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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918229/design-of-modified-botulinum-neurotoxin-a1-variants-with-a-shorter-persistence-of-paralysis-and-duration-of-action
#1
Daniel Scheps, Manuela López de la Paz, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are classified by their antigenic properties into seven serotypes (A-G) and in addition by their corresponding subtypes. They are further characterized by divergent onset and duration of effect. Injections of low doses of botulinum neurotoxins cause localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the treatment of several medical disorders and aesthetic indications. Optimizing the therapeutic properties could offer new treatment opportunities. This report describes a rational design approach to modify the pharmacological properties by mutations in the C-terminus of BoNT/A1 light chain (LC)...
September 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917804/development-and-validation-of-a-maleimide-based-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-the-detection-of-tetrodotoxin-in-oysters-and-mussels
#2
Laia Reverté, Maria Rambla-Alegre, Sandra Leonardo, Carlos Bellés, Katrina Campbell, Christopher T Elliott, Arjen Gerssen, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Jorge Diogène, Mònica Campàs
The recent detection of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) in puffer fish and shellfish in Europe highlights the necessity to monitor the levels of TTXs in seafood by rapid, specific, sensitive and reliable methods in order to protect human consumers. A previous immunoassay for TTX detection in puffer fish, based on the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for the immobilization of TTX on maleimide plates (mELISA), has been modified and adapted to the analysis of oyster and mussel samples. Changing dithiol for cysteamine-based SAMs enabled reductions in the assay time and cost, while maintaining the sensitivity of the assay...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916318/matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-in-campylobacter-jejuni-induced-paralytic-neuropathy-resembling-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-chickens
#3
Kishan Kumar Nyati, Kashi Nath Prasad, Vinita Agrawal, Nuzhat Husain
Inflammation in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is manifested by changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. We investigated the expression of MMP-2, -9 and TNF-α and correlated it with pathological changes in sciatic nerve tissue from Campylobacter jejuni-induced chicken model for GBS. Campylobacter jejuni and placebo were fed to chickens and assessed for disease symptoms. Sciatic nerves were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Expressions of MMPs and TNF-α, were determined by real-time PCR, and activities of MMPs by zymography...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916122/myasthenia-gravis-and-crisis-evaluation-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#4
Jamie Roper, M Emily Fleming, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction and manifesting as muscle weakness. A multitude of stressors can exacerbate MG. When symptoms are exacerbated, muscle weakness can be severe enough to result in respiratory failure, a condition known as myasthenic crisis (MC). OBJECTIVE: This review discusses risk factors, diagnosis, management, and iatrogenic avoidance of MC. DISCUSSION: MC can affect any age, ethnicity, or sex and can be precipitated with any stressor, infection being the most common...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904218/early-onset-sixth-nerve-palsy-with-eccentric-fixation
#5
Kaajal D Nanda, Eve Lacey, Alki Liasis, Ken K Nischal
PURPOSE: To report four cases of early onset sixth-nerve palsy all of whom had eccentric fixation. METHODS: A retrospective case note review was undertaken of all cases presenting to the senior author's private and NHS practice with early onset sixth palsy between 2006 and 2012. As well as demographic information, details of ophthalmic, orthoptic, electrophysiological examinations, and radiological investigations that were extracted from the records. RESULTS: Four children with unilateral or asymmetric early onset sixth-nerve palsy were identified, of which three were congenital...
January 2017: American Orthoptic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895162/laryngeal-emg-preferential-damage-of-the-posterior-cricoarytenoid-muscle-branches-especially-in-iatrogenic-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-lesions
#6
Gerhard Foerster, Andreas H Mueller
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle alone may not be sufficient in all patients to characterize or prove a recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lesion in cases of vocal fold immobility. LEMG of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle may provide additional information. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHOD: Between 2008 and 2016, 339 patients in our laryngeal paralysis clinic were examined by transcutaneous needle TA-LEMG and, if tolerated, by PCA-LEMG...
September 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890193/evaluating-cessation-of-the-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-by-modeling-pre-and-post-cessation-detection-rates
#7
Steve J Kroiss, Michael Famulare, Hil Lyons, Kevin A McCarthy, Laina D Mercer, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
The globally synchronized removal of the attenuated Sabin type 2 strain from the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in April 2016 marked a major change in polio vaccination policy. This change will provide a significant reduction in the burden of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), but may increase the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreaks during the transition period. This risk can be monitored by tracking the disappearance of Sabin-like type 2 (SL2) using data from the polio surveillance system...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884655/screening-for-the-presence-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-in-shellfish-samples-using-the-neuro-2a-bioassay
#8
Marcia Bodero, Toine F H Bovee, Si Wang, Ron L A P Hoogenboom, Mirjam D Klijnstra, Liza Portier, Peter J M Hendriksen, Arjen Gerssen
The neuro-2a bioassay is considered as one of the most promising cell-based in vitro bioassays for the broad screening of seafood products for the presence of marine biotoxins. The neuro-2a assay has been shown to detect a wide array of toxins like paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), ciguatoxins, and also lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMBs). However, the neuro-2a assay is rarely used for routine testing of samples due to matrix effects that, for example, lead to false positives when testing for LMBs. As a result there are only limited data on validation and evaluation of its performance on real samples...
