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Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Ga Young Lee, Chan Yoon Park, Kyeong Sun Cha, Seung Eun Lee, Munkyong Pae, Sung Nim Han
Vitamin D has an immunoregulatory effect on both innate and adaptive immunity. Contradictory results regarding vitamin D and natural killer (NK) cell functions have been reported with in vitro studies, but little is known about this in vivo. We investigated whether vitamin D levels (50, 1000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet: DD, DC or DS) affect NK cell functions in mice fed a control or high-fat diet (10% or 45% kcal fat: CD or HFD) for 12 weeks. The splenic NK cell activity was significantly higher in the CD-DS group than the HFD-DS group, and the CD-DS group showed significantly higher NK cell activity compared with the CD-DD and CD-DC groups...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ganesh Subramanian, Xiaoyi Zhang, Gerdenis Kodis, Qingyu Kong, Cunming Liu, Andrew V G Chizmeshya, Uwe Weierstall, John C H Spence
Cobalt-carbon bond cleavage is crucial to most natural and synthetic applications of the cobalamin class of compounds and here we present the first direct electronic and geometric structural characteristics of intermediates formed following photoexcitation of methylcobalamin (MeCbl) using time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We catch transients corresponding to two intermediates, in the hundreds of picosecond (ps) and a few microsecond (µs) respectively. Highlights of the ps intermediate, which is reduced in comparison to the ground state, are elongation of the upper axial Co-C bond and relaxation of the corrin ring...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Haet Nim Lim, Jun-Pil Jang, Jang Mi Han, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Jong Seog Ahn, Hye Jin Jung
Angiogenesis plays a very important role in tumor progression through the creation of new blood vessels. Therefore, angiogenesis inhibitors could contribute to cancer treatment. Here, we show that a microbial metabolite, elaiophylin, exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity from in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. Elaiophylin dramatically suppressed in vitro angiogenic characteristics such as proliferation, migration, adhesion, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at non-toxic concentrations...
March 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thomas P Conway, Karla J Daniels, Yang-Nim Park, David R Soll
Firefly luciferase (FLuc) is commonly used as a reporter gene PpyLuc1 in bioanalytical assays. We have produced five mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize FLuc. The mAbs, DSHB-LUC-2, DSHB-LUC-3, DSHB-LUC-9, DSHB-LUC-16, and DSHB-LUC-24, were generated by immunizing mice with purified 6xHIS-tagged FLuc (6xHis-FLuc) in suspension with an adjuvant. All five were validated by dot blots. Four of the mAbs provided strong signals in western blot analysis, and one a weak signal. All five were validated for immunostaining in fixed cell culture...
February 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
Sun Ryoung Choi, Ji Hee Lim, Min Young Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Yaeni Kim, Beom Soon Choi, Yong-Soo Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kyung-Min Lim, Min Jeong Kim, Cheol Whee Park
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is known to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism. AdipoRon, an orally-active synthetic adiponectin agonist, binds to both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR)1/R2 and ameliorates diabetic complications. Among the lipid metabolites, the ceramide subspecies of sphingolipids have been linked to features of lipotoxicity, including inflammation, cell death, and insulin resistance. We investigated the role of AdipoRon in the prevention and development of type 2 diabetic nephropathy...
February 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B...
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
Ji Hee Lim, Hyung Wook Kim, Min Young Kim, Tae Woo Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Yaeni Kim, Sungjin Chung, Young Soo Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Yong-Soo Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Won Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Apoptosis and autophagy are harmoniously regulated biological processes for maintaining tissue homeostasis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a metabolic sensor to coordinate cellular survival and function in various organs, including the kidney. We investigated the renoprotective effects of cinacalcet in high-glucose treated human glomerular endothelial cells (HGECs), murine podocytes and C57BLKS/J-db/db mice. In cultured HGECs and podocytes, cinacalcet decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis and increased autophagy that were attributed to the increment of intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the phosphorylation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinaseβ (CaMKKβ)-Liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-AMPK and their downstream signals including the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increases in superoxide dismutases and B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2/BCL-2-associated X protein expression...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Xiangshuo Wang, Ling Shi, Junying Zhang, Jue Cheng, Xiaodong Wang
This paper reports a new route to synthesize calcium carbonate (CaCO3)-based nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs) via an in situ formation method to form the CaCO3 nanoparticles with a polysiloxane quaternary ammonium salt (PQAC) corona (PQAC-CaCO3 nanoparticles), followed by an ionic exchange reaction to fabricate a poly(ethylene glycol)-tailed sulfonate anion (NPEP) canopy. The chemical compositions and structures of the CaCO3-based NIMs synthesized in this work were confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Eun Nim Kim, Min Young Kim, Ji Hee Lim, Yaeni Kim, Seok Joon Shin, Cheol Whee Park, Yong-Soo Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Eun Yoon, Bum Soon Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study evaluated the effects of resveratrol on arterial aging and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in mice and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: Aging mice were divided into control and resveratrol groups. Histological changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, RAS components, and the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), and anti-oxidative enzymes was measured in thoracic aortas of 24-month-old mice...
