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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316388/distribution-of-isopod-parasites-in-commercially-important-marine-fishes-of-the-miri-coast-east-malaysia
#1
A Anand Kumar, G Rameshkumar, S Ravichandran, R Nagarajan, K Prabakaran, M Ramesh
Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316254/plant-protein-based-feeds-and-commercial-feed-enable-isotopic-tracking-of-aquaculture-emissions-into-marine-macrozoobenthic-bioindicator-species
#2
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Brittle stars (Ophiura spp.) and other benthic macrofauna were collected in a prospective mariculture area in the North Sea to determine if these taxa could be used as indicator species to track nutrients released from future offshore aquaculture sites. We analysed natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures in tissues from macrofauna and compared these to six feed ingredients and four experimental diets made thereof, as well as to a commercial feed with and without lipid and carbonate removal. Our data suggest practicability of using isotopic signatures of Ophiura spp...
March 20, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315774/molecular-characterization-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-2-from-herbivorous-fish-megalobrama-amblycephala-and-responsiveness-to-glucose-loading-and-dietary-carbohydrate-levels
#3
Chao Xu, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Si-Lei Xia, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of AMPKα2 in Megalobrama amblycephala, and evaluate its potential role in glucose homeostasis and carbohydrate metabolism. The cDNA obtained covered 1942bp with an open reading frame of 1635bp encoding 545 amino acids. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high homology (91-100%) among most fish and higher vertebrates. This AMPKα2 mRNA predominantly expressed in muscle, liver and brain, while little in gill and intestine. Then, the AMPKα2 expressions were determined in the muscle, liver and brain of fish subjected to a glucose load (injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1...
March 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315162/dietary-supplementation-of-curcumin-augments-heat-stress-tolerance-through-upregulation-of-nrf-2-mediated-antioxidative-enzymes-and-hsps-in-puntius-sophore
#4
Arabinda Mahanty, Sasmita Mohanty, Bimal P Mohanty
Heat stress is one of the major environmental concerns in global warming regime and rising temperature has resulted in mass mortalities of animals including fishes. Therefore, strategies for high temperature stress tolerance and ameliorating the effects of heat stress are being looked for. In an earlier study, we reported that Nrf-2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) mediated upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and heat shock proteins (Hsps) provide survivability to fish under heat stress. In this study, we have evaluated the ameliorative potential of dietary curcumin, a potential Nrf-2 inducer in heat stressed cyprinid Puntius sophore...
March 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315161/the-effect-of-live-feeds-bathed-with-the-red-seaweed-asparagopsis-armata-on-the-survival-growth-and-physiology-status-of-sparus-aurata-larvae
#5
S Castanho, G Califano, F Soares, R Costa, L Mata, P Pousão-Ferreira, L Ribeiro
Larval rearing is affected by a wide range of microorganisms that thrive in larviculture systems. Some seaweed species have metabolites capable of reducing the bacterial load. However, no studies have yet tested whether including seaweed metabolites on larval rearing systems has any effects on the larvae development. This work assessed the development of Sparus aurata larvae fed preys treated with an Asparagopsis armata product. Live prey, Brachionus spp. and Artemia sp., were immersed in a solution containing 0...
