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Cerebrovascular anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209740/quantitative-mri-volumetry-diffusivity-cerebrovascular-flow-and-cranial-hydrodynamics-during-head-down-tilt-and-hypercapnia-the-spacecot-study
#1
Larry Allen Kramer, Khader M Hasan, Ashot E Sargsyan, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Jörn Rittweger, Dorit Donoviel, Saki Higashi, Benson Mwangi, Darius A Gerlach, Eric M Bershad
PURPOSE: In order to improve the pathophysiologic understanding of visual changes observed in astronauts, we aimed to use quantitative MRI to measure anatomic and physiologic responses during a ground-based spaceflight analogue (head down tilt, HDT) combined with increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Six healthy, male subjects participated in the double-blinded, randomized cross-over design study with two conditions: 26.5 h of -12° HDT with ambient air and with 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202827/-cerebrovascular-diseases-from-the-perspective-of-embryology-anatomy-and-genetics
#2
Masaki Komiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198523/diversity-among-posterior-thalamoperforating-branches-originated-from-p1-segment-systematic-review
#3
Cezary Grochowski, Ryszard Maciejewski
BACKGROUND: The P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) begins at the termination of the basilar artery and ends at the origin of posterior communicating artery (PCoM), within the interpeduncular cistern. Perforating branches arising from this segment are called posterior thalamoperforating arteries and the main and biggest artery among those is called thalamoperforating artery (TPA). Perforating branches are a crucial component of cerebrovascular system supplying the posterior part of the thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, perforated substance, posterior part of internal capsule and the nucleus of III and IV cranial nerve...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183839/mr-imaging-of-individual-perfusion-reorganization-using-superselective-pseudocontinuous-arterial-spin-labeling-in-patients-with-complex-extracranial-steno-occlusive-disease
#4
V Richter, M Helle, M J P van Osch, T Lindner, A S Gersing, P Tsantilas, H-H Eckstein, C Preibisch, C Zimmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with multiple stenoses or occlusions of the extracranial arteries require an individualized diagnostic approach. We evaluated the feasibility and clinical utility of a novel MR imaging technique for regional perfusion imaging in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Superselective pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling with a circular labeling spot enabling selective vessel labeling was added to routine imaging in a prospective pilot study in 50 patients (10 women, 70...
February 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151414/basilar-stroke-from-a-persistent-hypoglossal-artery
#5
Alfred P See, Jacob F Baranoski, Bruno C Flores, Andrew Ducruet, Felipe C Albuquerque
Occlusion of the basilar artery can be treated with endovascular thrombectomy, although the results have not been well studied. Persistent fetal cerebrovascular anatomy can lead to unusual presentation of carotid atherosclerotic disease and can be a barrier to successful mechanical thrombectomy if not recognized. This case presents a rare persistent carotico-basilar anastomosis which resulted in basilar occlusion via the persistent hypoglossal artery and coincident absence of contralateral vertebral arterial access due to a left vertebral artery terminating in the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137542/developing-the-first-highly-specialized-neurosurgical-center-of-excellence-in-trujillo-peru-work-in-progress-first-four-months-results
#6
Joham Choque-Velasquez, Roberto Colasanti, Virginia Baffigo-Torre, Luisa Estela Sacieta-Carbajo, Jacqueline Olivari-Heredia, Yolanda Falcon-Lizaraso, Juan Huber Mallma-Torres, Humberto Elera-Florez, Juha Hernesniemi
BACKGROUND: Economic, cultural, and geographical reasons usually limit the access to specialized health centers in developing countries, especially in rural areas. Peruvian health system indicators still highlight significant unmet clinical need for neurosurgical patients. Our project is to develop the first highly specialized neurosurgical center in the EsSalud hospital of Trujillo, with the goal to improve the treatment of neurosurgical diseases in that region, thus optimizing their outcomes while decreasing expensive and risky patients transfer to the neurosurgical departments in the capital district...
January 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135646/gap-free-segmentation-of-vascular-networks-with-automatic-image-processing-pipeline
#7
Chih-Yang Hsu, Mahsa Ghaffari, Ali Alaraj, Michael Flannery, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Andreas Linninger
Current image processing techniques capture large vessels reliably but often fail to preserve connectivity in bifurcations and small vessels. Imaging artifacts and noise can create gaps and discontinuity of intensity that hinders segmentation of vascular trees. However, topological analysis of vascular trees require proper connectivity without gaps, loops or dangling segments. Proper tree connectivity is also important for high quality rendering of surface meshes for scientific visualization or 3D printing...
