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Fish feeding

Jia Shen Tian, Jia Bo Han, Zhi Chuang Lu, Zhi Qiang Ma, Duo Hui Li, Bai Wang, Yi Bing Liu
This study analyzed the values of δ13 C and δ15 N by the application of stable isotope technique from the marine mammals (Phoca largha, Neophocaena asiaorientalis sunameri, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and major biological species in Dalian marine area based on the animals collected due to stranding and death after bycatch from January, 2008 to June, 2017, and the fisheries resources investigation between autumn, 2016 and spring, 2017 in the same area. The trophic level was then calculated in order to establish the continuous trophic spectrum of the food web in Dalian marine area...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
M A Boucher, D W Baker, C J Brauner, J M Shrimpton
The effect of substratum on growth and metabolic rate was assessed in larval white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Yolk-sac larvae (YSL) were reared in bare tanks or tanks with gravel as substratum from hatch until approximately 16 days post hatch (dph). The effect of an artificial substratum was also evaluated on growth alone. Substratum had a significant effect on mass, with larvae reared in gravel and artificial substrata being larger than those reared without substratum. Routine metabolic rates were significantly lower and relative aerobic scope (the difference between maximum and routine metabolic rate) was significantly higher for YSL and feeding larvae (FL) reared in gravel relative to those reared in bare tanks, particularly before fish started feeding exogenously...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Yaqi Dou, Shan He, Xu-Fang Liang, Wenjing Cai, Jie Wang, Linjie Shi, Jiao Li
Mandarin fish refuse dead prey fish or artificial diets and can be trained to transform their inborn feeding habit. To investigate the effect of memory on feeding habit transformation, we compared the reaction time to dead prey fish and the success rate of feeding habit transformation to dead prey fish with training of mandarin fish in the 1st experimental group (trained once) and the 2nd experimental group (trained twice). The mandarin fish in the 2nd group had higher success rate of feeding habit transformation (100%) than those in the 1st group (67%), and shorter reaction time to dead prey fish (<1 s) than those in the 1st group (>1 s)...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiroko Nakayama, Kan Katayama, Yukimasa Onabe, Atsushi Sato, Norihio Nishimura, Yasuhito Shimada
Rotifers are now becoming a standard live feed for first-feeding larvae, because of their easy rearing protocol and improved growth and survival rate, compared with other fish feed, paramecia, and processed powder fish feeds. In a group of rotifers, bdelloid rotifer, a freshwater plankton, exerts cryptobiosis (an ametabolic state of life) in response to desiccation and survived for a long time. Here, we created "dried rotifer sheet" for rearing larvae in their early developmental stage. More than 80% rotifers could survive after 18-month desiccation in the filter paper...
April 24, 2018: Zebrafish
Hamed Ghafari Farsani, Mohammad Hasan Gerami, Mehdi Naderi Farsani, Ghasem Rashidiyan, Neda Mehdipour, Mona Ghanad, Caterina Faggio
The aim of this study was designed to analyse the effect of Savoury essential oil (Satureja hortensis) on growth performance, biochemical parameters and immunity of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare). The angelfishes (average body weight of 5.12 ± 0.01 g) were treated with three effective dosage of Savoury essential oil 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in three separated aquaria water with one control group for 60 days. At the end of experiment, the angelfishes treated with 400 mg/kg Satureja showed minimum Feed Conversion Ratio, maximum Specific Growth Rate and Survival Rate...
April 24, 2018: Natural Product Research
Kátia S D Nunes, Márcia R Assalin, José H Vallim, Claudio M Jonsson, Sonia C N Queiroz, Felix G R Reyes
A multiresidue method for detecting and quantifying sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethoxypyridazine) and trimethoprim in tilapia fillet ( Oreochromis niloticus ) using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was optimized using the QuEChERS approach. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column and 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in the isocratic elution mode...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Kenneth Prudence Abasubong, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Si-Lei Xia, Chao Xu, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of fishmeal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with a xylooligosaccharides supplement on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (46.85 ± 0.34 g) were randomly assigned to one of 6 diets, namely the control diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC) and RPC diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.5, 2.3 and 3% XOS respectively, for 8 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alia Syafiqah Aznan, Lee Kok Leong, Low Chen Fei, Nurul Aqilah Iberahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan Ibrahim, Nadirah Musa, Yeong Yik Sung, Najiah Musa
Outbreaks of edwardsiellosis have severe impact on the aquaculture production of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. In this study, feed supplemented with apple mangrove Sonneratia caseolaris extract was evaluated for its protective effect against Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish. Results showed an increase in growth performance and higher survival rate in the treatment groups in a dose dependent manner. Haematological analyses showed an increase in white blood cell count in the treatment groups...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sevdan Yilmaz, Sebahattin Ergün
The present study investigated the effects of dietary trans-cinnamic acid (CA) on pre- and post-challenge haematological, serum biochemical, non-specific immune and head kidney gene expression responses of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss juveniles. In this regard, fish with an average weight of 17.01 ± 0.05 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive free basal diet (control); 250, 500, 750 or 1500 mg kg-1  CA for a 60-day period. Fish were sampled every 20 days during the experiment...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shi-Mei Lin, Chao-Ming Shi, Ming-Ming Mu, Yong-Jun Chen, Li Luo
An experimental trial was conducted to investigate the effects of high dietary starch levels on growth, hepatic glucose metabolism enzyme, antioxidant capacity and immune responses of largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Fish (initial body weight: 16.9 ± 0.24 g) were fed three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets containing 5%, 10% and 20% wheat starch, respectively. The results indicated that fish fed 5% and 10% starch diets showed significantly better weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with that fed 20% starch diet...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ted R Angradi
Neogobius melanostomus , the round goby, was recorded by underwater video feeding on crushed dreissenid mussels at a depth of 12 m in Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, a Laurentian Great Lake. In the video, gobies used rotational or twist feeding to tear away particles from crushed mussels. At least 43 examples of this feeding maneuver occur in the video. Up to 120 gobies m-2 were visible at a time in the video. Mean standard length of gobies appearing in the video was 37 mm. Mean standard length of fish exhibiting twist feeding was larger, 48 mm...
