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Functional morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641386/the-neurosteroid-pregnenolone-reverts-microtubule-derangement-induced-by-the-loss-of-a-functional-cdkl5-iqgap1-complex
#1
Isabella Barbiero, Diana Peroni, Marco Tramarin, Chetan Chandola, Laura Rusconi, Nicoletta Landsberger, Charlotte Kilstrup-Nielsen
CDKL5 is a protein kinase that plays a key role for neuronal functions as testified by the onset of complex neuronal dysfunctions in patients with genetic lesions in CDKL5. Here we identify a novel interactor of CDKL5, IQGAP1, a fundamental regulator of cell migration and polarity. In accordance with a functional role of this interaction, depletion of CDKL5 impairs cell migration and impedes the localization of IQGAP1 at the leading edge. Moreover, we demonstrate that CDKL5 is required for IQGAP1 to form a functional complex with its effectors, Rac1 and the microtubule plus end tracking protein CLIP170...
June 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641356/-tracheal-surgery
#2
Jan Volmerig, Erich Hecker
Surgery of the trachea is a specialised field in which many disciplines work jointly due to the variety of indications and the extended topography. Not only because of its particular functional importance, but also because of its complex morphology, anatomy and physiology, this organ represents a special therapeutic challenge. A variety of diseases require surgical procedures of the trachea; the therapeutic strategy is influenced both by the disease itself as well as patient-dependent parameters. Regardless of the nature of the underlying disorder, good results require a high level of expertise in airway management, a careful diagnosis and interventional planning as well as an experienced surgical team that masters extended operative techniques...
June 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641277/association-of-the-cfh-y402h-polymorphism-with-the-1-year-response-of-exudative-amd-to-intravitreal-anti-vegf-treatment-in-the-brazilian-population
#3
Flavio Mac Cord Medina, Augusto Alves Lopes da Motta, Walter Yukihiko Takahashi, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Mario Martins Dos Santos Motta, Monica B Melo, Jose Paulo C Vasconcellos
AIM: Evidence of the relationship between the polymorphism of the complement factor H (CFH) gene at position 402 (Y402H) and the response to the treatment of wet AMD is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the functional and morphological 1-year evolution of patients with exudative AMD treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs with the CFH Y402H polymorphism in the Brazilian population. METHODS: Forty-six patients treated for wet AMD with bevacizumab or ranibizumab in a pro re nata regimen were included...
June 23, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640952/label-free-dynamic-mass-redistribution-and-bio-impedance-methods-for-drug-discovery
#4
Manuel Grundmann
Label-free biosensors are increasingly employed in drug discovery. Cell-based biosensors provide valuable insights into the biological consequences of exposing cells and tissues to chemical agents and the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these effects. Optical biosensors based on the detection of dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) and impedance biosensors using cellular dielectric spectroscopy (CDS) capture changes of the cytoskeleton of living cells in real time. Because signal transduction correlates with changes in cell morphology, DMR and CDS biosensors are exquisitely suited for recording integrated cell responses in an unbiased, yet pathway-specific manner without the use of labels that may interfere with cell function...
June 22, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640859/toxic-effects-of-atrazine-on-porcine-oocytes-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action
#5
Bao Yuan, Shuang Liang, Yong-Xun Jin, Ming-Jun Zhang, Jia-Bao Zhang, Nam-Hyung Kim
Because atrazine is a widely used herbicide, its adverse effects on the reproductive system have been extensively researched. In this study, we investigated the effects of atrazine exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that the rates of oocyte maturation significantly decreased after treatment with 200 μM atrazine in vitro. Atrazine treatment resulted in abnormal spindle morphology but did not affect actin distribution. Atrazine exposure not only triggered a DNA damage response but also decreased MPF levels in porcine oocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#6
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640659/phlda1-pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-family-a-member-1-knockdown-promotes-migration-and-invasion-of-mcf10a-breast-epithelial-cells
#7
Naieli Bonatto, Maria José Carlini, Simone Aparecida de Bessa Garcia, Maria Aparecida Nagai
PHLDA1 (pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1) is a multifunctional protein that plays distinct roles in several biological processes including cell death and therefore its altered expression has been identified in different types of cancer. Progressively loss of PHLDA1 was found in primary and metastatic melanoma while its overexpression was reported in intestinal and pancreatic tumors. Previous work from our group showed that negative expression of PHLDA1 protein was a strong predictor of poor prognosis for breast cancer disease...