January 21, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130280/basilar-stroke-from-a-persistent-hypoglossal-artery
#8
Alfred P See, Jacob F Baranoski, Bruno C Flores, Andrew Ducruet, Felipe C Albuquerque
Occlusion of the basilar artery can be treated with endovascular thrombectomy, although the results have not been well studied. Persistent fetal cerebrovascular anatomy can lead to unusual presentation of carotid atherosclerotic disease and can be a barrier to successful mechanical thrombectomy if not recognized. This case presents a rare persistent carotico-basilar anastomosis which resulted in basilar occlusion via the persistent hypoglossal artery and coincident absence of contralateral vertebral arterial access due to a left vertebral artery terminating in the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111187/functional-and-oxygen-metabolic-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-the-awake-mouse-brain
#9
Rui Cao, Jun Li, Bo Ning, Naidi Sun, Tianxiong Wang, Zhiyi Zuo, Song Hu
A long-standing challenge in optical neuroimaging has been the assessment of hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in the awake rodent brain at the microscopic level. Here, we report first-of-a-kind head-restrained photoacoustic microscopy (PAM), which enables simultaneous imaging of the cerebrovascular anatomy, total concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and blood flow in awake mice. Combining these hemodynamic measurements allows us to derive two key metabolic parameters-oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2)...
January 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079884/lack-of-collagen-xv-is-protective-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#10
Hiramani Dhungana, Mikko T Huuskonen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Ritva Heljasvaara, Denis Vivien, Katja M Kanninen, Tarja Malm, Jari Koistinaho, Sighild Lemarchant
Collagens are key structural components of basement membranes, providing a scaffold for other components or adhering cells. Collagens and collagen-derived active fragments contribute to biological activities such as cell growth, differentiation and migration. Here, we report that collagen XV knock-out (ColXV KO) mice are resistant to experimental ischemic stroke. Interestingly, the infarcts of ColXV KO mice were as small as those of wild-type (WT) mice thrombolysed with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), the actual treatment for ischemic stroke...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067615/intracranial-atherosclerosis-from-anatomy-to-pathophysiology
#11
Yuehua Pu, Linfang Lan, Xinyi Leng, Lawrence Ks Wong, Liping Liu
Background Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis is an important etiology subtype of ischemic stroke. Stenosis severity was thought to be the main reference index for clinical treatment and research. However, stenosis could not reflect the ischemia risk completely, instead the hemodynamic state across the lesion, the extent of collateral circulation, and perfusion impairment downstream the stenosis are more important. Aims We write this review aimed to summarize novel angiographic methods applied in the evaluation of functional severity of ICAS, and commented on their limitations and prospects in future research...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899937/predictive-value-of-syntax-score-ii-for-clinical-outcomes-in-octogenarian-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#12
Evan Kurniawan, Feng-Hua Ding, Qi Zhang, Zhen-Kun Yang, Jian Hu, Wei-Feng Shen, Rui-Yan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of SYNTAX Score II (SS-II) for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in octogenarian (≥ 80 years old) undergoing PCI. METHODS & RESULTS: Data from three consecutive years of octogenarian undergoing PCI from Ruijin Hospital (Shanghai, China) was retrospectively collected (n = 308). Follow up clinical data at one year including all cause mortality, cardiac mortality and main adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were collected...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815845/the-craniocervical-junction-embryology-anatomy-biomechanics-and-imaging-in-blunt-trauma
#13
REVIEW
Curtis Edward Offiah, Emily Day
: Imaging of the blunt traumatic injuries to the craniocervical junction can be challenging but central to improving morbidity and mortality related to such injury. The radiologist has a significant part to play in the appropriate management of patients who have suffered injury to this vital junction between the cranium and the spine. Knowledge of the embryology and normal anatomy as well as normal variant appearances avoids inappropriate investigations in these trauma patients. Osseous injury can be subtle while representing important radiological red flags for significant underlying ligamentous injury...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737406/endovascular-abdominal-aneurysm-repair-in-women-what-are-the-differences-between-the-genders
#14
Rui Machado, Gabriela Teixeira, Pedro Oliveira, Luís Loureiro, Carlos Pereira, Rui Almeida
Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm has a lower incidence in the female population, but a higher complication rate. It was been hypothesized that some anatomical differences of abdominal aortic aneurysm in women could be responsible for that. We proposed to analyze our data to understand the differences in the clinical and anatomical characteristics and the outcomes of patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair, according to gender. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing endovascular aneurysm repair between 2001-2013 was performed...
