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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806552/exposure-of-engineered-nanoparticles-to-alexandrium-tamarense-dinophyceae-healthy-impacts-of-nanoparticles-via-toxin-producing-dinoflagellate
#1
Manlu Li, Daoyi Chen, Yang Liu, Chia Ying Chuang, Fanzhou Kong, Paul J Harrison, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang
Human activities can enhance the frequency, intensity and occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), contained in many materials, will inevitably enter coastal waters and thus cause unpredictable impacts on aquatic organisms. However, knowledge of the influence of ENPs on HAB species is still lacking. In this study, we examined the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (nAl2O3) on physiological changes and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) production of Alexandrium tamarense...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797318/single-laboratory-validation-of-the-neogen-qualitative-lateral-flow-immunoassay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-in-mussels-and-oysters
#2
Alison R Turnbull, Jessica Y C Tan, Sarah C Ugalde, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, D Tim Harwood, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish by analytical methods is complicated and costly, requiring specific expertise and equipment. Following extensive blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 in Tasmania, Australia, an investigation was made into commercially available screening test kits suitable for use with the toxin profiles found in affected bivalves. The qualitative Neogen rapid test kit, with a modified protocol to convert gonyautoxins GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 into neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX), respectively, with higher cross-reactivities, was the best fit-for-purpose...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796463/defensin-neurotoxin-dyad-in-a-basally-branching-metazoan-sea-anemone
#3
Chan-Hee Kim, Ye Jin Lee, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Tae Kwan Lee, Ji Been Park, Nam Gyu Park
Recent studies suggest that vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have evolved from two independent ancestors, and that both defensins could share origins with animal toxins. Here, we purified novel sea anemone neurotoxin (BDS)-like antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)-Crassicorin-I and its putative homolog (Crassicorin-II)-from the pharynx extract of an anthozoan sea anemone (Urticina crassicornis). Based on structural analyses and cDNA cloning, mature Crassicorin-I represents a cationic AMP likely generated from a precursor and comprising 40 amino acid residues, including six cysteines forming three intramolecular disulphide bonds...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794593/laparoscopic-assisted-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-with-ectopic-pelvic-kidney
#4
Sujata K Patwardhan, Umesh Ravikant Shelke, Bhushan P Patil, Yash R Pamecha
PURPOSE: Patients with deranged renal functions have a number of associated factors which can impair healing of wound and increase postoperative morbidity. This study was conducted to assess the problems while managing ectopic pelvic kidney calculi using laparoscopic approach for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in chronic kidney disease patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients with calculi in ectopic kidney with increased serum creatinine level secondary to obstruction were included in the study...
July 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793388/morphological-molecular-and-toxin-analysis-of-field-populations-of-alexandrium-genus-from-the-argentina-sea
#5
Elena Fabro, Gastón O Almandoz, Martha Ferrario, Uwe John, Urban Tillmann, Kerstin Toebe, Bernd Krock, Allan Cembella
In the Argentine Sea, blooms of toxigenic dinoflagellates of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex have led to fish and bird mortalities and human deaths as a consequence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Yet little is known about the occurrence of other toxigenic species of the genus Alexandrium, or of their toxin composition beyond coastal waters. The distribution of Alexandrium species and related toxins in the Argentine Sea was determined by sampling surface waters on an oceanographic expedition during austral spring from ~39 to 48º S...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783115/a-novel-surface-plasmon-resonance-biosensor-for-the-rapid-detection-of-botulinum-neurotoxins
#6
Kruti Patel, Shmuel Halevi, Paul Melman, John Schwartz, Shuowei Cai, Bal Ram Singh
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are Category A agents on the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) priority pathogen list owing to their extreme toxicity and the relative ease of production. These deadly toxins, in minute quantities (estimated human i.v. lethal dose LD50 of 1-2 ng/kg body weight), cause fatal flaccid paralysis by blocking neurotransmitter release. The current gold standard detection method, the mouse-bioassay, often takes days to confirm botulism. Furthermore, there are no effective antidotes known to reverse the symptoms of botulism, and as a result, patients with severe botulism often require meticulous care during the prolonged paralytic illness...