March 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315055/determination-of-heavy-metals-in-muscle-tissue-of-six-fish-species-with-different-feeding-habits-from-the-danube-river-belgrade-public-health-and-environmental-risk-assessment
#6
Dragoljub A Jovanović, Radmila V Marković, Vlado B Teodorović, Dragan S Šefer, Milena P Krstić, Stamen B Radulović, Jelena S Ivanović Ćirić, Jelena M Janjić, Milan Ž Baltić
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of heavy metals/metalloids (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Fe, Zn, As) in the muscle tissue of fish from the Danube River (two locations: Zemun and Grocka). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish muscle, 120 samples of six different fish species, Prussian carp, barbel, bream, carp, pike perch, and catfish were collected. For determining heavy metals, we used microwave oven digestion and atomic absorption spectrometer methods. The highest average content of Pb (0...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303116/comparative-physiology-of-energy-metabolism-fishing-for-endocrine-signals-in-the-early-vertebrate-pool
#7
REVIEW
Iris van de Pol, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Energy is the common currency of life. To guarantee a homeostatic supply of energy, multiple neuro-endocrine systems have evolved in vertebrates; systems that regulate food intake, metabolism, and distribution of energy. Even subtle (lasting) dysregulation of the delicate balance of energy intake and expenditure may result in severe pathologies. Feeding-related pathologies have fueled research on mammals, including of course the human species. The mechanisms regulating food intake and body mass are well-characterized in these vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302867/an-early-life-hypoxia-event-has-a-long-term-impact-on-protein-digestion-and-growth-in-european-sea-bass-juvenile
#8
José L Zambonino-Infante, David Mazurais, A Servili, C Cahu, G Vanderplancke, N Le Bayon, C Huelvan, Guy Claireaux
Ocean warming, eutrophication and consequent decrease in oxygen lead to smaller average fish size. Although such responses are well-known in an evolutionary context, involving multiple generations, it appears to be incompatible with current rapid environmental change. Rather, phenotypic plasticity could provide a means for marine fish to cope with rapid environmental changes. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying plastic responses to environmental conditions that favour small phenotypes.Our aim was to investigate how and why European sea bass that had experienced a short episode of moderate hypoxia during their larval stage subsequently exhibited a growth depression at the juvenile stage compared to the control group...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302578/effects-of-carbon-sources-and-plant-protein-levels-in-a-biofloc-system-on-growth-performance-and-the-immune-and-antioxidant-status-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#9
Abdallah Tageldien Mansour, Maria Ángeles Esteban
The efficacy of different biofloc treatments (BFTs) to compensate for a reduction in dietary protein level under zero-water exchange systems was studied during a 10 weeks experiment, assessing the effect on water quality, growth, immune and antioxidant status of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Six groups were established and fed the same plant-based feed containing 20 or 30% crude protein: two groups in clear water conditions with no added carbon source, two biofloc groups given a wheat milling by-product (WMB) as additional carbon source and two biofloc groups given rice bran (RB)...
March 14, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301558/encountering-a-bait-is-necessary-but-insufficient-to-explain-individual-variability-in-vulnerability-to-angling-in-two-freshwater-benthivorous-fish-in-the-wild
#10
Christopher Thomas Monk, Robert Arlinghaus
Fish personality traits, such as swimming activity, or personality related emergent behavioural properties, such as the degree of space use shown by an individual fish, should affect encounter rates between individual fish and fishing gear. Increased encounters should in turn drive vulnerability to capture by passively operated gears. However, empirical evidence documenting a relationship between activity-based behaviours and vulnerability to capture by passive fishing gear in the wild is limited. Using whole-lake acoustic telemetry, we first documented significant repeatabilities over several months in a suite of encounter rate-associated behaviours (swimming distance, activity space size, time on baited feeding sites, switching frequency among baited feeding sites, distance to the lake bottom) in two recreationally important benthivorous cyprinid species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300682/intestinal-transcriptome-modulation-by-functional-diets-in-rainbow-trout-a-high-throughput-sequencing-appraisal-to-highlight-galt-immunomodulation
#11
Ana Teresa Gonçalves, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Functional ingredients such as pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish condition, modulating microbiota and promoting a healthy intestinal functioning. They also exert an active effect on the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stimulating the immune system. However, the molecular underpinnings of pre- and probiotics effect on intestinal mucosa are still unknown. This study investigated the intestinal mucosa transcriptome modulation when fish were fed functional diets and kept at different stocking densities...