June 22, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640613/molecular-recognition-under-interfacial-conditions-calix-4-pyrrole-based-cross-linkable-micelles-for-ion-pair-extraction
#8
Xiaodong Chi, Gretchen Marie Peters, Forrest Hammel, Chandler Brockman, Jonathan L Sessler
An anthracene-functionalized, long-tailed calix[4]pyrrole 1, containing both an anion-recognition site and cation-recognition functionality, has been synthesized and fully characterized. Upon ion-pair complexation with FeF2, receptor 1 self-assembles into multi-micelles in aqueous media. This aggregation process is ascribed to a change in polarity from non-polar to amphiphilic induced upon concurrent anion and cation complexation and permits molecular recognition-based control over chemical morphology under interfacial conditions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636953/dicer-deficiency-differentially-impacts-microglia-of-the-developing-and-adult-brain
#9
Diana Varol, Alexander Mildner, Thomas Blank, Anat Shemer, Neta Barashi, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Yifat Segal-Hayoun, Louise Chappell-Maor, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Dena Leshkowitz, Eran Hornstein, Martin Fuhrmann, Ido Amit, Nicola Maggio, Marco Prinz, Steffen Jung
Microglia seed the embryonic neuro-epithelium, expand and actively sculpt neuronal circuits in the developing central nervous system, but eventually adopt relative quiescence and ramified morphology in the adult. Here, we probed the impact of post-transcriptional control by microRNAs (miRNAs) on microglial performance during development and adulthood by generating mice lacking microglial Dicer expression at these distinct stages. Conditional Dicer ablation in adult microglia revealed that miRNAs were required to limit microglial responses to challenge...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636943/opa1-isoforms-in-the-hierarchical-organization-of-mitochondrial-functions
#10
Valentina Del Dotto, Prashant Mishra, Sara Vidoni, Mario Fogazza, Alessandra Maresca, Leonardo Caporali, J Michael McCaffery, Martina Cappelletti, Enrico Baruffini, Guy Lenaers, David Chan, Michela Rugolo, Valerio Carelli, Claudia Zanna
OPA1 is a GTPase that controls mitochondrial fusion, cristae integrity, and mtDNA maintenance. In humans, eight isoforms are expressed as combinations of long and short forms, but it is unclear whether OPA1 functions are associated with specific isoforms and/or domains. To address this, we expressed each of the eight isoforms or different constructs of isoform 1 in Opa1(-/-) MEFs. We observed that any isoform could restore cristae structure, mtDNA abundance, and energetic efficiency independently of mitochondrial network morphology...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636924/epithelial-folding-driven-by-apical-or-basal-lateral-modulation-geometric-features-mechanical-inference-and-boundary-effects
#11
Fu-Lai Wen, Yu-Chiun Wang, Tatsuo Shibata
During embryonic development, epithelial sheets fold into complex structures required for tissue and organ functions. Although substantial efforts have been devoted to identifying molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial folding, far less is understood about how forces deform individual cells to sculpt the overall sheet morphology. Here we describe a simple and general theoretical model for the autonomous folding of monolayered epithelial sheets. We show that active modulation of intracellular mechanics along the basal-lateral as well as the apical surfaces is capable of inducing fold formation in the absence of buckling instability...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636229/recovery-from-reproductive-and-morphological-abnormalities-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes-following-a-14-day-exposure-to-diclofenac
#12
Hirofumi Yokota, Kaho Higashi, Erina Hanada, Ei Matsuzaki, Yukinari Tsuruda, Tomoko Suzuki, Eiko Nakano, Sayaka Eguchi
Mating pairs of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to diclofenac (DCF) at measured concentrations of 0 (control), 7.1, 37, and 78 µg/L for 14 d under static-renewal conditions. Effects on reproductive success, as well as morphological abnormalities, of the fish were assessed. During the exposure period, both fecundity and fertility were significantly decreased in the 37 and 78 µg/L treatments groups, and swollen abdomens in females were observed in all exposure groups. Notably, a defect of the lower jaw also was observed in four male fish: two at 37 µg/L, and the others at 78 µg/L of DCF...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634713/characterization-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-saponin-conjugated-silver-nanoparticles-against-bacteria-that-cause-burn-wound-infection
#13
Anbarasan Muniyan, Kalaiselvi Ravi, Udayamathi Mohan, Rajasekar Panchamoorthy
Saponins are glycosides, which destabilize the membrane by altering the membrane permeability. Thus, the present study was aimed to fabricate the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fenugreek derived saponin (SN) against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study has optimized the concentration of SN (240 mg/mL) for the synthesis of an effective AgNPs against the test organism Escherichia coli. The SN reduced AgNPs produced a reddish-brown colour and displayed UV absorption at 416 nm. The bio-reducing efficiency of SN (62...
