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Takanori Yamada, Ken Sugimoto
Guggulsterone is a plant sterol derived from gum resin of Commiphora wightii. The gum resin from guggul plants has been used for thousand years in Ayurveda to treat various disorders, including internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma, sinuses, edema, and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified a bioactive components of this gum resin. This plant steroid has been reported to work as an antagonist of certain nuclear receptors, especially farnesoid X receptor, which regulates bile acids and cholesterol metabolism...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Arindam Nandi, Devra M Barter, Shankar Prinja, T Jacob John
OBJECTIVE: In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. METHODS: Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Fabrizio Anniballi, Silvia Fillo, Francesco Giordani, Bruna Auricchio, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Enrica di Stefano, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici, Florigio Lista
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions...
October 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Camille Detree, Gustavo Núñez-Acuña, Steven Roberts, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis...
2016: PloS One
Ahmad Ismail
Providing effective pain management is necessary for all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Because of developmental considerations, caring for children may provide additional challenges. The purpose of this literature review is to describe key challenges in providing effective pain management in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), with the aim of bringing about a better understanding by health care providers caring for children. Challenges of providing effective pain management in the PICU can be categorized into four levels...
October 15, 2016: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Alfreda Holloway-Beth, Linda Forst, Julia Lippert, Sherry Brandt-Rauf, Sally Freels, Lee Friedman
BACKGROUND: Current research regarding injuries caused during interactions between police officers and civilians is conducted intermittently or on a very narrow sample frame which provides very little clinical information about the injuries suffered or the adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify comorbid risk factors and describe acute outcomes of medically treated traumatic injuries occurring as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel. METHODS: For this retrospective study, patients injured as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel were identified using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes from medical record databases of patients treated in all hospitals and trauma units in Illinois between 2000 and 2009...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Bożena Kosztyła-Hojna, Anna Kraszewska, Anna Łobaczuk-Sitnik, Diana Moskal, Dawid Falkowski, Jolanta Biszewska, Greta Berger
: Paralytic dysphonia is the most serious neurogenic pathology of voice quality. An important issue is to identify methods which support routine treatment. AIM: The aim of the study is to assess voice quality after electrostimulation (ES) therapy in patients with paralytic dysphonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The group consisted of 40 patients diagnosed at the Department of Clinical Phonoaudiology and Logopedics and then treated at the Phoniatric Outpatient Clinic of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland in years 2013-2015...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Zhuoran Zhang, Enzhuo Yang, Chunmiao Hu, Han Cheng, Crystal Y Chen, Dan Huang, Richard Wang, Yue Zhao, Lijun Rong, Marco Vignuzzi, Hongbo Shen, Ling Shen, Zheng W Chen
While we are approaching the global eradication of circulating wild-type polioviruses(PV), vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to emergence of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Complete cessation of all poliovirus infections may require stopping use of OPV and formulating improved vaccines and new antiviral drugs. Currently, no licensed drugs are available to treat chronically infected poliovirus excretors. Here, we created a modified PV expressing Gaussia Luciferase (PV-GLuc) and developed a cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) antiviral assay...
