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Functional morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040962/interactions-between-rgo-tnt-nanocomposites-and-cells-regulation-of-cell-morphology-uptake-cytotoxicity-adhesion-and-migration
#1
Xiaopeng Su, Lifeng Yang, Cailian Huang, Qinli Hu, Xinyi Shan, Junmin Wan, Zhiwen Hu, Bing Wang
Reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanotube (rGO/TNT) composites have superior properties, such as a large surface area, extraordinary mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, etc. However, the biosafety and biocompatibility of these composites, such as their influences on cell viability and cell functions, which are of paramount importance, are still not fully addressed. In this study, rGO/TNT nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a modified hydrothermal treatment method. Then, the interactions between the rGO/TNT nanocomposites and Raw264...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040859/the-fks-family-genes-cause-changes-in-cell-wall-morphology-resulted-in-regulation-of-anti-autolytic-ability-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Jinjing Wang, Jiangchuan Mao, Ge Yang, Feiyun Zheng, Chengtuo Niu, Yongxian Li, Chunfeng Liu, Qi Li
The aim of this study was to discuss the functions of FKS family genes which encode β-1, 3-glucan synthase regarding the viability and autolysis of yeast strain. Loss of FKS1 gene severely influences the viability and anti-autolytic ability of yeast. Mutation of FKS1 and FKS2 genes led to cell reconstruction, resulting in a sharp shrinkage of cell volume and decreased stress resistance, viability, and anti-autolytic ability. Deletion of FKS3 gene did not clearly influence the synthesis of β-1, 3-glucan of yeast but increased the strain's stress resistance, viability, and anti-autolytic ability...
September 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040806/bacterial-derived-carbohydrates-bind-cyr1-and-trigger-hyphal-growth-in-candida-albicans
#3
Jason Burch, Siavash Mashayekh, Dennis D Wykoff, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes
The dimorphic yeast Candida albicans is the most common pathologic fungus found in humans. While this species is normally commensal, a morphological switch from budding yeast to filamentous hyphae allows the fungi to invade epithelial cells and cause infections. The phenotypic change is controlled by the adenylyl cyclase, Cyr1. Interestingly, this protein contains a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, which is commonly found in innate immune receptors from plants and animals. A functional and pure LRR domain was obtained in high yields from E...
October 17, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040791/roles-of-mmu_pir_003399-in-microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-the-spermatogonial-cells-and-testis
#4
Ling Zhang, Xiannan Meng, Zou Xiang, Dongmei Li, Xiaodong Han
Our previous work has demonstrated that microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a potent toxin for the reproductive system of male mice and it exerts cytotoxicity in spermatogonial cells, resulting in the constitutional and functional changes of the mouse testis. The present study was designed to investigate the functions of P-element-induced wimpy (piwi)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in MC-LR-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice. We observed an increase in the mmu_piR_003399 level in spermatogonial cells and mouse testicular tissues following treatment with MC-LR...
October 12, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040460/effect-of-different-masticatory-functional-demands-on-the-3d-mandibular-condyle-morphology-of-growing-rats-using-posterior-bite-blocks
#5
Balazs J Denes, Benjamin Lazzarotto, Andrea Bresin, Stavros Kiliaridis
Background and objectives: Apart from the primary effect of bite-blocks on tooth position, they may also influence the mandibular condylar growth. Our aim was to investigate their influence on the condylar morphology, with variable masticatory forces. Material and methods: Fifty-two 4-week old male rats were divided into hard and soft diet groups in order to create individuals with different masticatory muscle capacity. Two weeks later, they were equally divided into bite-block and control groups...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040414/luma-is-not-essential-for-murine-cardiac-development-and-function
#6
Matthew John Stroud, Xi Fang, Jianlin Zhang, Nuno Guimarães-Camboa, Jennifer Veevers, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, William H Bradford, Kirk L Peterson, Sylvia M Evans, Larry Gerace, Ju Chen
Aims: Luma is a recently discovered, evolutionarily conserved protein expressed in mammalian heart that is associated with the LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. The LINC complex structurally integrates the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and plays a critical role in mechanotransduction across the nuclear envelope. Mutations in several LINC components in both humans and mice result in various cardiomyopathies, implying they play essential, non-redundant roles. A single amino acid substitution of serine 358 to leucine (S358L) in LUMA is the unequivocal cause of a distinct form of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040321/co-delivery-of-micronized-urinary-bladder-matrix-damps-regenerative-capacity-of-minced-muscle-grafts-in-the-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injuries
#7
Stephen M Goldman, Benjamin T Corona
Minced muscle grafts (MG) promote de novo muscle fiber regeneration and neuromuscular strength recovery in small and large animal models of volumetric muscle loss. The most noteworthy limitation of this approach is its reliance on a finite supply of donor tissue. To address this shortcoming, this study sought to evaluate micronized acellular urinary bladder matrix (UBM) as a scaffolding to promote in vivo expansion of this MG therapy in a rat model. Rats received volumetric muscle loss injuries to the tibialis anterior muscle of their left hind limb which were either left untreated or repaired with minced muscle graft at dosages of 50% and 100% of the defect mass, urinary bladder matrix in isolation, or a with an expansion product consisting of a combination of the two putative therapies in which the minced graft is delivered at a dosage of 50% of the defect mass...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036973/-predictive-value-of-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-derived-parameters-on-the-improvement-of-left-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-acute-viral-myocarditis
#8
H C Ouyang, F C Ouyang, L L Mai, Y Y Chen, Y Z Hu, H X Chen, W S Li
Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived parameters on the improvement of left ventricular function in patients with acute viral myocarditis. Methods: Forty patients, who referred for acute viral myocarditis in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2015, were prospectively enrolled in this study.All patients were examined by CMR during hospitalization for acute viral myocarditis (baseline) and after 12 months.The CMR sequences include: two dimension steady state free precession, 2D SSFP; triple inversion recovery, triple IR; early gadolinium enhancement; phase sensitive inversion recovery turbo field echo, PSIR TFE...
