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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340348/the-evolutionary-pathway-to-virulence-of-an-rna-virus
#1
Adi Stern, Ming Te Yeh, Tal Zinger, Matt Smith, Caroline Wright, Guy Ling, Rasmus Nielsen, Andrew Macadam, Raul Andino
Paralytic polio once afflicted almost half a million children each year. The attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) has enabled world-wide vaccination efforts, which resulted in nearly complete control of the disease. However, poliovirus eradication is hampered globally by epidemics of vaccine-derived polio. Here, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental strategy that describes the molecular events leading from OPV to virulent strains. We discover that similar evolutionary events occur in most epidemics...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326013/molecular-chaperone-calnexin-regulates-the-function-of-drosophila-sodium-channel-paralytic
#2
Xi Xiao, Changyan Chen, Tian-Ming Yu, Jiayao Ou, Menglong Rui, Yuanfen Zhai, Yijing He, Lei Xue, Margaret S Ho
Neuronal activity mediated by voltage-gated channels provides the basis for higher-order behavioral tasks that orchestrate life. Chaperone-mediated regulation, one of the major means to control protein quality and function, is an essential route for controlling channel activity. Here we present evidence that Drosophila ER chaperone Calnexin colocalizes and interacts with the α subunit of sodium channel Paralytic. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that Calnexin interacts with Paralytic protein variants that contain glycosylation sites Asn313, 325, 343, 1463, and 1482...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325641/spectrum-of-nondystrophic-skeletal-muscle-channelopathies-in-children
#3
Fouad Al-Ghamdi, Basil T Darras, Partha S Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The nondystrophic skeletal muscle channelopathies are a group of disorders caused by mutations of various voltage-gated ion channel genes, including nondystrophic myotonia and periodic paralysis. METHODS: We identified patients with a diagnosis of muscle channelopathy from our neuromuscular database in a tertiary care pediatric center from 2005 to 2015. We then performed a retrospective review of their medical records for demographic characteristics, clinical features, investigations, treatment, and follow-up...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296531/risk-factors-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-cohort-of-20-575-arthroplasty-patients
#4
Pyry Jämsä, Esa Jämsen, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Jarkko Kalliovalkama, Antti Eskelinen, Niku Oksala
Background and purpose - Patients developing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) are at risk of higher morbidity and mortality. In arthroplasty patients, many pre- and perioperative factors are associated with AKI but some of the risk factors are unclear. We report the incidence of postoperative AKI, the conditions associated with it, and survival rates in AKI patients. Patients and methods - We obtained data from 20,575 consecutive hip or knee arthroplasties. Postoperative AKI, occurring within 7 days after the operation, was defined using the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage (RIFLE) criteria...
March 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293157/thyrotoxic-periodic-paralysis-a-case-report
#5
Barakat Lafi G Al Moteri, Mohammad Aslam
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism characterized by episodes of muscle weakness and hypokalemia. TPP is typically present in young Asian men, female, and non-Asian ethnic group can also be affected. TPP is a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Factors such as high carbohydrate diet, strenuous exercise, emotional stress, and steroid can precipitate an attack of TPP. The presence of both hypokalemia and elevated level of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are important diagnostic features during the acute episode...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291204/-staged-complex-treatment-of-paralytic-lagophthalmos-case-report
#6
M B Gushchina, S A Mal'kov, E V Kovshun, N S Yuzhakova
Paralytic lagophthalmos, resulting from facial nerve palsy, is a difficult medical and social issue that requires cooperation of different specialists. Complications that arise in paralytic lagophthalmos may cause significant vision loss and even eye loss. Various techniques of paralytic lagophthalmos correction are used to protect the cornea and restore eyelid anatomy and functions. These comprise palliative (conservative), surgical, and alternative treatments (such as botulinum toxin type A therapy). Surgical treatment of paralytic lagophthalmos patients often has to be staged and complex...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283373/dynamics-affecting-the-risk-of-silent-circulation-when-oral-polio-vaccination-is-stopped
#7
J S Koopman, C J Henry, J H Park, M C Eisenberg, E L Ionides, J N Eisenberg
Waning immunity could allow transmission of polioviruses without causing poliomyelitis by promoting silent circulation (SC). Undetected SC when oral polio vaccine (OPV) use is stopped could cause difficult to control epidemics. Little is known about waning. To develop theory about what generates SC, we modeled a range of waning patterns. We varied both OPV and wild polio virus (WPV) transmissibility, the time from beginning vaccination to reaching low polio levels, and the infection to paralysis ratio (IPR)...