August 7, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775316/efficient-functional-neutralization-of-lethal-peptide-toxins-in-vivo-by-oligonucleotides
#7
Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, Corinne Ravelet, Jordi Molgo, Emmanuelle Fiore, Simon Pale, Muriel Amar, Sawsan Al-Khoury, Jérôme Dejeu, Mahmoud Fadl, Michel Ronjat, Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Denis Servent, Eric Peyrin, Michel De Waard
Medical means to save the life of human patients affected by drug abuse, envenomation or critical poisoning are currently limited. While the compounds at risks are most often well identified, particularly for bioterrorism, chemical intervention to counteract the toxic effects of the ingested/injected compound(s) is restricted to the use of antibodies. Herein, we illustrate that DNA aptamers, targeted to block the pharmacophore of a poisonous compound, represent a fast-acting and reliable method of neutralization in vivo that possesses efficient and long-lasting life-saving properties...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742803/the-role-of-supplementary-environmental-surveillance-to-complement-acute-flaccid-paralysis-surveillance-for-wild-poliovirus-in-pakistan-2011-2013
#8
Tori L Cowger, Cara C Burns, Salmaan Sharif, Howard E Gary, Jane Iber, Elizabeth Henderson, Farzana Malik, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Shahzad Shaukat, Lubna Rehman, Mark A Pallansch, Walter A Orenstein
BACKGROUND: More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742434/use-of-regional-anesthesia-techniques-analysis-of-institutional-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-protocols-for-colorectal-surgery
#9
Erik M Helander, Michael P Webb, Meghan Bias, Edward E Whang, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
INTRODUCTION: Principles of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS(®)) protocols are well established, with the primary goal of optimizing perioperative care and recovery. The use of multimodal analgesia is a key component of these protocols, including regional analgesia techniques such as thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), transversus abdominis plane (TAP), rectus sheath blocks or continuous wound infiltration (CWI)/catheters, and spinal anesthesia. We compare and contrast regional anesthesia approaches in different institutional colorectal surgery ERAS protocols...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738914/characterization-of-group-b-coxsackieviruses-isolated-from-non-polio-acute-flaccid-paralysis-patients-in-pakistan-vital-assessment-before-polio-eradication
#10
M Angez, S Shaukat, R Zahra, M M Alam, S Sharif, A Khurshid, Y Arshad, M Suleman, G Mujtaba, S S Z Zaidi
Pakistan is at the verge of polio eradication but isolation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases may result in serious or even fatal outcome. Many enteroviruses share similar symptoms and epidemiology as is the case with poliovirus and coxsackievirus (CV). The present study was designed to genetically characterize coxsackievirus B (CV-B) serotypes isolated from non-polio acute flaccid paralytic children, as well as to understand their probable role in paralysis. A total of 63 (20·1%) out of 313 stool samples during 2013 were found positive for NPEVs in rhabdomyosarcoma cells...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737704/toxicity-at-the-edge-of-life-a-review-on-cyanobacterial-toxins-from-extreme-environments
#11
REVIEW
Samuel Cirés, María Cristina Casero, Antonio Quesada
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735328/molecular-characterization-of-enteroviruses-isolated-from-acute-flaccid-paralysis-cases-in-poland-1999-2014
#12
Magdalena Wieczorek, Arleta Krzysztoszek
Enteroviruses (EVs) are among viral pathogens that can cause acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). This study represents an overview of EVs isolated through AFP surveillance in Poland between 1999 and 2014. The presence of enteroviruses was studied in stool samples that were collected from 747 AFP cases and their asymptomatic contacts. Fifty five (6.12%) cases of AFP were associated with enterovirus isolation. Out of the 55 positive cases, 40 were associated with detection of enterovirus in patient, and 15 with detection of EV in healthy contact, without positive detection in paralytic patient...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735156/adaptive-periodic-paralysis-allows-weaning-deep-sedation-overcoming-the-drowning-syndrome-in-ecmo-patients-bridged-for-lung-transplantation-a-case-series
#13
Irina Timofte, Michael Terrin, Erik Barr, June Kim, Joseph Rinaldi, Nicholas Ladikos, Jay Menaker, Ali Tabatabai, Zachary Kon, Bartley Griffith, Richard Pierson, Si Pham, Aldo Iacono, Daniel Herr
PURPOSE: Sedation in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is challenging. Patients require deep sedation because of extremely high respiratory rates and increased work of breathing ("Drowning Syndrome") resulting in altered intra-thoracic pressure and reduced pump flow associated with hemodynamic compromise and decreased oxygenation. However, deep sedation impedes essential active rehabilitation with physical therapy. METHODS: We reviewed data on 3 ECMO patients for whom we used a novel approach to replace continuous drips with periodic sedation/paralysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730312/hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-quantitation-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-validation-and-application-to-reference-materials
#14
Krista M Thomas, Daniel G Beach, Kelley L Reeves, Ryan S Gibbs, Elliott S Kerrin, Pearse McCarron, Michael A Quilliam
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by marine dinoflagellates that are responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. This work highlights our ongoing efforts to develop quantitative methods for PSTs using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Compared with the commonly used method of liquid chromatography with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection (LC-ox-FLD), HILIC-MS/MS has the potential of being more robust, sensitive and straightforward to operate, and provides unequivocal confirmation of toxin identity...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728924/strabismus-measurements-with-novel-video-goggles
#15
Konrad P Weber, Daniel Rappoport, Muriel Dysli, Tanja Schmückle Meier, Guy B Marks, Christopher J Bockisch, Klara Landau, Hamish G MacDougall
PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a novel, simplified, noninvasive test for strabismus using video goggles. DESIGN: Cross-sectional method comparison study in which the new test, the strabismus video goggles, is compared with the existing reference standard, the Hess screen test. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 41 adult and child patients aged ≥6 years with ocular misalignment owing to congenital or acquired paralytic or comitant strabismus and 17 healthy volunteers...