January 22, 2018: Fishes
Ayalew Assefa, Fufa Abunna
Aquaculture is rapidly growing part of agriculture worldwide. It makes up around 44 percent of total fish production globally. This increased growth of production is achieved despite facing many challenges in the aquaculture environment. Among production limiting challenges, the infectious disease takes the lion share by causing multibillion-dollar loss annually. To reduce the impact of the fish disease, it is necessary to address health constraints based on scientifically proven and recommended ways. This review aims at pointing out some of the best approaches to prevention and control of infectious disease in aquaculture...
2018: Veterinary Medicine International
M A Smedley, H Migaud, E L McStay, M Clarkson, P Bozzolla, P Campbell, J F Taylor
In order to assess the effect of dietary phosphorus (P) in reducing vertebral malformations and improving freshwater (FW) performance in triploid Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ), both triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon were fed three different dietary P inclusion levels (low: 4.9, medium: 7.7, and high: 9.7 g available P kg-1 ) from first feeding until smolt. Somatic and skeletal response was assessed at fry (~0.5 g), parr (~5 g) and smolt (~45 g) stages. Triploid parr initially grew faster on the high P diet, while groups fed low P resulted in a significantly higher weight at smolt...
March 1, 2018: Aquaculture
D Menoyo, G Kühn, N Ruiz-Lopez, K Pallauf, I Stubhaug, J J Pastor, I R Ipharraguerre, G Rimbach
Recent studies suggest that the use of vegetable oils at expense of fish oil in aquaculture feeds might have potential negative effects on fish redox homeostasis and adiposity. Resveratrol (RESV) is a lipid-soluble phytoalexin present in fruits and vegetables with proven in vivo antioxidant function in animals. The present study aims to assess the potential use of RESV in Atlantic salmon feeds. To this end, post-smolt salmons with an initial BW of 148±3 g were fed four experimental diets for 15 weeks. A diet low in fish oil served as a control and was supplemented with 0, 0...
April 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Brendan S Lanham, Adriana Vergés, Luke H Hedge, Emma L Johnston, Alistair G B Poore
Coastal urbanization has led to large-scale transformation of estuaries, with artificial structures now commonplace. Boat moorings are known to reduce seagrass cover, but little is known about their effect on fish communities. We used underwater video to quantify abundance, diversity, composition and feeding behaviour of fish assemblages on two scales: with increasing distance from moorings on fine scales, and among locations where moorings were present or absent. Fish were less abundant in close proximity to boat moorings, and the species composition varied on fine scales, leading to lower predation pressure near moorings...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Merylin Zizza, Mariana Di Lorenzo, Vincenza Laforgia, Emilia Furia, Giovanni Sindona, Marcello Canonaco, Rosa Maria Facciolo
Food intake ensures energy resources sufficient for basic metabolism, immune system and reproductive investment. It is already known that food-seeking performances, which are crucially controlled by orexins (ORXs), may be under the influence of environmental factors including pollutants. Among these, mancozeb (mz) is becoming an environmental risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Due to few studies on marine fish exposed to mz, it was our intention to correlate feeding latency, food intake and feeding duration to potential neurodegenerative processes in key diencephalic sites and expression changes of the ORX neuroreceptor (ORXR) in the ornate wrasses (Thalassoma pavo)...
April 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Evgeny V Esin, Grigorii N Markevich, Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate in the early juvenile stages due to heterochrony in skeletogenesis and allometric changes triggered by variation in metabolic activity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
R Cabrera-Castro, C Zabala, M C Soriguer, A Domezain, J A Hernando
Early development of the Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii from its free embryo after hatching (stage 36), until late embryo stage, when the transition to exogenous feeding starts (stage 45) is described. Special emphasis is given to morphological development and description of the different structures that are formed at each life stage. After hatching, free embryos still present embryonic characteristics, little pigmentation and an ovoid yolk sac. The mouth begins to open on the 2nd day post hatch (dph) and is fully open at 3 dph...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Amber J de Vere
The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
X F Dong, S Liu, J M Tong
Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P < 0...
April 14, 2018: Poultry Science
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