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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458102/%C3%AE-irradiated-chitosan-based-injectable-hydrogels-for-controlled-release-of-drug-montelukast-sodium
#1
Sadaf Hafeez, Atif Islam, Nafisa Gull, Abbas Ali, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Saba Zia, Kalsoom Anwar, Saba Urooge Khan, Tahir Jamil
Novel pH-sensitive γ-irradiated low molecular weight chitosan (CS) (pre-irradiated) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended injectable hydrogels, crosslinked with varying concentrations of glycerol, were fabricated for drug delivery application. The effect of low molecular weight irradiated CS on controlled drug release was evaluated to address the problem of higher viscosity and lower solubility of high molecular weight CS. The FTIR spectra of hydrogels depicted the presence of all the incorporated functional groups and the developed interactions (physical and chemical)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458081/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-alters-proliferation-and-uterine-gland-numbers-in-the-uteri-of-adult-exposed-mice
#2
Kadeem A Richardson, Patrick R Hannon, Yvette J Johnson-Walker, Maung Sun Myint, Jodi A Flaws, Romana A Nowak
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has been shown to impair normal reproductive function in males and females. This study investigated whether adult exposure to environmental and occupational doses of DEHP alters homeostasis of uterine proliferation, morphology, and number of uterine glands. Adult female CD1 mice were orally dosed with DEHP (0, 20 μg/kg/day, 200 μg/kg/day, 20 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Results indicated that DEHP at 200 μg/kg/day caused a reduction in epithelial cell proliferation in the uterus (p < ...
February 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#3
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457726/a-robust-oil-in-oil-emulsion-for-the-nonaqueous-encapsulation-of-hydrophilic-payloads
#4
Xiaocun Lu, Joshua S Katz, Adam Schmitt, Jeffrey S Moore
Compartmentalized structures widely exist in cellular systems (organelles) and perform essential functions in smart composite materials (microcapsules, vasculatures, and micelles) to provide localized functionality and enhance materials compatibility. An entirely water-free compartmentalization system is of significant value to the materials community as nonaqueous conditions are critical to packaging microcapsules with water-free hydrophilic payloads while avoiding energy-intensive drying steps. Few nonaqueous encapsulation techniques are known, especially when considering just the scalable processes that operate in batch mode...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457518/surface-modification-of-doxorubicin-loaded-nanoparticles-based-on-polydopamine-with-ph-sensitive-property-for-tumor-targeting-therapy
#5
Dongdong Bi, Lei Zhao, Runqi Yu, Haowen Li, Yifei Guo, Xiangtao Wang, Meihua Han
One major challenge of current surface modification of nanoparticles is the demand for chemical reactive polymeric layers, such modification is always complicated, inefficient, and may lead the polymer lose the ability to encapsulate drug. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a pH-sensitive platform using polydopamine (PDA) as a way of functionalizing nanoparticles (NPs) surfaces. All this method needed to be just a brief incubation in weak alkaline solution of dopamine, which was simple and applicable to a variety of polymer carriers regardless of their chemical reactivity...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457316/assessment-of-pulmonary-structure-function-relationships-in-young-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis-by-multivolume-proton-mri-and-ct
#6
Francesca Pennati, David J Roach, John P Clancy, Alan S Brody, Robert J Fleck, Andrea Aliverti, Jason C Woods
BACKGROUND: Lung disease is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and there is a shortage of sensitive biomarkers able to regionally monitor disease progression and to assess early responses to therapy. PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced multivolume MRI, which assesses intensity changes between expiratory and inspiratory breath-hold images, to detect and quantify regional ventilation abnormalities in CF lung disease, with a focus on the structure-function relationship...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456808/administration-of-melatonin-protects-against-acetylsalicylic-acid-induced-impairment-of-male-reproductive-function-in-mice
#7
Niloufar Hedayati Emami, Farzaneh Mahmoudi Lafout, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi
Objectives: Melatonin, an important hormone secreted by the epiphysis, is a powerful anti-oxidant with a high potential to neutralize medical toxins. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the beneficial effect of melatonin on epididymal sperm and reproductive parameters in mice treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Materials and Methods: Male adult mice were divided into four treatment groups: control, ASA, melatonin, and ASA+melatonin. Mice were administered ASA (50 mg/kg, orally) and/or melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or vehicle control, for 14 days...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456401/management-of-complicated-crown-fracture-by-reattachment-using-fiber-post-minimal-intervention-approach
