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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227215/dietary-phosphatidylcholine-impacts-on-growth-performance-and-lipid-metabolism-in-adult-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-gift-strain-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#1
Juan Tian, Hua Wen, Xing Lu, Wei Liu, Fan Wu, Chang-Geng Yang, Ming Jiang, Li-Juan Yu
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#2
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224125/substitution-of-soybean-meal-with-fermented-jatropha-kernel-meal-effect-on-growth-performance-body-composition-and-metabolic-enzyme-activity-of-labeo-rohita
#3
Vikas Phulia, Parimal Sardar, Narottam Prasad Sahu, Femi John Fawole, N Shamna, Subodh Gupta
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the nutritional potential of fermented Jatropha kernel meal (FJKM) in the diets of rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings. Four iso-nitrogenous (336 g kg-1) and iso-energetic (20 MJ kg-1) diets containing 0, 100, 200, and 300 g kg-1 FJKM in replacement of 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% soybean meal protein, respectively, were prepared and designated as control, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. A total of 180 acclimatized fish (average weight 6.05 ± 0.04 g) were equally distributed into four experimental groups in triplicates, and were fed their respective diets to satiation twice daily at 10:00 h and 18:00 h...
December 9, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223596/presence-and-persistence-of-the-amnesic-shellfish-poisoning-toxin-domoic-acid-in-octopus-and-cuttlefish-brains
#4
Vanessa M Lopes, Rui Rosa, Pedro R Costa
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin that causes degenerative damage to brain cells and induces permanent short-term memory loss in mammals. In cephalopod mollusks, although DA is known to accumulate primarily in the digestive gland, there is no knowledge whether DA reaches their central nervous system. Here we report, for the first time, the presence of DA in brain tissue of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) and the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and its absence in the brains of several squid species (Loligo vulgaris, L...
December 5, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223178/relative-influence-of-dietary-protein-and-energy-contents-on-lysine-requirements-and-voluntary-feed-intake-of-rainbow-trout-fry
#5
Mélusine Van Larebeke, Guillaume Dockx, Yvan Larondelle, Xavier Rollin
The effect of dietary digestible protein (DP) and/or digestible energy (DE) levels on lysine (Lys) requirements, Lys utilisation efficiency and voluntary feed intake (VFI) were studied in rainbow trout fry when Lys was the first limiting indispensable amino acid or in excess in the diet. Two trials were conducted at 11·6°C with eighty-one experimental diets, containing 280 g DP/kg DM (low protein (LP), trial 1), 600 g DP/kg DM (high protein (HP), trial 1) or 440 g DP/kg DM (medium protein (MP), trial 2), 17 MJ DE/kg (low energy (LE)), 19·5 MJ DE/kg (medium energy (ME)) or 22 MJ DE/kg (high energy (HE)), and nine Lys levels from deeply deficient to large excess (2·3-36 g/kg DM)...
December 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217628/conversion-efficiency-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-to-omega-3-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acids-in-aerial-insectivore-chicks
#6
Cornelia W Twining, Peter Lawrence, David W Winkler, Alexander S Flecker, J Thomas Brenna
Food availability and quality are both critical for growing young animals. In nature, swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and other aerial insectivores feed on both aquatic insects, which are rich in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and terrestrial insects, which contain considerably lower amounts of omega-3 HUFA. Carnivorous mammals and fishes must obtain omega-3 HUFA from diet, as they have lost the capacity to convert the precursor omega-3 ALA into omega-3 HUFA. Thus, the relative value of aquatic versus terrestrial insects depends not only on the fatty acid composition of the prey, but also upon the capacity of consumers to convert ALA into omega-3 HUFA...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215281/metabolic-effect-of-dietary-taurine-supplementation-on-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-nilotictus-evaluated-by-nmr-based-metabolomics
#7
Guiping Shen, Ying Huang, Jiyang Dong, Xuexi Wang, Kian-Kai Cheng, Jianghua Feng, Jingjing Xu, Jidan Ye
Taurine is indispensable in aquatic diets that are based solely on plant protein, and it promotes growth of many fish species. However, the physiological and metabolome effects of taurine on fish have not been well described. In this study, 1H NMR-based metabolomics approaches were applied to investigate the metabolite variations in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotictus) muscle in order to visualize the metabolic trajectory and reveal the possible mechanisms of metabolic effects of dietary taurine supplementation on tilapia growth...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214008/comparing-growth-in-surface-and-cave-morphs-of-the-species-astyanax-mexicanus-insights-from-scales