March 1, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280671/application-of-kuhnt-szymanowski-procedure-to-lower-eyelid-margin-defect-after-tumor-resection
#8
Ayato Hayashi, Mariko Mochizuki, Tomoki Kamimori, Masatoshi Horiguchi, Rica Tanaka, Hiroshi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Lower eyelid reconstruction after tumor removal is always challenging, and full-thickness defects beyond half of the eyelid length require a flap from a part other than the remaining lower eyelid, such as the temporal area or the cheek. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report our experience of applying Smith-modified Kuhnt-Szymanowski, one of the most popular procedures for paralytic ectropion, for reconstructing oblong full-thickness lower eyelid margin defect...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272029/intraoperative-continuous-intestinal-loop-warming-technique-a-prospective-randomised-trial
#9
Francesco Rulli, Mario Stefani, Myftar Torba, Arvin Dibra, Erina Alushi, Filadelfo Coniglione, Mostafa Shalaby, Pierpaolo Sileri
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate if the Intraoperative Continuous Intestinal Loop Warming (ICLW) is a valid trick to decrease the postoperative paralytic ileus. METHODS: The subjects were patients who underwent emergency open abdominal surgery for either benign or malignant diseases. Patients were divided into two groups; group A patients who was secluded for ICLW, and a control group B who was not secluded for ICLW. The primary outcomes were the time of recovery of bowel movement, 30 days postoperative mortality and morbidity, morbidity was graded by the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications...
March 8, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270958/laparoscopic-donor-nephrectomy-complications-and-management-a-single-center-experience
#10
Volkan Tuğcu, Selçuk Şahin, İsmail Yiğitbaşı, Nevzat Can Şener, Fatih Gökhan Akbay, Ali İhsan Taşçı
OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN), our complications and management modalities. Material and methods: Fifty-one transperitoneal LDNs performed in our clinic between the years 2011, and 2015, were evaluated retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of the patients, operative and postoperative data and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Nineteen female and 32 male patients with ages ranging from 24 to 65 years underwent left- (n=44), and right-sided (n=7) LDNs...
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269361/data-fusion-of-multiple-kinect-sensors-for-a-rehabilitation-system
#11
Huibin Du, Yiwen Zhao, Jianda Han, Zheng Wang, Guoli Song
Kinect-like depth sensors have been widely used in rehabilitation systems. However, single depth sensor processes limb-blocking, data loss or data error poorly, making it less reliable. This paper focus on using two Kinect sensors and data fusion method to solve these problems. First, two Kinect sensors capture the motion data of the healthy arm of the hemiplegic patient; Second, merge the data using the method of Set-Membership-Filter (SMF); Then, mirror this motion data by the Middle-Plane; In the end, control the wearable robotic arm driving the patient's paralytic arm so that the patient can interactively and initiatively complete a variety of recovery actions prompted by computer with 3D animation games...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260503/in-vivo-neutralization-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-e-using-rabbit-polyclonal-antibody-developed-against-bont-e-light-chain
#12
Sarita Sarita, Ponmariappan Sarkaraisamy, Arti Sharma, D V Kamboj, A K Jain
Clostridium botulinum is an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium that secretes extremely toxic substances known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) that cause serious paralytic illness called botulism. Based upon the serological properties, these neurotoxin have been classified into seven serotypes designated from A to G. Due to extreme toxicity of BoNTs, these neurotoxins have been designated as category A biowarfare agents. There is no commercial neutralizing antibody available for the treatment of botulism...