February 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Stefan Meyer, Marek Tulej, Peter Wurz
The exploration of habitable environments around the gas giants in the Solar System is of major interest in upcoming planetary missions. Exactly this theme is addressed by the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), which will characterise Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto as planetary objects and potential habitats. The NIM, Neutral gas and Ion Mass spectrometer, is part of the PEP experiment and will be used to measure the chemical composition of the exospheres of the icy Jovian moons...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Giancarlo Tirelli, Pier Riccardo Bergamini, Alessandro Scardoni, Annalisa Gatto, Francesca Boscolo Nata, Alberto Vito Marcuzzo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of intraoperative nerve integrity monitoring (NIM) to prevent marginal mandibular nerve injuries during neck dissection. METHODS: This prospective study compared 36 patients undergoing NIM-assisted neck dissection from July 2014 to March 2015 to a cohort of 35 patients subjected to neck dissection over an identical period of time before the technique was introduced. We also assessed possible correlations between marginal mandibular nerve injuries and other factors, such as anthropometric measurements, presence of clinical neck metastases, type of neck dissection, and site of primary tumor...
February 1, 2018: Head & Neck
Michael Garton, Satra Nim, Tracy A Stone, Kyle Ethan Wang, Charles M Deber, Philip M Kim
Biologics are a rapidly growing class of therapeutics with many advantages over traditional small molecule drugs. A major obstacle to their development is that proteins and peptides are easily destroyed by proteases and, thus, typically have prohibitively short half-lives in human gut, plasma, and cells. One of the most effective ways to prevent degradation is to engineer analogs from dextrorotary (D)-amino acids, with up to 105-fold improvements in potency reported. We here propose a general peptide-engineering platform that overcomes limitations of previous methods...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dina Bassiouny, Nadia Ismiil, Valerie Dubé, Guangming Han, Matthew Cesari, Fang-I Lu, Elzbieta Slodkowska, Carlos Parra-Herran, Hak Fai Chiu, Magda Naeim, Nim Li, Mahmoud Khalifa, Sharon Nofech-Mozes
The distinction of primary mucinous ovarian carcinoma (PMOC) from other primaries or secondaries is essential for selecting therapeutic options and prognostication. We aimed to characterize the immunohistochemical profile of 36 PMOCs using an extended immunohistochemical panel, with clinicopathologic features and outcome. PAX8 was negative in 30 (83.3%), and SATB2 was negative in 32/35. HNF1B, AMACR, and napsin-A were detected in 33 (91.7%), 35 (97.2%), and 0 (0%), respectively. MMR proteins and ARID1A were retained in 100%; PTEN was lost in 4 (11...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Yaeni Kim, Ji Hee Lim, Min Young Kim, Eun Nim Kim, Hye Eun Yoon, Seok Joon Shin, Bum Soon Choi, Yong-Soo Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Cheol Whee Park
Adiponectin exerts renoprotective effects against diabetic nephropathy (DN) by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor- α (PPAR α ) pathway through adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs). AdipoRon is an orally active synthetic adiponectin receptor agonist. We investigated the expression of AdipoRs and the associated intracellular pathways in 27 patients with type 2 diabetes and examined the effects of AdipoRon on DN development in male C57BLKS/J db/db mice, glomerular endothelial cells (GECs), and podocytes...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Eun Nim Kim, Ji Hee Lim, Min Young Kim, Tae Hyun Ban, In-Ae Jang, Hye Eun Yoon, Cheol Whee Park, Yoon Sik Chang, Bum Soon Choi
BACKGROUND: Two important issues in the aging kidney are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. An Nrf2 activator, resveratrol, is known to have various effects. Resveratrol may prevent inflammation and oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and SIRT1 signaling. We examined whether resveratrol could potentially ameliorate the cellular condition, such as renal injury due to cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by aging. METHODS: Male 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice were used...
January 11, 2018: Aging
James W T Toh, Taina Lee, Corinna Chiong, Grahame Ctercteko, Nim Pathma-Nathan, Toufic El Khoury, Danette Wright, Jennifer King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Patrícia B Deroco, Romeu C Rocha-Filho, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
The first electroanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of an important antibiotic (amoxicillin - AMX) and an anti-inflammatory drug (nimesulide -NIM), widely used in combination, is here proposed. In this method, a glassy carbon (GC) substrate modified with carbon black (CB) immobilized within a dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) film is used as electrochemical sensor (CB-DHP/GC). The electrochemical activity of this sensor was assessed (comparatively to that of GC) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, using the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox couple, when two different active electron transfer regions were clearly characterized...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
Ahmed Elkamhawy, Jung-Eun Park, Ahmed H E Hassan, Ae Nim Pae, Jiyoun Lee, Beoung-Geon Park, Eun Joo Roh
A series of 2-(3-arylureido)pyridines and 2-(3-benzylureido)pyridines were synthesized and evaluated as potential modulators for amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The blocking activities of forty one small molecules against Aβ-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were evaluated by JC-1 assay which measures the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). The inhibitory activity of twenty five compounds against Aβ-induced mPTP opening was superior to that of the standard cyclosporin A (CsA)...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chuanjiang Hu, Bruce C Noll, Charles E Schulz, W Robert Scheidt
The influence of hydrogen binding to the N-H group of coordinated imidazole in high-spin iron(II) porphyrinates has been studied. The preparation and characterization of new complexes based on [Fe(TPP)(2-MeHIm)] (TPP is the dianion of tetraphenylporphyrin) are reported. The hydrogen bond acceptors are ethanol, tetramethylene sulfoxide, and 2-methylimidazole. The last acceptor, 2-MeHIm, was found in a crystalline complex with two [Fe(TPP)(2-MeHIm)] sites, only one of which has the 2-methylimidazole hydrogen bond acceptor...
December 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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