July 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634189/reduced-platelet-count-but-no-major-platelet-function-abnormalities-are-associated-with-loss-of-function-atp-binding-cassette-1-abca1-gene-mutations
#14
Pietro Minuz, Alessandra Meneguzzi, Eti Alessandra Femia, Cristiano Fava, Stefano Calabria, Mariangela Scavone, Donatella Benati, Giovanni Poli, Carlo Zancanaro, Sebastiano Calandra, Tiziano Lucchi, Marco Cattaneo
Loss of function mutations of the the ATP-binding cassette-1 (ABCA1) gene are the cause of Tangier disease (TD) in homozygous subjects and familial HDL deficiency (FHD) in heterozygous subjects. These disorders are characterized by reduced plasma HDL-cholesterol and altered efflux of cholesterol from cells. Previous studies in TD patients and ABCA1(-/-) murine models reported defects in platelet count, morphology and function, but the issue is still controversial. We analysed three subjects with low to very low HDL cholesterol levels due to loss of function mutations of the ABCA1 gene...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634139/ocular-disposition-of-ciprofloxacin-from-topical-pegylated-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-effect-of-molecular-weight-and-density-of-poly-ethylene-glycol
#15
Sai Prachetan Balguri, Goutham R Adelli, Karthik Yadav Janga, Prakash Bhagav, Soumyajit Majumdar
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is an antibacterial agent prescribed for the treatment of ocular infections. The objective of the present project is to investigate the effect of surface PEG functionalization of the Nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs) on formulation stability, ocular penetration and distribution. CIP NLCs were tested with different molecular weight (poly ethylene glycol) PEGs ranging from (2K to 20K) grafted onto the phospholipid and with different chain lengths (14-18 carbons) of phospholipids derivatized with PEG-2K...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634116/succinate-induced-neuronal-mitochondrial-fission-and-hexokinase-ii-malfunction-in-ischemic-stroke-therapeutical-effects-of-kaempferol
#16
Bin Wu, Hong Luo, Xu Zhou, Cai-Yi Cheng, Lin Lin, Bao-Lin Liu, Kang Liu, Ping Li, Hua Yang
Mitochondrial dysfunction is known as one of causative factors in ischemic stroke, leading to neuronal cell death. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether succinate induces neuron apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial morphology and function. In neurons, oxygen-glucose deprivation induced succinate accumulation due to the reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activation, leading to mitochondrial fission. Kaempferol inhibited mitochondrial fission and maintained mitochondrial HK-II through activation of Akt, and thereby protected neurons from succinate-mediated ischemi injury...
June 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634072/mitochondrial-dynamics-coordinate-cell-differentiation
#17
Masafumi Noguchi, Atsuko Kasahara
Cells differentiate into specific and functional lineages to build up tissues. It has been shown in several tissues that mitochondrial morphology, levels of "mitochondrial shaping" proteins, and mitochondrial functions change upon differentiation. In this review, we highlight the significance of mitochondrial dynamics and functions in tissue development, cell differentiation, and reprogramming processes. Signalling cascades are critical for tissue stem cell maintenance and cell fate determination, and growing evidence demonstrates mitochondria could act as a centre of intra and extracellular signals to coordinate signalling pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, and YAP/TAZ signalling...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633965/phosphoproteome-analysis-reveals-a-critical-role-for-hedgehog-signalling-in-osteoblast-morphological-transitions
#18
Ariane Marumoto, Renato Milani, Rodrigo A da Silva, Célio Junior da Costa Fernandes, José Mauro Granjeiro, Carmen V Ferreira, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Willian F Zambuzzi
The reciprocal and adaptive interactions between cells and substrates governing morphological transitions in the osteoblast compartment remain largely obscure. Here we show that osteoblast cultured in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™) exhibits significant morphological changes after ten days of culture, and we decided to exploit this situation to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for guiding osteoblast morphological transitions. As almost all aspects of cellular physiology are under control of kinases, we generated more or less comprehensive cellular kinome profiles employing PepChip peptide arrays that contain over 1000 consensus substrates of kinase peptide...
June 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633791/peroneus-tertius-tendon-tear-causing-lateral-ankle-pain-in-a-child
#19
Niall P McGoldrick, Diane Bergin, Stephen R Kearns
The peroneus tertius muscle arises in the anterior compartment of the leg and demonstrates significant morphologic variation. Its function is not yet clearly delineated. We present the case of a 12-year-old patient with an isolated tear of the peroneus tertius tendon that resulted in lateral based ankle pain. After surgical reconstruction, the patient's pain resolved, and he was able to return to his normal activities.
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633775/ball-and-socket-ankle-mechanism-and-computational-evidence-of-concept
#20
James R Jastifer, Peter A Gustafson, Aaron Labomascus, Tyler Snoap
The ball and socket ankle joint is a morphologically abnormal joint characterized by rounding of the articular surface of the talus. Other than anecdotal observation, little evidence has been presented to describe the development of this deformity. The purpose of the present study was to review ankle and subtalar joint mechanics and to kinematically examine the functional combination of these joints as a mechanism of the ball and socket ankle deformity. We reviewed functional representations of the ankle joint, subtalar joint, and ball and socket ankle deformity...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
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