March 1, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252584/-the-constitutional-approach-to-the-choice-of-the-surgical-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-post-traumatic-laryngeal-stenoses
#13
S V Starostina
We have developed the algorithm for the choice of the surgical strategy for the treatment of chronic post-traumatic laryngeal stenosis with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the management of the patients presenting with this condition. The proposed approach envisages obtaining anthropometric characteristics of the patients, determination of the type of his (her) neck and constitution, construction of the regressive models of the clinically significant laryngometric parameters based on the results of the clinical observations including the dimensions of the glottal fissure and the position of the vocal folds, calculations of the size of the autotransplant and the length of the T-shaped tube based on the results of the mathematical analysis of the anthropo- and organometric characteristics of the concrete patient, the laryngoplastic and prosthetic treatment of the newly formed laryngo-tracheal passage...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241803/predator-cues-reduce-intraspecific-trait-variability-in-a-marine-dinoflagellate
#14
Sylke Wohlrab, Erik Selander, U John
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity is commonplace and enables an organism to respond to variations in the environment. Plastic responses often modify a suite of traits and can be triggered by both abiotic and biotic changes. Here we analysed the plastic response towards a grazer of two genotypes of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, evaluated the similarity of this response and discuss potential strain-specific trade-offs. We compared the expression of the known inducible defensive traits paralytic shellfish toxin content, and chain length...
February 27, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#15
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230783/acute-toxicities-of-the-saxitoxin-congeners-gonyautoxin-5-gonyautoxin-6-decarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2-3-decarbamoyl-neosaxitoxin-c-1-2-and-c-3-4-to-mice-by-various-routes-of-administration
#16
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227603/data-fusion-of-multiple-kinect-sensors-for-a-rehabilitation-system
#17
Huibin Du, Yiwen Zhao, Jianda Han, Zheng Wang, Guoli Song, Huibin Du, Yiwen Zhao, Jianda Han, Zheng Wang, Guoli Song, Guoli Song, Yiwen Zhao, Huibin Du, Jianda Han, Zheng Wang
Kinect-like depth sensors have been widely used in rehabilitation systems. However, single depth sensor processes limb-blocking, data loss or data error poorly, making it less reliable. This paper focus on using two Kinect sensors and data fusion method to solve these problems. First, two Kinect sensors capture the motion data of the healthy arm of the hemiplegic patient; Second, merge the data using the method of Set-Membership-Filter (SMF); Then, mirror this motion data by the Middle-Plane; In the end, control the wearable robotic arm driving the patient's paralytic arm so that the patient can interactively and initiatively complete a variety of recovery actions prompted by computer with 3D animation games...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224710/extended-low-dose-exposure-to-saxitoxin-inhibits-neurite-outgrowth-in-model-neuronal-cells
#18
Katie O'Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage
The potent neurotoxin saxitoxin (STX) belongs to a group of structurally related analogues produced by both marine and freshwater phytoplankton. The toxins act by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels stopping the inflow of sodium ions and the generation of action potentials. Exposure from marine sources occurs as a result of consuming shellfish which have concentrated the toxins, and freshwater exposure can occur from drinking water although there have been no acute poisonings from the latter source to date...
April 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220074/involvement-of-cannabinoid-signaling-in-vincristine-induced-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-in-the-rat
#19
Gema Vera, Ana E López-Pérez, José A Uranga, Rocío Girón, Ma Isabel Martín-Fontelles, Raquel Abalo
Background: In different models of paralytic ileus, cannabinoid receptors are overexpressed and endogenous cannabinoids are massively released, contributing to gastrointestinal dysmotility. The antitumoral drug vincristine depresses gastrointestinal motility and a similar mechanism could participate in this effect. Therefore, our aim was to determine, using CB1 and CB2 antagonists, whether an increased endocannabinoid tone is involved in vincristine-induced gastrointestinal ileus. Methods: First, we confirmed the effects of vincristine on the gut mucosa, by conventional histological techniques, and characterized its effects on motility, by radiographic means...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211790/flpstop-a-tool-for-conditional-gene-control-in-drosophila
#20
Yvette E Fisher, Helen H Yang, Jesse Isaacman-Beck, Marjorie Xie, Daryl M Gohl, Thomas R Clandinin
Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development...
February 17, 2017: ELife
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