#8
Ambar W Raut, Vijay Mantri, Vaibhao I Shambharkar, Mitul Mishra
Anterior crown fractures are a common form of traumatic dental injuries that mainly affect the maxillary incisors, especially in children and adolescents. Complicated crown fractures although less common, pose a challenge to the clinician. The main objective while treating such cases is successful pain management and immediate restoration of function, esthetics and phonetics. Since the development of the adhesive dentistry, the patient's own fragment can be used to restore the fractured tooth. Reattachment of fractured tooth fragments offers a viable restorative alternative...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456184/quantified-f-actin-morphology-is-predictive-of-phagocytic-capacity-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#9
Claudia Müller, Carol Charniga, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann
With stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) replacement therapies in clinical testing, establishing potency of RPE prior to transplantation is imperative. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is a key indicator of RPE functionality. Comparing RPE derived from different donor human adult RPE stem cell lines, we found that cells were either high-phagocytic or low-phagocytic despite sharing phagocytic receptors and ligands, junctional ZO-1, and lack of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455999/cellulaose-acetate-based-thin-film-nanocomposite-reverse-osmosis-membrane-incorporated-with-tio-2-nanoparticles-for-improved-performance
#10
Muhammad Shafiq, Aneela Sabir, Atif Islam, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Nafisa Gull, Syed Nadir Hussain, Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt
In this work, cellulose acetate (CA) based thin film nanocomposite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were fabricated using dissolution casting method by optimizing the CA/polyethylene glycol (CA/PEG-400) ratios for improved RO performance. The selectivity of optimized membrane was further enhanced by incorporating TiO2 (0-25 wt.%) nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were conducted to characterize control and modified membranes for the analysis of functional groups, thermal properties, morphology and structural investigation respectively...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455996/heterogeneous-in-situ-polymerization-of-polyaniline-pani-nanofibers-on-cotton-textiles-improved-electrical-conductivity-electrical-switching-and-tuning-properties
#11
Nadeeka D Tissera, Ruchira N Wijesena, Samantha Rathnayake, Rohini M de Silva, K M Nalin de Silva
Electrically conductive cotton fabric was fabricated by in situ one pot oxidative polymerization of aniline. Using a simple heterogeneous polymerization method, polyaniline (PANI) nano fibers with an average fiber diameter of 40-75 nm were grafted in situ onto cotton fabric. The electrical conductivity of the PANI nanofiber grafted fabric was improved 10 fold compared to fabric grafted with PANI nanoclusters having an average cluster size of 145-315 nm. The surface morphology of the cotton fibers was characterized using SEM and AFM...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455966/fabrication-of-chitosan-gel-droplets-via-crosslinking-of-inverse-pickering-emulsifications
#12
Yongli Zhang, Xingrui Wang, Chen Xu, Weiwei Yan, Qiang Tian, Zhiming Sun, Hongduo Yao, Jianping Gao
Hydrophobic and dispersible functionalized reduced graphene oxide (FrGO) was employed to prepare chitosan gel droplets by crosslinking an inverse Pickering emulsion. The emulsion was prepared using toluene as the continuous phase and a chitosan aqueous solution as the dispersed phase. The effects of the FrGO concentration and the water/oil ratio on the chitosan droplet morphology were studied. At appropriate concentrations, the FrGO acted as a stabilizer and chitosan gel droplets were formed. Decreasing the FrGO concentration or increasing the water/oil ratio was unfavorable to the formation of chitosan droplets...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455792/left-ventricular-structure-and-diastolic-function-by-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#13
Binita Riya Chacko, Gauri R Karur, Kim A Connelly, Raymond T Yan, Anish Kirpalani, Rachel Wald, Laura Jimenez-Juan, John Roshan Jacob, Djeven P Deva, Andrew T Yan
OBJECTIVE: Diastolic dysfunction is common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and hypertensive heart disease (HHD), but its relationships with left ventricular (LV) parameters have not been well studied. Our objective was to assess the relationship of various measures of diastolic function, and maximum left ventricular wall thickness (MLVWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in HCM, HHD and normal controls using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We also assessed LV parameters and diastolic function in relation to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy in HCM...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455544/heart-failure-affects-liver-morphology-and-function-what-are-the-clinical-implications