September 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036645/genomic-and-transcriptomic-compilation-of-chloroplast-ionic-transporters-of-physcomitrella-patens-study-of-nhad-transporters-in-na-and-k-homeostasis
#9
Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Ángela Sáez, Mónica Lanza, Begoña Benito
K+ is widely used by plant cells, whereas Na+ can easily reach toxic levels during plant growth, which typically occurs in saline environments; however, the effects and functions in the chloroplast have been only roughly estimated. Traditionally, the occurrence of ionic fluxes across the chloroplast envelope or the thylakoid membranes has been mostly deduced from physiological measurements or from knowledge of chloroplast metabolism. However, many of the proteins involved in these fluxes have not yet been characterized...
October 3, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036566/the-role-of-alternative-splicing-and-differential-gene-expression-in-cichlid-adaptive-radiation
#10
Pooja Singh, Christine Börger, Heather More, Christian Sturmbauer
Species diverge eco-morphologically through the continuous action of natural selection on functionally important structures, producing alternative adaptive morphologies. In cichlid fishes, the oral and pharyngeal jaws are such key structures. Adaptive variation in jaw morphology contributes to trophic specialisation, which is hypothesised to fuel their rapid speciation in the East African Great Lakes. Much is known about the genes involved in cichlid jaw and craniofacial development. However, it is still unclear what salient sources of variation gave rise to trophic-niche specialisation, facilitating adaptive radiation...
September 27, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036463/multiple-links-between-shade-avoidance-and-auxin-networks
#11
María José Iglesias, Romina Sellaro, Matias D Zurbriggen, Jorge José Casal
Auxin has emerged as a key player in the adjustment of plant morphology to the challenge imposed by variable environmental conditions. Shade-avoidance responses, including the promotion of stem and petiole growth, leaf hyponasty, and the inhibition of branching, involve an intimate connection between light and auxin signalling. Low activity of photo-sensory receptors caused by the presence of neighbouring vegetation enhances the activity of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs), which directly promote the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis, conjugation, transport, perception, and signalling...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036263/effects-of-12c6-heavy-ion-beam-irradiation-on-the-p53-signaling-pathway-in-hepg2-liver-cancer-cells
#12
Kai Liu, Xinke Zhao, Jing Gu, Jianjun Wu, Hong Zhang, Yingdong Li
The heavy ion beam is considered to be the ideal source for radiotherapy. The p53 tumor suppressor gene senses DNA damage and transducts intracellular apoptosis signals. Previous reports showed that the heavy ion beam can trigger complex forms of damage to cellular DNA, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HepG2 human liver cancer cells; however, the mechanisms remains unclear fully. In order to explore whether the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway participates this process, HepG2 cells were treated with 12C6+ HIB irradiation at doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy with various methods employed to understand relevant mechanisms, such as detection of apoptosis, cell cycle, and Fas expression by flow cytometry, analysis of apoptotic morphology by electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, and screening differentially expressed genes relating to p53 signaling pathway by PCR-array assay following with any genes confirmed by western blot analysis...
September 23, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035336/transition-of-emission-colours-as-a-consequence-of-heat-treatment-of-carbon-coated-ce-3-doped-yag-phosphors
#13
Liang-Jun Yin, Benjamin Dierre, Takashi Sekiguchi, J Ruud van Ommen, Hubertus T Bert Hintzen, Yujin Cho
To modify the luminescence properties of Ce(3+)-doped Y₃Al₅O12 (YAG) phosphors, they have been coated with a carbon layer by chemical vapor deposition and subsequently heat-treated at high temperature under N₂ atmosphere. Luminescence of the carbon coated YAG:Ce(3+) phosphors has been investigated as a function of heat-treatment at 1500 and 1650 °C. The 540 nm emission intensity of C@YAG:Ce(3+) is the highest when heated at 1650 °C, while a blue emission at 400-420 nm is observed when heated at 1500 °C but not at 1650 °C...