September 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864831/ultrastructural-features-of-aberrant-glial-cells-isolated-from-the-spinal-cord-of-paralytic-rats-expressing-the-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-linked-sod1g93a-mutation
#9
Marcie Jiménez-Riani, Pablo Díaz-Amarilla, Eugenia Isasi, Gabriela Casanova, Luis Barbeito, Silvia Olivera-Bravo
In the rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis expressing the G93A superoxide dismutase-1 mutation, motor neuron death and rapid paralysis progression are associated with the emergence of a population of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) that proliferate in the degenerating spinal cord. Targeting of AbAs with anti-neoplasic drugs reduced paralysis progression, suggesting a pathogenic potential contribution of these cells accelerating paralysis progression. In the present study, analyze the cellular and ultrastructural features of AbAs following their isolation and establishment in culture during several passages...
September 2, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862257/outcomes-of-lower-eyelid-retractor-recession-and-lateral-horn-lysis-in-lower-eyelid-elevation-for-facial-nerve-palsy
#10
P Tan, J Wong, W F Siah, R Malhotra
PurposeTo report outcomes and complications of lower eyelid retractor recession and lateral horn lysis (RR) for lower eyelid elevation in patients with facial nerve palsy (FNP).Patients and methodsRetrospective review. Patients with FNP undergoing RR alone (group 1) or with adjunctive procedures (canthal suspension-group 2, tarsorrhaphy-group 3, and full-thickness skin graft-group 4) during a 5-year period were included. Patient demographics, lagophthalmos, occurrence of eyelid malpositions, recurrent retraction, and repeat procedures were noted from medical records...
September 1, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857175/elevated-resting-h-current-in-the-r1239h-type-1-hypokalemic-periodic-paralysis-mutated-ca-2-channel
#11
Clarisse Fuster, Jimmy Perrot, Christine Berthier, Vincent Jacquemond, Bruno Allard
Missense mutations in the gene encoding the α1 subunit of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel induce type 1 Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis, a poorly understood neuromuscular disease characterized by episodic attacks of paralysis associated with low serum K(+) . The present study aimed at identifying the changes in muscle fibre electrical properties induced by acute expression of the R1239H Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis human mutant α1 subunit of Ca(2+) channels in a mature muscle environment to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851479/detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters-using-the-qualitative-neogen-lateral-flow-immunoassay-an-interlaboratory-study
#12
Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Jessica Y C Tan, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, Sarah C Ugalde, D Tim Harwood, Jill K Bartlett, Mònica Campàs, Steven Crooks, Arjen Gerssen, Keith Harrison, Anne-Catherine Huet, Timothy B Jordan, Martina Koeberl, Tim Monaghan, Sam Murray, Rama Nimmagadda, Corinne Ooms, Rae K Quinlan, Feng Shi, Andrew D Turner, Betsy Jean Yakes, Alison R Turnbull
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve molluscs represent a public health risk and are controlled via compliance with a regulatory limit of 0.8 mg saxitoxin (STX)⋅2HCl equivalents per kilogram of shellfish meat (eq/kg). Shellfish industries would benefit from the use of rapid immunological screening tests for PSTs to be used for regulation, but to date none have been fully validated. An interlaboratory study involving 16 laboratories was performed to determine the suitability of the Neogen test to detect PSTs in mussels and oysters...