#8
Victor Simon, Romain Elleboode, Kélig Mahé, Laurent Legendre, Patricia Ornelas-Garcia, Luis Espinasa, Sylvie Rétaux
Background: Life in the darkness of caves is accompanied, throughout phyla, by striking phenotypic changes including the loss or severe reduction in eyes and pigmentation. On the other hand, cave animals have undergone constructive changes, thought to be adaptive, to survive in this extreme environment. The present study addresses the question of the evolution of growth in caves, taking advantage of the comparison between the river-dwelling and the cave-dwelling morphs of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212752/freezer-on-lights-off-environmental-effects-on-activity-rhythms-of-fish-in-the-arctic
#9
Kate L Hawley, Carolyn M Rosten, Thrond O Haugen, Guttorm Christensen, Martyn C Lucas
Polar regions are characterized by acute seasonal changes in the environment, with organisms inhabiting these regions lacking diel photoperiodic information for parts of the year. We present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution analysis of diel and seasonal activity of free-living fishes in polar waters (74°N), subject to extreme variation in photoperiod, temperature and food availability. Using biotelemetry, we tracked two sympatric ecomorphs of lake-dwelling Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus n = 23) over an annual cycle...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212727/deep-pelagic-food-web-structure-as-revealed-by-in-situ-feeding-observations
#10
C Anela Choy, Steven H D Haddock, Bruce H Robison
Food web linkages, or the feeding relationships between species inhabiting a shared ecosystem, are an ecological lens through which ecosystem structure and function can be assessed, and thus are fundamental to informing sustainable resource management. Empirical feeding datasets have traditionally been painstakingly generated from stomach content analysis, direct observations and from biochemical trophic markers (stable isotopes, fatty acids, molecular tools). Each approach carries inherent biases and limitations, as well as advantages...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210104/threshold-responses-of-amazonian-stream-fishes-to-timing-and-extent-of-deforestation
#11
Gabriel L Brejão, David J Hoeinghaus, María Angélica Pérez-Mayorga, Silvio F B Ferraz, Lilian Casatti
Deforestation is a primary driver of biodiversity change through habitat loss and fragmentation. Stream biodiversity may not respond to deforestation in a simple linear relationship. Rather, threshold responses to extent and timing of deforestation may occur. Identification of critical deforestation thresholds is needed for effective conservation and management. We tested for threshold responses of fish species and functional groups to degree of watershed and riparian zone deforestation and time since impact in 75 streams in the western Brazilian Amazon...
December 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209087/quantitative-trait-loci-mapping-for-feed-conversion-efficiency-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus
#12
Meixia Pang, Beide Fu, Xiaomu Yu, Haiyang Liu, Xinhua Wang, Zhan Yin, Shouqi Xie, Jingou Tong
QTL is a chromosomal region including single gene or gene clusters that determine a quantitative trait. While feed efficiency is highly important in aquaculture fish, little genetic and genomic progresses have been made for this trait. In this study, we constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in a full-sib F1 family of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) consisting of 113 progenies with 8,460 SNP markers assigning onto 50 linkage groups (LGs). This genetic map spanned 4,047.824 cM (0.478 cM/marker) and covered 98...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208964/reduced-anxiety-is-associated-with-the-accumulation-of-six-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-in-wastewater-treatment-effluent-exposed-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#13
D B D Simmons, E S McCallum, S Balshine, B Chandramouli, J Cosgrove, J P Sherry
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and their recipient watersheds. To assess the potential of WWTP effluents to alter fish behaviour, we caged male goldfish (Carassius auratus) for 21-days at three sites along a contamination gradient downstream from a WWTP which discharges into Cootes Paradise Marsh, on the western tip of Lake Ontario. We also included a fourth caging site as an external reference site within Lake Ontario at the Jordan Harbour Conservation Area...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206925/exploring-fish-microbial-communities-to-mitigate-emerging-diseases-in-aquaculture
#14
Irene de Bruijn, Yiying Liu, Geert F Wiegertjes, Jos M Raaijmakers
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes...