#14
E Goncalvesova, M Kovacova
Liver dysfunction in heart failure is common and usually clinically significant, especially in patients with advanced or severe acute heart failure. Lesions are caused by an impaired hepatic circulation due to congestion and hypoperfusion. Congestive lesions are more common and typically manifested by painful hepatomegaly and increased direct bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. The inferior vena cava and hepatic veins are usually dilated. Congestive lesions are characterized by dilatation of the central vein with fibrotic changes in the surrounding areas on histological examination...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455351/lead-facilitates-foci-formation-in-a-balb-c-3t3-two-step-cell-transformation-model-role-of-ape1-function
#15
Pablo Hernández-Franco, Martín Silva, Rodrigo Franco, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas
Several possible mechanisms have been examined to gain an understanding on the carcinogenic properties of lead, which include among others, mitogenesis, alteration of gene expression, oxidative damage, and inhibition of DNA repair. The aim of the present study was to explore if low concentrations of lead, relevant for human exposure, interfere with Ape1 function, a base excision repair enzyme, and its role in cell transformation in Balb/c-3T3. Lead acetate 5 and 30 μM induced APE1 mRNA and upregulation of protein expression...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455006/analysis-of-cardiac-stem-cell-self-renewal-dynamics-in-serum-free-medium-by-single-cell-lineage-tracking
#16
J A Cornwell, R E Nordon, R P Harvey
Cardiac colony forming unit-fibroblasts (cCFU-F) are a population of stromal cells residing within the SCA1+ /PDGFRα+ /CD31- fraction of adult mouse hearts, and which have functional characteristics akin to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesise that they participate in cardiac homeostasis and repair through their actions as lineage progenitors and paracrine signaling hubs. However, cCFU-F are rare and there are no specific markers for these cells, making them challenging to study. cCFU can self-renew in vitro, although the common use of serum has made it difficult to identify cytokines that maintain lineage identity and self-renewal ability...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454799/identification-of-genomic-variants-causing-sperm-abnormalities-and-reduced-male-fertility
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Peter Sutovsky
Whole genome sequencing has identified millions of bovine genetic variants; however, there is currently little understanding about which variants affect male fertility. It is imperative that we begin to link detrimental genetic variants to sperm phenotypes via the analysis of semen samples and measurement of fertility for bulls with alternate genotypes. Artificial insemination (AI) bulls provide a useful model system because of extensive fertility records, measured as sire conception rates (SCR). Genetic variants with moderate to large effects on fertility can be identified by sequencing the genomes of fertile and subfertile or infertile sires identified with high or low SCR as adult AI bulls or yearling bulls that failed Breeding Soundness Evaluation...
February 10, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454355/temporal-changes-of-fine-root-overyielding-and-foraging-strategies-in-planted-monoculture-and-mixed-forests
#18
Weiwei Shu, Xiaoxiao Shen, Pifeng Lei, Wenhua Xiang, Shuai Ouyang, Wende Yan
BACKGROUND: Mixed forests are believed to enhance ecosystem functioning and sustainability due to complementary resource use, environmental benefits and improved soil properties. The facilitation between different species may induce overyielding. Meanwhile, the species-specific fine root foraging strategies and tradeoffs would determine the structure and dynamics of plant communities. Here the aim was to investigate the admixing effects of fine-root biomass, vertical distribution and morphology in Pinus massoniana-Cinnamomum camphora mixed plantations and corresponding monocultures at 10-, 24- and 45-year old stands...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453964/conidiogenesis-related-dna-photolyase-gene-in-beauveria-bassiana
#19
Se Jin Lee, Mi Rong Lee, Sihyeon Kim, Jong Cheol Kim, So Eun Park, Tae Young Shin, Jae Su Kim
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungi used in environmentally mindful pest management. Its main active ingredient, conidia, is commercially available as a fungal biopesticide. Many studies of conidia production have focused on how to optimize culture conditions for maximum productivity and stability against unfavorable abiotic factors. However, understanding of how conidiogenesis-related genes provide improved conidial production remains unclear. In this study, we focus on identifying conidiogenesis-related genes in B...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453960/synaptic-dysfunction-and-altered-excitability-in-c9orf72-als-ftd
#20
Alexander Starr, Rita Sattler
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
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