October 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Alan C Jackson
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is usually transmitted to humans by animal bites. Dogs are the most important vector worldwide. There are encephalitic and paralytic forms of the disease. There are differences in the clinical features of the disease acquired from dogs and bats. Neuroimaging is non-specific. Confirmatory diagnostic laboratory tests for rabies include detection of neutralizing anti-rabies virus antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid and rabies virus antigen or RNA in tissues or fluids. Rabies is preventable after recognized exposures with wound cleansing and administration of rabies vaccine and rabies immune globulin...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Rahul Bhat, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Christie Sun, Janelle Vaughns, Maria Dynin, Eshetu Tefera, Daryn Towle, Munish Goyal
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data regarding appropriateness of sedative and paralytic dosing of obese patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation (RSI) in the emergency department. The goal of this study was to compare rates of appropriate succinylcholine and etomidate doses in obese and nonobese patients. METHODS: Retrospective review using a database of endotracheally intubated patients using RSI in an urban, tertiary care academic emergency department, from November 2009 to June 2011...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Vittoria Roncalli, Jefferson T Turner, David Kulis, Donald M Anderson, Petra H Lenz
Inshore and offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine (USA) have spring/summer harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with A. fundyense during the seasonal blooms. At that time, C. finmarchicus population abundances are high, dominated by immature copepods preparing for diapause, and by actively-reproducing adults. High survival has been reported for copepods exposed to toxic A...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Angela Hua, Stephen Haight, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is the leading cause of injury-related fatality in the United States, and respiratory failure remains a major source of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors for endotracheal intubation after acute drug overdose. METHODS: This secondary data analysis was performed on a 5-year prospective cohort at two urban tertiary-care hospitals. The present study analyzed adult patients with suspected acute drug overdose to derive independent clinical predictors of endotracheal intubation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been investigated. Given the known role of cellular electrical activity in neurodevelopment this pattern of exposure may be a significant public health concern...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Roy W A Peake, Victoria Y Zhang, Nina Azcue, Christina E Hartigan, Aida Shkreta, Jasmina Prabhakara, Charles B Berde, Mark D Kellogg
Neosaxitoxin, a member of the saxitoxin family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has shown potential as an effective, long-acting, anesthetic. We describe the development and validation of a highly sensitive method for measurement of neosaxitoxin in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and provide evidence for its use in a human pharmacokinetic study. Samples were prepared using cation exchange solid phase extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and MS/MS detection in positive electrospray ionization mode...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Stacy Evans, Erica Yager, Leonie Sutherland, Marty Downey
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Viewing the surgical patient holistically within their environment of care, the bedside nurse is aware of the possible complication of postoperative paralytic ileus that can lead to patient discomfort and increased medical costs. Acute care nurses observed postoperative patients watching televised cooking shows on a consistent basis and questioned if there was a mind-body link between bowel function and watching cooking shows. DESIGN OF STUDY: The study used an observational approach to examine the return of bowel sounds for postoperative patients...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
S Nishioka, H Wakabayashi, T Yoshida
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although malnutrition commonly affects stroke patients, there are no validated screening tools. We verified the usefulness of non-paralytic anthropometric measurements for the nutritional screening of stroke. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in consecutive stroke patients with hemiplegia aged ⩾65 years, with Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form score ⩽11. Diagnostic malnutrition criteria from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism were the reference standards: body mass index (BMI) <18...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
T Schrom, R Amberg, F Bast
PURPOSE: Plastic surgery on the eyelids for the purpose of aesthetic or functional correction requires precise knowledge of lid anatomy. Changes in the tarsal curvature of the upper eyelid relative to line of vision are important, particularly when a surgical correction of paralytic lagophthalmos is undertaken. We used a computer-based image-processing algorithm to establish a relationship between changes in the curvature of the tarsus relative to the line of vision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dynamic, ultrasound examination of the upper eyelids of 100 participants (100 eyes) was performed transpalpebrally using a 7...
March 2016: Ultrasound Int Open
Kevin A McCarthy, Guillaume Chabot-Couture, Faisal Shuaib
BACKGROUND: Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, all but three countries (Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan) have apparently interrupted all wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission, and only one of three wild serotypes has been reported globally since 2012. Countrywide supplemental immunization campaigns in Nigeria produced dramatic reduction in WPV Type 1 paralysis cases since 2010 compared to the 2000's, and WPV1 has not been observed in Nigeria since July 24, 2014...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lauri Pautola, Tapio Hakala
BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal necrosis or Gurvits syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by necrotic esophageal mucosa with an abrupt end at the gastroesophageal junction. Its etiology is multifactorial, but mainly related to low-flow states. We describe a case in which a patient accidentally took the wrong medication, with clozapine and olanzapine most probably being the cause of his subsequent acute esophageal necrosis. This situation is, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented in the medical literature...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Susanna Esposito, Maria Roberta Longo
The term Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the most frequent cause of acute paralytic neuropathy, covers a number of recognisably distinct variants. The exact cause of GBS is unknown, but 50-70% of cases appear 1-2weeks after a respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, or another immune stimulus that induces an aberrant autoimmune response targeting peripheral nerves and their spinal roots. The interplay between the microbial and host factors that dictate whether and how the immune response shifts towards autoreactivity is still unclear, and nothing is known about the genetic and environmental factors that affect an individual's susceptibility to the disease...
September 23, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
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