-co-occurring-gastrointestinal-issues
#19
Minjie Luo, Jinbo Fan, Tara L Wenger, Margaret H Harr, Melissa Racobaldo, Surabhi Mulchandani, Holly Dubbs, Elaine H Zackai, Nancy B Spinner, Laura K Conlin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted interests. Though some patients with ASD have an identifiable genetic cause, the cause of most ASD remains elusive. Many ASD susceptibility loci have been identified through clinical studies. We report two patients with syndromic ASD and persistent gastrointestinal issues who carry de novo deletions involving the CMIP gene detected by genome-wide SNP microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503817/influence-of-feeding-a-fish-oil-containing-diet-to-mature-overweight-dogs-effects-on-lipid-metabolites-postprandial-glycaemia-and-body-weight
#20
M R C de Godoy, K R McLeod, D L Harmon
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a fish oil (FO)-containing diet on lipid and protein metabolism, postprandial glycaemia and body weight (BW) of mature, overweight dogs. Seven female dogs were randomly assigned to one of two isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, control (CO) or FO (FO), in a crossover design. Experimental periods were 69 day, separated by a washout period of 30 day. At the beginning of the experiment, and at 30 and 60 day of feeding the experimental diets, the dogs were infused with D-glucose (2 g/kg BW) through an intravenous catheter...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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