March 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300174/ticks-elicit-variable-f%C3%A2-ibrinogenolytic-activities-upon-feeding-on-hosts-with-different-immune-backgrounds
#12
Ashish Vora, Vikas Taank, Sucharita M Dutta, John F Anderson, Durland Fish, Daniel E Sonenshine, John D Catravas, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
Ticks secrete several anti-hemostatic factors in their saliva to suppress the host innate and acquired immune defenses against infestations. Using Ixodes scapularis ticks and age-matched mice purchased from two independent commercial vendors with two different immune backgrounds as a model, we show that ticks fed on immunodeficient animals demonstrate decreased fibrinogenolytic activity in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals. Reduced levels of D-dimer (fibrin degradation product) were evident in ticks fed on immunodeficient animals in comparison to ticks fed on immunocompetent animals...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299588/chemical-cues-which-include-amino-acids-mediate-species-specific-feeding-behavior-in-invasive-filter-feeding-bigheaded-carps
#13
Aaron W Claus, Peter W Sorensen
This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290257/an-analysis-of-partial-efficiencies-of-energy-utilisation-of-different-macronutrients-by-barramundi-lates-calcarifer-shows-that-starch-restricts-protein-utilisation-in-carnivorous-fish
#14
Brett D Glencross, David Blyth, Nicholas Bourne, Susan Cheers, Simon Irvin, Nicholas M Wade
This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289988/biosecurity-conditions-in-small-commercial-chicken-farms-bangladesh-2011-2012
#15
N A Rimi, R Sultana, M Muhsina, B Uddin, N Haider, N Nahar, N Zeidner, K Sturm-Ramirez, S P Luby
In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions with poultry farmers in 16 farms and in-depth interviews with seven local feed vendors from two districts. None of the farms were completely segregated from people, backyard poultry, other animals, households, other poultry farms or large trees...
March 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288179/effect-of-production-quotas-on-economic-and-environmental-values-of-growth-rate-and-feed-efficiency-in-sea-cage-fish-farming
#16
M Besson, I J M de Boer, M Vandeputte, J A M van Arendonk, E Quillet, H Komen, J Aubin
In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287949/community-theater-participation-and-nutrition-related-practices-evidence-from-nepal
#17
Carol R Underwood, Elena T Broaddus, Shreejana Kc, Ravindra K Thapa
Suaahara, a nutrition-enhancement program in Nepal, conducted participatory community theater (CT) dramas with the goal of improving nutrition-related practices. To evaluate CT, a pre/posttest with randomized intervention and matched control sites was used. Dramas were conducted in Nawalparasi, Bajhang, and Sindhupalchowk Districts to represent the mountain, hill, and terai/plains regions. Within each study district, two intervention sites were randomly selected and two matched comparison sites were identified for inclusion in the study...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#18
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286256/effect-of-dietary-%C3%AE-glucan-on-growth-survival-and-regulation-of-immune-processes-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-infected-by-aeromonas-salmonicida
#19
Liqin Ji, Guoxiang Sun, Jun Li, Yi Wang, Yishuai Du, Xian Li, Ying Liu
The present study evaluated the effects of dietary β-glucan (0, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) on growth performance after 42 days of feeding. Thereafter, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were infected with Aeromonas salmonicida, and survival rates as well as the regulating processes of stress- and immune-related factors were analyzed. In general, higher dietary β-glucan levels obviously improved specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) (P ≤ 0.05). Survival rates in β-glucan groups increased significantly compared with the control group after A...
March 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284854/effects-of-graded-dietary-levels-of-soy-protein-concentrate-supplemented-with-methionine-and-phosphate-on-the-immune-and-antioxidant-responses-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-l
#20
Fotini Kokou, Elena Sarropoulou, Efthimia Cotou, Maroudio Kentouri, Maria Alexis, George Rigos
The effects of a dietary soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a fish meal (FM) substitute, on selected innate immune responses, the oxidative status, hepatic and intestinal morphology of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, were evaluated after a three-month feeding trial. Isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isoenergetic (23 kJ/g gross energy) diets with 20% (SPC20), 40% (SPC40) and 60% (SPC60) of SPC inclusion, supplemented with methionine and phosphate, were evaluated against a diet containing FM as the sole protein source...
March 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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