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Fish feeding

Uri Yogev, Adiel Atari, Amit Gross
The development of intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with low water exchange has accelerated in recent years as a result of environmental, economic and other concerns. In these systems, fish are commonly grown at high density, 50 to 150kg/m 3 , using high-protein (30%-60%) feeds. Typically, the RAS consists of a solid treatment and a nitrification unit; in more advanced RAS, there is an additional denitrification step. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a byproduct during nitrification and denitrification processes, is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys the ozone layer...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guilherme V B Ferreira, Mário Barletta, André R A Lima, Simon A Morley, Anne K S Justino, Monica F Costa
Microplastic contamination was investigated in the gut contents of an economically important estuarine top predator, Cynoscion acoupa, according to spatiotemporal and ontogenetic use of a tropical estuary. Microplastic contamination was found in more than half of the analysed fish. Ingested microplastics were classified by type, colour and length with most of the particles consisting of filaments (<5 mm). Longer filaments were more frequently ingested in the upper estuary and smaller filaments in the lower estuary, as a result of differences in hydrodynamic forces and proximity to the probable input sources...
February 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Camila Y Bastidas, Carlos von Plessing, José Troncoso, Rosario Del P Castillo
Fourier Transform infrared imaging and multivariate analysis were used to identify, at the microscopic level, the presence of florfenicol (FF), a heavily-used antibiotic in the salmon industry, supplied to fishes in feed pellets for the treatment of salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS). The FF distribution was evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Augmented Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least Squares (augmented MCR-ALS) on the spectra obtained from images with pixel sizes of 6...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
A M De Wysiecki, A C Milessi, R Wiff, A J Jaureguizar
An exceptional catch of 97 broadnose sevengill sharks Notorynchus cepedianus in Samborombón Bay, Argentina, in 2013 is described from a single overnight gillnet fishing operation. Sixty-five female and 32 male N. cepedianus, ranging in size between 105-201 and 112-190 cm L T , respectively, were recorded in this catch. Fishers' observations and published information suggest that this species aggregates in the area seasonally for feeding.
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Ali Taheri Mirghaed, Peyman Yarahmadi, Seyed Hossein Hosseinifar, Davood Tahmasebi, Nahid Gheisvandi, Alireza Ghaedi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of dietary fermentable fiber (Vitacel®) and probiotic PrimaLac® on mucosal immune parameters, digestive enzyme activity, gut microbiota and growth performance of Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fingerlings. Fish were transferred to laboratory, acclimatized for two weeks and then fish (0.56 ± 0.026 g) were allocated into 12 tanks (30 fish per tank). Triplicate groups were fed a basal diet (Control) or basal diet supplemented with fermentable fiber [Vitacel®] (FF), probiotic [PrimaLac®] (P) and combined fermentable fiber and probiotic (FF + P)...
February 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Andrew A Walker, Maria José Hernández-Vargas, Gerardo Corzo, Bryan G Fry, Glenn F King
True Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera) produce venom or saliva with diverse bioactivities depending on their feeding strategies. However, little is known about the molecular evolution of the venom toxins underlying these biological activities. We examined venom of the giant fish-killing water bug Lethocerus distinctifemur (Insecta: Belostomatidae) using infrared spectroscopy, transcriptomics, and proteomics. We report 132 venom proteins including putative enzymes, cytolytic toxins, and antimicrobial peptides. Over 73% (96 proteins) showed homology to venom proteins from assassin bugs (Reduviidae), including 21% (28 proteins from seven families) not known from other sources...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Daniane C Zago, Alessandro C Santos, Carlos F C Lanes, Daniela V Almeida, Gessi Koakoski, Murilo S de Abreu, Carla C Zeppenfeld, Berta M Heinzmann, Luis F Marins, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Mauro A Cunha
Dietary supplements are commonly used by animals and humans and play key roles in diverse systems, such as the immune and reproductive systems, and in metabolism. Essential oils (EOs), which are natural substances, have potential for use in food supplementation; however, their effects on organisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effects of dietary Aloysia triphylla EO supplementation on zebrafish behavior, metabolism, stress response, and growth performance. We show that fish fed diets containing A...
February 8, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Yalan Wei, Ling Huang, Jinghui Cao, Chenghui Wang, Jizhou Yan
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
D Martínez, D Díaz-Ibarrola, C Vargas-Lagos, R Oyarzún, J P Pontigo, J L P Muñoz, A J Yáñez, L Vargas-Chacoff
Eleginops maclovinus is an endemic fish to Chile that lives in proximity to salmonid culture centers, feeding off of uneaten pellet and salmonid feces. Occurring in the natural environment, this interaction between native and farmed fish could result in the horizontal transmission of pathogens affecting the aquaculture industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innate and adaptive immune responses of E. maclovinus challenged with P. salmonis. Treatment injections (in duplicate) were as follows: control (100 μL of culture medium), wild type LF-89 strain (100 μL, 1 × 108 live bacteria), and antibiotic resistant strain Austral-005 (100 μL, 1 × 108 live bacteria)...
February 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
L Menchetti, C Canali, C Castellini, C Boiti, G Brecchia
This study investigates the effects of linseed (rich in ɑ-linolenic acid (ALA)) and fish oil (rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) supplementation on the insulin resistance of pregnant rabbits. Two months before insemination, the rabbits (15 animals/group) were fed different diets: commercial standard (group C), supplemented with 10% extruded linseed (group L), and 3% fish oil (group FO). The L group does showed both the highest feed intake before AI (P < 0.01) and the highest body weight (BW) throughout pregnancy (P < 0...
