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Functional morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088104/biofabrication-of-size-controllable-silver-nanoparticles-a-green-approach
#1
Sireesh Babu Maddinedi, Badal Kumar Mandal, Swetha Kameswari Maddili
A facile biosynthetic approach for the size controllable production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Cinnamomum tsoi as reducing and capping agent is developed. The polyphenolic functionalities present in the extract are essentially responsible for the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. The size and morphology of the AgNPs were effectively tuned by changing the volume of the extract. The availability of oxidized polyphenols play key role in tuning the size and morphology of the prepared NPs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#2
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087947/lichenized-fungi-and-the-evolution-of-symbiotic-organization
#3
Martin Grube, Mats Wedin
Lichen symbioses comprise a fascinating relationship between algae and fungi. The lichen symbiotic lifestyle evolved early in the evolution of ascomycetes and is also known from a few basidiomycetes. The ascomycete lineages have diversified in the lichenized stage to give rise to a tremendous variety of morphologies. Their thalli are often internally complex and stratified for optimized integration of algal and fungal metabolisms. Thalli are frequently colonized by specific nonlichenized fungi and occasionally also by other lichens...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087721/joubert-syndrome-neuroimaging-findings-in-110-patients-in-correlation-with-cognitive-function-and-genetic-cause
#4
Andrea Poretti, Joseph Snow, Angela C Summers, Aylin Tekes, Thierry A G M Huisman, Nafi Aygun, Kathryn A Carson, Dan Doherty, Melissa A Parisi, Camilo Toro, Deniz Yildirimli, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Andrew R Cullinane, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
BACKGROUND: Joubert syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy. Neuroimaging findings have not been systematically evaluated in a large cohort of patients with Joubert syndrome in correlation with molecular genetic cause and cognitive function. METHODS: Brain MRI of 110 patients with Joubert syndrome was included in this study. A comprehensive evaluation of brain MRI studies for infratentorial and supratentorial morphological abnormalities was performed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087449/highly-biocompatible-chitosan-with-super-paramagnetic-calcium-ferrite-cafe2o4-nanoparticle-for-the-release-of-ampicillin
#5
Ram Bilas, K Sriram, P Uma Maheswari, K M Meera Sheriffa Begum
The CaFe2O4 nanoparticles (CFNP) were synthesized using the solution combustion method. The CFNP-chitosan-ampicillin was prepared by the ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate (TPP). The CFNP, chitosan-CFNP, chitosan-CFNP-ampicillin materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TGA analysis in order to evaluate the particle nature and size, the presence of functional groups and their thermal stability. The FESEM and EDAX analysis were performed to understand the surface morphology of the materials and the presence of CFNP in the material, respectively...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087224/5-ht6-receptor-blockade-regulates-primary-cilia-morphology-in-striatal-neurons
#6
Matthew Brodsky, Adam J Lesiak, Alex Croicu, Nathalie Cohenca, Jane M Sullivan, John F Neumaier
The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined...
January 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087191/alterations-of-brain-activity-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#7
REVIEW
Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086938/alpha-enolase-eno1-controls-alpha-v-beta-3-integrin-expression-and-regulates-pancreatic-cancer-adhesion-invasion-and-metastasis
#8
Moitza Principe, Simone Borgoni, Mariafrancesca Cascione, Michelle Samuel Chattaragada, Sammy Ferri-Borgogno, Michela Capello, Sara Bulfamante, Jennifer Chapelle, Francesca Di Modugno, Paola Defilippi, Paola Nisticò, Paola Cappello, Chiara Riganti, Stefano Leporatti, Francesco Novelli
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1) also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086811/study-of-the-microrna-expression-profile-of-foreskin-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-following-inflammation-priming
#9
Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad Fayyad-Kazan, Bassam Badran, Dominique Bron, Laurence Lagneaux, Mehdi Najar
BACKGROUND: Due to their self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potential, and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive tool for different therapeutic strategies. Foreskin (FSK), considered as a biological waste material, has already been shown to be a valuable source of MSCs. Besides their typical fibroblast like morphology and International Society for cellular Therapy compliant phenotype, foreskin-MSCs (FSK-MSCs) are clonogenic, and highly proliferative cells with multi-lineage and strong immunomodulatory capacities...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081584/-mini-open-approach-shows-good-results-in-treatment-of-femoroacetabular-impingement
#10
Stephanie Maria Kirschbaum, Frank Sitterlee, Carsten Perka, Michael Müller
Background Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) describes a painful, abnormal (bony) contact between the femoral neck and acetabulum, which, if left untreated, contributes to early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Despite its flat learning curve and long operation times, hip arthroscopy has been used increasingly often in recent years in the surgery of femoroacetabular impingement. The mini-open technique (MOT) offers a possible alternative that addresses the abnormal morphological prominence and allows minimally invasive clearance of hip motion...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081458/multistage-bioassociation-of-uranium-onto-an-extremely-halophilic-archaeon-revealed-by-a-unique-combination-of-spectroscopic-and-microscopic-techniques
#11
Miriam Bader, Katharina Müller, Harald Foerstendorf, Björn Drobot, Matthias Schmidt, Niculina Musat, Juliet S Swanson, Donald T Reed, Thorsten Stumpf, Andrea Cherkouk