October 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035038/dynamics-and-morphology-of-nanoparticle-linked-polymers-elucidated-by-nmr
#14
Yongqian Zhang, Charles G Fry, Joel A Pedersen, Robert J Hamers
Nanoparticles are frequently modified with polymer layers to control their physical and chemical properties, but little is understood about the morphology and dynamics of these polymer layers. We report here an NMR-based investigation of a model polymer-modified nanoparticle using multiple NMR techniques including 1H NMR, DOSY, TOCSY, and T2 relaxometry to characterize the dynamics of the nanoparticle-polymer interface. Using 5 nm detonation nanodiamond covalently linked to poly(allylamine) hydrochloride as model system, we demonstrate the use of NMR to distinguish between free and bound polymer and to characterize the degree to which the segments of the nanoparticle-wrapping polymer are mobile (loops and tails) vs...
October 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034757/nano-alterations-of-membrane-structure-on-both-%C3%AE-irradiated-and-stored-human-erythrocytes
#15
M A Acosta-Elías, A J Burgara-Estrella, J A Sarabia-Sainz, E Silva-Campa, A Angulo-Molina, K J Santacruz-Gómez, B Castaneda, D Soto-Puebla, A I Ledesma-Osuna, R Melendrez-Amavizca, M Pedroza-Montero
PURPOSE: Storage and ionizing radiation of human red blood cells (RBC) produce alterations on RBC membranes and modify their normal shape and functionality. We investigated early morphological and biochemical changes in RBC due to those stressing agents at the nanoscale level and their impact on blood quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood samples from healthy donors were γ-irradiated with 15, 25, 35 and 50 Gy. Non-irradiated and non-stored RBC were used as control samples...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034487/the-role-of-spontaneous-neurotransmission-in-synapse-and-circuit-development
#16
REVIEW
Laura C Andreae, Juan Burrone
In the past, the spontaneous release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has been thought of as a side effect of evoked release, with little functional significance. As our understanding of the process of spontaneous release has increased over time, this notion has gradually changed. In this review, we focus on the importance of this form of release during neuronal development, a time of extreme levels of plasticity that includes the growth of dendrites and axons as well as the formation of new synaptic contacts...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034479/scaling-of-the-ankle-extensor-muscle-tendon-units-and-the-biomechanical-implications-for-bipedal-hopping-locomotion-in-the-post-pouch-kangaroo-macropus-fuliginosus
#17
Edward P Snelling, Andrew A Biewener, Qiaohui Hu, David A Taggart, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Roger S Seymour
Bipedal hopping is used by macropods, including rat-kangaroos, wallabies and kangaroos (superfamily Macropodoidea). Interspecific scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units in the lower hindlimbs of these hopping bipeds shows that peak tendon stress increases disproportionately with body size. Consequently, large kangaroos store and recover more strain energy in their tendons, making hopping more efficient, but their tendons are at greater risk of rupture. This is the first intraspecific scaling analysis on the functional morphology of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units (gastrocnemius, plantaris and flexor digitorum longus) in one of the largest extant species of hopping mammal, the western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus (5...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034317/luciferase-shrna-presents-off-target-effects-on-voltage-gated-ion-channels-in-mouse-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Yuto Hasegawa, Wenjie Mao, Sucharita Saha, Georgia Gunner, Jenya Kolpakova, Gilles E Martin, Kensuke Futai
RNA interference (RNAi) is a straightforward approach to study gene function from the in vitro cellular level to in vivo animal behavior. Although RNAi-mediated gene knockdown has become essentially routine in neuroscience over the past ten years, off-target effects of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) should be considered as the proper choice of control shRNA is critical in order to perform meaningful experiments. Luciferase shRNA (shLuc), targeting firefly luciferase, and scrambled shRNAs (shScrs) have been widely used as controls for vertebrate cell research...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#19
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033497/investigation-into-the-ring-substituted-polyanilines-and-their-application-for-the-detection-and-adsorption-of-sulfur-dioxide
#20
Yuhong Tian, Ke Qu, Xiangqun Zeng
It has been demonstrated in this study that the substituents on the monomer aniline benzene ring are able to introduce the significant differences to the resulting polyaniline's collective properties. We systematically evaluated the structural perturbation effects of two substituents (methyl and methoxy) of aniline monomer through the electrochemical method. Our results showed that the methoxy group induces the less structural perturbation than the methyl counterpart, because of its partial double bond restriction...
October 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
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