November 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203449/dietary-leucine-modulates-growth-performance-nrf2-antioxidant-signaling-pathway-and-immune-response-of-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#15
Hualiang Liang, Ahmed Mokrani, Ke Ji, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Jun Xie, Bo Liu, Bingwen Xi, Qunlan Zhou
The present study assessed the effects of dietary leucine on growth performance, antioxidant status and immunity in juvenile blunt snout bream. Fish were fed six practical diets of graded leucine levels ranging from 0.90% to 2.94% of dry basis for 8 weeks. Trail results showed that compared to control group (0.90%), 1.72% dietary leucine level significantly improved final weight (FW), weight gain rate (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR), and significantly lowered feed conversion ratio (FCR). Based on WG and SGR, the optimal dietary leucine level was obtained at 1...
December 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203088/ontogenetic-prey-size-selection-in-snakes-predator-size-and-functional-limitations-to-handling-minimum-prey-sizes
#16
Paul M Hampton
As body size increases, some predators eliminate small prey from their diet exhibiting an ontogenetic shift toward larger prey. In contrast, some predators show a telescoping pattern of prey size in which both large and small prey are consumed with increasing predator size. To explore a functional explanation for the two feeding patterns, I examined feeding effort as both handling time and number of upper jaw movements during ingestion of fish of consistent size. I used a range of body sizes from two snake species that exhibit ontogenetic shifts in prey size (Nerodia fasciata and N...
November 21, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201049/metals-in-fishes-from-yongshu-island-southern-south-china-sea-human-health-risk-assessment
#17
Zhai Wu, Ye Xu, Minggang Cai, Sha-Yen Cheng, Huorong Chen, Dongren Huang, Kai Chen, Yan Lin, Tianyao Li, Mengyang Liu, Hengxiang Deng, Minjie Ni, Hongwei Ke
In order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals associated with gender, tissues, and their potential ecological risk, four species of fish were collected from the Yongshu Island in the Southern South China Sea. Metals and stable Pb isotopes in their tissues (muscle, gill, liver, intestine, and ovary) were determined. The concentrations of metals (mg/kg, dry weight) in these species were ND-21.60 (Cd), 1.21-4.87 (Cr), 0.42-22.4 (Cu), 1.01-51.8 (Mn), 0.30-3.28 (Ni), 6.04-1.29 × 103 (Zn), 14.89-1.40 × 103 (Fe), and 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198312/coupling-of-anaerobic-waste-treatment-to-produce-protein-and-lipid-rich-bacterial-biomass
#18
Lisa M Steinberg, Rachel E Kronyak, Christopher H House
Future long-term manned space missions will require effective recycling of water and nutrients as part of a life support system. Biological waste treatment is less energy intensive than physicochemical treatment methods, yet anaerobic methanogenic waste treatment has been largely avoided due to slow treatment rates and safety issues concerning methane production. However, methane is generated during atmosphere regeneration on the ISS. Here we propose waste treatment via anaerobic digestion followed by methanotrophic growth of Methylococcus capsulatus to produce a protein- and lipid-rich biomass that can be directly consumed, or used to produce other high-protein food sources such as fish...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198193/regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-deposition-by-phospholipid-in-large-yellow-croaker
#19
Zuonan Cai, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
Dietary phospholipid (PL) supplementation has been shown to reduce lipid accumulation in the tissues of farmed fish; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of PL on hepatic lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo study, four experimental diets - low lipid and low PL diet, as control diet (LL-LP diet, containing 12 % lipid and 1·5 % PL), low-lipid and high-PL diet (containing 12 % lipid and 8 % PL), high-lipid and low-PL diet (HL-LP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 1·5 % PL) and high-lipid and high-PL diet (HL-HP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 8 % PL) - were randomly allocated to four groups of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (three cages per group) with similar initial body weight (approximately 8 g)...
December 4, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196919/the-combined-efficiency-of-dietary-isomaltooligosaccharides-and-bacillus-spp-on-the-growth-hemato-serological-and-intestinal-microbiota-indices-of-caspian-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-caspius-kessler-1877
#20
Maryam Aftabgard, Alireza Salarzadeh, Mahmoud Mohseni, Amir Houshang Bahri Shabanipour, Mohammad Ebrahim Jalil Zorriehzahra
The combined effects of a commercial probiotic, BetaPlus®, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOS) on the growth, survival rate, intestinal microbiota, and hemato-immunological parameters were evaluated in Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877). Caspian brown trout fingerlings (~ 9 g) were fed a control diet (basal diet) or a synbiotic diet (the basal diet + 2 g kg-1 IMOS + 1 g kg-1 BetaPlus®) for 7 weeks. At the end of this trial, fish fed the synbiotic diet showed significant improvements in body weight increase, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate compared with fish fed the control diet (P < 0...
December 1, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
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