The interactions of two extremely halophilic archaea with uranium were investigated at high ionic strength as a function of time, pH and uranium concentration. Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 and Halobacterium sp. putatively noricense, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository, were used for these investigations. The kinetics of U(VI) bioassociation with both strains showed an atypical multistage behavior, meaning that after an initial phase of U(VI) sorption, an unexpected interim period of U(VI) release was observed, followed by a slow reassociation of uranium with the cells...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081379/direct-gingival-fibroblast-osteoblast-transdifferentiation-via-epigenetics
#12
Y Cho, B Kim, H Bae, W Kim, J Baek, K Woo, G Lee, Y Seol, Y Lee, Y Ku, I Rhyu, H Ryoo
Alveolar bone resorption caused by trauma or periodontal diseases has represented a challenge for both dental clinicians and researchers. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic potential of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) through a direct transdifferentiation from HGFs to functional osteoblasts via epigenetic modification and osteogenic signaling with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in vitro and in vivo. HGF treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) induced demethylation in the hypermethylated CpG islands of the osteogenic lineage marker genes RUNX2 and ALP, and subsequent BMP2 treatment successfully drove the fibroblasts to the osteoblasts' lineage...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081202/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-five-mads-box-b-class-genes-related-to-floral-organ-identification-in-tagetes-erecta
#13
Ye Ai, Chunling Zhang, Yalin Sun, Weining Wang, Yanhong He, Manzhu Bao
According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#14
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079933/co-expression-of-peppermint-geranyl-diphosphate-synthase-small-subunit-enhances-monoterpene-production-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#15
Jun-Lin Yin, Woon-Seng Wong, In-Cheol Jang, Nam-Hai Chua
Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS...
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079892/hif-2%C3%AE-and-oct4-have-synergistic-effects-on-survival-and-myocardial-repair-of-very-small-embryonic-like-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-infarcted-hearts
#16
Shaoheng Zhang, Lan Zhao, Jiahong Wang, Nannan Chen, Jian Yan, Xin Pan
Poor cell survival and limited functional benefits have restricted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) efficacy for treating myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. The transcription factor HIF-2α is an essential regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, which can interact with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transcription factor Oct4 and modulate its signaling. Here, we obtained very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) from MI patients, which possessed the very small embryonic-like stem cells' (VSELs) morphology as well as ESCs' pluripotency...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079383/structure-and-interaction-in-ph-dependent-phase-behavior-of-nanoparticle-protein-systems
#17
Indresh Yadav, Sugam Kumar, Vinod K Aswal, Joachim Kohlbrecher
The pH-dependent structure and interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (diameter 18 nm) with two globular model proteins-lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied. Cationic lysozyme adsorbs strongly on the nanoparticles and the adsorption follows an exponential growth as a function of lysozyme concentration, where the saturation value increases with pH approaching towards the isoelectric point (IEP) of lysozyme. In contrast, irrespective of the pH, anionic BSA does not show any adsorption...
January 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079133/mechanical-transgressive-segregation-and-the-rapid-origin-of-trophic-novelty
#18
Roi Holzman, C Darrin Hulsey
Hybrid phenotypes are often intermediate between those of parental species. However, hybridization can generate novel phenotypes when traits are complex. For instance, even when the morphologies of individual musculo-skeletal components do not segregate outside the parental range in hybrid offspring, complex functional systems can exhibit emergent phenotypes whose mechanics exceed the parental values. To determine if transgression in mechanics could facilitate divergence during an adaptive radiation, we examined three functional systems in the trophic apparatus of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079127/functional-nanoarchitectures-for-enhanced-drug-eluting-stents
#19
Yomna E Saleh, Mohamed A Gepreel, Nageh K Allam
Different strategies have been investigated to allow for optimum duration and conditions for endothelium healing through the enhancement of coronary stents. In this study, a nanoarchitectured system is proposed as a surface modification for drug eluting stents. Highly oriented nanotubes were vertically grown on the surface of a new Ni-free biocompatible Ti-based alloy, as a potential material for self-expandable stents. The fabricated nanotubes were self-grown from the potential stent substrate, which are also proposed to enhance endothelial proliferation while acting as drug reservoir to hinder Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) proliferation...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078843/association-between-expression-of-cumulus-expansion-markers-and-real-time-proliferation-of-porcine-follicular-granulosa-cells-in-a-primary-cell-culture-model
#20
S Ciesiółka, J Budna, A Bryja, W Kranc, A Chachuła, M Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, H Piotrowska, D Bukowska, P Antosik, M Bruska, K P Brüssow, M Nowicki, M Zabel, B Kempisty
Folliculogenesis is a compound process that involves both ovarian follicle growth and oocyte development, which is tightly attached to the follicular wall. During this process, cells that form the follicle structure undergo substantial morphological and molecular modifications that finally lead to differentiation and specialization of ovarian follicular cells. The differentiation of ovarian cells encompasses formation of follicle, which is composed of theca (TCs), mural granulosa (GCs), and cumulus cells (CCs)...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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