February 2, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Morteza Yaghoubi, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh, Omid Safari, Jasem G Marammazi
As amino acids (AAs) are vital molecules in the metabolism of all living organisms and are the building blocks of enzymes, a 6-week feeding trial was conducted for determining the influence of dietary essential amino acid (EAA) deficiencies on pancreatic, plasma, and hepatic enzyme activities in silvery-black porgy (initial weight 4.7 ± 0.01 g) juveniles. Eleven isoproteic (ca. 47%) and isoenergetic (ca. 20.5 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated including a control diet, in which 60% of dietary nitrogen were provided by intact protein (fish meal, gelatin, and wheat meal) and 40% by crystalline AA...
February 7, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Julio M Coll
IgM antibody diversity induced by viral infection in teleost fish sera remains largely unexplored despite several studies performed on their transcript counterparts in lymphoid organs. Here, IgM binding to microarrays containing ~20,000 human proteins was used to study sera from carp (Cyprinus carpio) populations having high titers of viral neutralization in vitro after surviving an experimental infection with cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3). The range of diversity of the induced antibodies was unexpectedly high, showing CyHV-3 infection-dependent, non-specific IgM-binding activity of a ~20-fold wider variety than that found in sera from healthy carp (natural antibodies) with no anti-CyHV-3 neutralization titers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
A Khendek, A Chakraborty, J Roche, Y Ledoré, A Personne, T Policar, D Żarski, R Mandiki, P Kestemont, S Milla, P Fontaine
Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a highly valuable fish in Europe. However, development of aquaculture of pikeperch is highly limited due to seasonality of production. This can be overcome by the controlled reproduction of domesticated fish. The first steps of domestication process may induce changes at anatomical, physiological and molecular levels, thereby affecting a variety of biological functions. While there is abundant literature on their effects on stress and growth for example, these effects on reproduction received limited attention notably in pikeperch, a promising candidate for the development of aquaculture...
February 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Iveta Hodová, Radim Sonnek, Milan Gelnar, Andrea Valigurová
Diplozoidae (Monogenea) are blood-feeding freshwater fish gill ectoparasites with extraordinary body architecture and a unique sexual behaviour in which two larval worms fuse and transform into one functioning individual. In this study, we describe the body organisation of Paradiplozoon homoion adult stage using a combined approach of confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy, with emphasis on the forebody and hindbody. Special attention is given to structures involved in functional adaptation to ectoparasitism, i...
2018: PloS One
Yasushi Yokota, Ayane Shikano, Takashi Kuda, Moemi Takei, Hajime Takahashi, Bon Kimura
To clarify the different effects of live and heat-killed probiotics on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum AN1 cells isolated from the fermented fish aji-narezushi on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and in ICR mice with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced IBD were determined. L. plantarum AN1 cells showed anti-inflammatory activities in vitro, indicated by secretion of nitric oxide (NO) from RAW264.7 cells in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli 0111 lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Matthew A Kolmann, Jonathan M Huie, Kory Evans, Adam P Summers
Although rare within the context of 30 000 species of extant fishes, scale-feeding as an ecological strategy has evolved repeatedly across the teleost tree of life. Scale-feeding (lepidophagous) fishes are diverse in terms of their ecology, behaviour, and specialized morphologies for grazing on scales and mucus of sympatric species. Despite this diversity, the underlying ontogenetic changes in functional and biomechanical properties of associated feeding morphologies in lepidophagous fishes are less understood...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sundaram Jawahar, Adil Nafar, Bilal Ahmad Paray, Mohammad K Al-Sadoon, Chellam Balasundaram, Ramasamy Harikrishnan
The effect of Sodium Bentonite (SB) enriched diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The infected fish fed with 5% SB had the maximum weight gain diet (PWG %) and specific growth rate (SGR %) were 26% and 29% when compared to 14% and 17% with 10% diet. Similarly the phagocytic activity increased significantly when infected fish were fed with 5% or 10% SB diets during the experimental period; the complement, respiratory burst and lysozyme activities were also significantly enhanced on weeks 2 and 4...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mohammad Bodrul Munir, Roshada Hashim, Siti Azizah Mohd Nor, Terence L Marsh
This study examined the effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics after 16 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of post feeding trial with the control unsupplemented diet on haematological and immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Channa striata fingerlings. Fish were raised on a 40% protein and 12% lipid feed containing three commercial prebiotics (β-glucan, GOS or galacto-oligosaccharide, MOS or mannan-oligosaccharide); and two probiotics- (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus), respectively and a control...
February 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla C Zeppenfeld, Sharine Descovi, Vanessa S Machado, Roberto C V Santos, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The antibiotics were frequently used for combating bacterial infections in aquaculture, but this treatment causes antibiotic resistance, negative impact on the environment and on health, and accumulation of residual in edible tissues. Several evidences have considered the dietary supplementation with natural products an interesting alternative to antibiotics, as the use of curcumin, a polyphenol with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether fish fed with a diet containing 150 mg curcumin/kg feed is able to enhance the resistance of silver catfish to Streptococcus agalactiae infection...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Adrieli Sachett, Fernanda Bevilaqua, Rafael Chitolina, Cristiane Garbinato, Henrique Gasparetto, Jacir Dal Magro, Greicy M Conterato, Anna M Siebel
The occurrence of ractopamine (RAC) hydrochloride in water bodies is of significant concern due to its ecological impacts and toxicity to humans. RAC hydrochloride is a β-adrenergic agonist drug used as a feed additive to (1) improve feed efficiency, (2) rate of weight gain, and (3) increase carcass leanness in animals raised for their meat. This drug is excreted by animals in urine and introduced into the environment affecting nontarget organisms including fish. In wastewater released from farms, RAC concentrations were detected from 0...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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