July 17, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711010/the-paralytic-shellfish-toxin-saxitoxin-enters-the-cytoplasm-and-induces-apoptosis-of-oyster-immune-cells-through-a-caspase-dependent-pathway
#16
Celina Abi-Khalil, Darren S Finkelstein, Genevieve Conejero, Justin Du Bois, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzon, Jean Luc Rolland
Exposure of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (A. catenella) was previously demonstrated to cause apoptosis of hemocytes in the oyster species Crassostrea gigas. In this work, a coumarin-labeled saxitoxin appeared to spread throughout the cytoplasm of the hemocytes. PSTs, including saxitoxin, were also shown to be directly responsible for inducing apoptosis in hemocytes, a process dependent on caspase activation and independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A series of in vitro labelling and microscopy experiments revealed that STX and analogs there of induced nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine exposure, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation of hemocytes...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692343/pulsotype-diversity-of-clostridium-botulinum-strains-containing-serotypes-a-and-or-b-genes
#17
Jessica L Halpin, Lavin Joseph, Janet K Dykes, Loretta McCroskey, Elise Smith, Denise Toney, Steven Stroika, Kelley Hise, Susan Maslanka, Carolina Lúquez
Clostridium botulinum strains are prevalent in the environment and produce a potent neurotoxin that causes botulism, a rare but serious paralytic disease. In 2010, a national PulseNet database was established to curate C. botulinum pulsotypes and facilitate epidemiological investigations, particularly for serotypes A and B strains frequently associated with botulism cases in the United States. Between 2010 and 2014 we performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using a PulseNet protocol, uploaded the resulting PFGE patterns into a national database, and analyzed data according to PulseNet criteria (UPGMA clustering, Dice coefficient, 1...
July 10, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689170/late-outcomes-of-gold-weights-and-platinum-chains-for-upper-eyelid-loading
#18
We Fong Siah, Sonali Nagendran, Petrina Tan, Syed Mustafa Ali Ahmad, Andre S Litwin, Raman Malhotra
AIM: To identify late outcomes of gold weights (GWs) and platinum chains (PCs) for upper eyelid loading in the management of lagophthalmos. METHODS: A retrospective case series of upper eyelid GWs and PCs at a single centre over a 10-year period (2004-2013). Two independent, blinded assessors graded standard photographs for any weight-related morbidity (poor upper eyelid contour, weight prominence and migration). RESULTS: Primary upper eyelid loading (high-tarsal technique) was performed in 154 eyelids of 136 patients (facial nerve palsy, n=99; non-paralytic, n=37)...
July 8, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678580/reconstructive-subperiosteal-midface-lift-a-three-nonvisible-incision-approach
#19
Marco Sales-Sanz, Constanza Barrancos, Hae-Ryung Won-Kim, Andrea Sales-Sanz, César Colmenero
This article describes our surgical technique for subperiosteal midface elevation in patients with paralytic lower eyelid malposition or cicatricial inferior eyelid retraction. Nineteen patients with paralytic lower eyelid malposition and 15 patients with cicatricial inferior eyelid retraction underwent a subperiosteal midface lift (n = 34). The procedure was performed under local anesthesia through three nonvisible incisions. A transconjunctival incision allows preseptal dissection to the orbital rim, followed by a subperiosteal dissection of the midface...
July 5, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678186/whole-transcriptomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-toxin-biosynthesis-in-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-catenella-achk-t
#20
Yong Zhang, Shu-Fei Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of neurotoxic alkaloids, are the most potent biotoxins for aquatic ecosystems and human health. Marine dinoflagellates and freshwater cyanobacteria are two producers of PSTs. The biosynthesis mechanism of PSTs has been well elucidated in cyanobacteria; however, it remains ambiguous in dinoflagellates. Here, we compared the transcriptome profiles of a toxin-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (ACHK-T) at different toxin biosynthesis stages within the cell cycle using RNA-seq...
July 5, 2017: Toxins
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