May 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660767/fetal-type-variants-of-the-posterior-cerebral-artery-and-concurrent-infarction-in-the-major-arterial-territories-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere
#15
Stephen L Lambert, Frank J Williams, Zhora Z Oganisyan, Lionel A Branch, Edward C Mader
Fetal-type or fetal posterior cerebral artery (FPCA) is a variant of cerebrovascular anatomy in which the distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territory is perfused by a branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In the presence of FPCA, thromboembolism in the anterior circulation may result in paradoxical PCA territory infarction with or without concomitant infarction in the territories of the middle (MCA) or the anterior (ACA) cerebral artery. We describe 2 cases of FPCA and concurrent acute infarction in the PCA and ICA territories-right PCA and MCA in Patient 1 and left PCA, MCA, and ACA in Patient 2...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512615/principles-and-clinical-application-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-cerebrovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Charlie Chia-Tsong Hsu, Gigi Nga Chi Kwan, Dalveer Singh, Jit Pratap, Trevor William Watkins
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) simultaneously acquires images at two X-ray energy levels, at both high- and low-peak voltages (kVp). The material attenuation difference obtained from the two X-ray energies can be processed by software to analyze material decomposition and to create additional image datasets, namely, virtual noncontrast, virtual contrast also known as iodine overlay, and bone/calcium subtraction images. DECT has a vast array of clinical applications in imaging cerebrovascular diseases, which includes: (1) Identification of active extravasation of iodinated contrast in various types of intracranial hemorrhage; (2) differentiation between hemorrhagic transformation and iodine staining in acute ischemic stroke following diagnostic and/or therapeutic catheter angiography; (3) identification of culprit lesions in intra-axial hemorrhage; (4) calcium subtraction from atheromatous plaque for the assessment of plaque morphology and improved quantification of luminal stenosis; (5) bone subtraction to improve the depiction of vascular anatomy with more clarity, especially at the skull base; (6) metal artifact reduction utilizing virtual monoenergetic reconstructions for improved luminal assessment postaneurysm coiling or clipping...
2016: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445740/comparing-aging-and-fitness-effects-on-brain-anatomy
#17
Mark A Fletcher, Kathy A Low, Rachel Boyd, Benjamin Zimmerman, Brian A Gordon, Chin H Tan, Nils Schneider-Garces, Bradley P Sutton, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Recent studies suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) mitigates the brain's atrophy typically associated with aging, via a variety of beneficial mechanisms. One could argue that if CRF is generally counteracting the negative effects of aging, the same regions that display the greatest age-related volumetric loss should also show the largest beneficial effects of fitness. To test this hypothesis we examined structural MRI data from 54 healthy older adults (ages 55-87), to determine the overlap, across brain regions, of the profiles of age and fitness effects...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367359/direct-carotid-exposure-for-neuroendovascular-approaches
#18
Dong Seong Shin, Ali Yilmaz, Ayca Ozkul, Dong Kyu Yeo, Sun-Chul Hwang, Bum-Tae Kim
Objective The transfemoral approach is a common route for catheterization of the supra-aortic vessels in neuroendovascular therapy. However, in some cases, the patient's anatomy prevents transfemoral catheterization or distal access to the carotid s. In such cases, direct carotid exposure (DCE) for neuroendovascular approaches may be used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Methods We present 11 cases in which we were unable to perform the distal approach and DCE was the preferred neuroendovascular treatment procedure...
November 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358246/real-world-multicenter-registry-of-patients-with-severe-coronary-artery-calcification-undergoing-orbital-atherectomy
#19
Michael S Lee, Evan Shlofmitz, Barry Kaplan, Dragos Alexandru, Perwaiz Meraj, Richard Shlofmitz
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy in real-world patients with severe coronary artery calcification (CAC). BACKGROUND: The presence of severe CAC increases the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention as it may impede stent delivery and optimal stent expansion. Atherectomy may be an indispensable tool for uncrossable or undilatable lesions by modifying severe CAC. Although the ORBIT I and II trials report that orbital atherectomy was safe and effective for the treatment of severe CAC, patients with kidney disease, recent myocardial infarction, long diffuse disease, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and unprotected left main disease were excluded...
August 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181400/cardiovascular-complications-of-cranial-and-neck-radiation
#20
REVIEW
Syed S Mahmood, Anju Nohria
Cancer survivors who receive head and neck radiation are at increased risk for cerebrovascular events. This is mediated via damage to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis leading to the metabolic syndrome and extracranial arterial injury leading to carotid artery stenosis. Head and neck radiation can also lead to intracranial injury that can present as moyamoya, especially in children. Survivors require lifelong periodic follow-up for the development of pan-hypopituitarism or its individual components as well as for dyslipidemia and obesity...
July 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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