August 30, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842414/the-atypical-map-kinase-swip-13-erk8-regulates-dopamine-transporters-through-a-rho-dependent-mechanism
#13
Daniel P Bermingham, J Andrew Hardaway, Osama Refai, Christian R Marks, Sam L Snider, Sarah M Sturgeon, William C Spencer, Roger J Colbran, David M Miller, Randy D Blakely
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) regulates multiple behaviors across phylogeny, with disrupted DA signaling in humans associated with addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. The DA transporter (DAT) imposes spatial and temporal limits on DA action, and provides for presynaptic DA recycling to replenish neurotransmitter pools. Molecular mechanisms that regulate DAT expression, trafficking and function, particularly in vivo, remain poorly understood, though recent studies have implicated Rho-linked pathways in psychostimulant action...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838179/implementing-the-synchronized-global-switch-from-trivalent-to-bivalent-oral-polio-vaccines-lessons-learned-from-the-global-perspective
#14
Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Margaret Farrell, Lisa Menning, Julie Garon, Hans Everts, Lee M Hampton, Samantha B Dolan, Stephanie Shendale, Sarah Wanyoike, Chantal Laroche Veira, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Feyrouz Kurji, Jennifer Rubin, Liliane Boualam, Diana Chang Blanc, Manish Patel
In 2015, the Global Commission for the Certification of Polio Eradication certified the eradication of type 2 wild poliovirus, 1 of 3 wild poliovirus serotypes causing paralytic polio since the beginning of recorded history. This milestone was one of the key criteria prompting the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to begin withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV), beginning with the type 2 component (OPV2), through a globally synchronized initiative in April and May 2016 that called for all OPV using countries and territories to simultaneously switch from use of trivalent OPV (tOPV; containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (bOPV; containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus), thus withdrawing OPV2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838178/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-and-trivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-bivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-switch-in-the-african-region
#15
Carol Tevi-Benissan, Joseph Okeibunor, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Afework Assefa, Joseph Nsiari-Muzenyi Biey, Dah Cheikh, Messeret Eshetu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Halima Dao, Yusuf Nasir, Bartholomew Dicky Akanmori, Richard Mihigo
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic plan outlines the phased removal of oral polio vaccines (OPVs), starting with type 2 poliovirus-containing vaccine and introduction of inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization to mitigate against risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus. The objective includes strengthening routine immunization as the primary pillar to sustaining high population immunity. After 2 years without reporting any wild poliovirus (July 2014-2016), the region undertook the synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) as recommended by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831334/simultaneous-surgical-treatment-for-smile-dysfunction-and-lagophthalmos-involving-a-dual-latissimus-dorsi-flap
#16
Tsutomu Homma, Mutsumi Okazaki, Kentaro Tanaka, Noriko Uemura
Paralytic lagophthalmos and smile dysfunction are serious complications of facial paralysis and various reconstructive procedures have been developed to treat them. Among these procedures, there is no doubt that dynamic procedures are more effective than static ones. The 1-stage simultaneous surgical treatment of these 2 dysfunctions with a dynamic procedure involving a single muscle would be ideal, but no such methods have been reported. In this article, we present a 1-stage method for the simultaneous surgical treatment involving the use of a dual latissimus dorsi muscle flap...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820049/receptor-binding-assay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-comparison-to-the-mouse-bioassay-and-applicability-under-regulatory-use
#17
Shiyamalie R Ruberu, Gregg W Langlois, Melisa Masuda, Clive Kittredge, S Kusum Perera, Raphael M Kudela
The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv...
August 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813578/incomitance-and-eye-dominance-in-intermittent-exotropia
#18
Daniel L Adams, John R Economides, Jonathan C Horton
Purpose: To determine if the deviation angle changes in subjects with intermittent exotropia as they alternate fixation between the right and left eye in primary gaze. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 37 subjects with intermittent exotropia were tested for evidence of incomitance. The position of each eye was recorded with a video tracker during fixation on a small central target. A cover-uncover test was performed by occluding one eye with a shutter that passed infrared light, allowing continuous tracking of both eyes...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806552/exposure-of-engineered-nanoparticles-to-alexandrium-tamarense-dinophyceae-healthy-impacts-of-nanoparticles-via-toxin-producing-dinoflagellate
#19
Manlu Li, Daoyi Chen, Yang Liu, Chia Ying Chuang, Fanzhou Kong, Paul J Harrison, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang
Human activities can enhance the frequency, intensity and occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), contained in many materials, will inevitably enter coastal waters and thus cause unpredictable impacts on aquatic organisms. However, knowledge of the influence of ENPs on HAB species is still lacking. In this study, we examined the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (nAl2O3) on physiological changes and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) production of Alexandrium tamarense...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797318/single-laboratory-validation-of-the-neogen-qualitative-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters
#20
Alison R Turnbull, Jessica Y C Tan, Sarah C Ugalde, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, D Tim Harwood, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish by analytical methods is complicated and costly, requiring specific expertise and equipment. Following extensive blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 in Tasmania, Australia, an investigation was made into commercially available screening test kits suitable for use with the toxin profiles found in affected bivalves. The qualitative Neogen rapid test kit, with a modified protocol to convert gonyautoxins GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 into neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX), respectively, with higher cross-reactivities, was the best fit-for-purpose...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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