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Skin infection

Amarateedha H Prak, Kristina M Dela Rosa
With skin lesions that have failed previous treatments, consideration for an atypical mycobacteria, specifically Mycobacterium marinum, infection should be suspected. Importance of the history cannot be stressed as this is a clue that the patient may have been inoculated and infected in the field environment. A marine with chronic right knee plaque for 3 yr that first appeared after a field exercise at The Basic School but worsened despite treatment with clindamycin, TMP-SMX, and incision and drainage in 2012...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Gabriele Miotto, Yan Ortiz-Pomales
Arm contour improvement is a desired goal of the massive weight loss and the aging population who want to maintain the arm aesthetics. Brachioplasty is a growing and safe procedure to improve the arm contour and different approaches and innovative treatment options have been described since the 1930s. This paper reviews the relevant literature in arm contouring including surgical and nonsurgical procedures used to aesthetically improve the arm. A comprehensive literature review was performed using the words "brachioplasty," "arm lift," "arm contouring," "arm liposuction," "noninvasive arm lift," "minimally invasive arm lift...
March 12, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Emeli Månsson, Berolla Sahdo, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Eva Särndahl, Bo Söderquist
Nosocomial sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis dominate in prosthetic joint infections. We examined caspase-1 activation in human neutrophils after incubation with Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections and normal skin flora. Active caspase-1 was lower after incubation with isolates from prosthetic joint infections than after incubation with commensal isolates. Both host and isolate dependent differences in active caspase-1 were noted. Our results indicate that there might be a host-dependent incapacity to elicit a strong caspase-1 response towards certain strains of S...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Anas H Abu-Humaidan, Malin Elvén, Andreas Sonesson, Peter Garred, Ole E Sørensen
The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Edgar Isaac Rojas-Bedolla, Jorge Luis Gutiérrez-Pérez, Mario Iván Arenas-López, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Juan José Maldonado-Miranda, Martha Alicia Deveze-Álvarez, Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Takehiro Takahashi, Yoko Koga, Mie Kainoh
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythema, skin hyperplasia, scales, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While the cause of psoriasis is not clearly understood, a dysregulated immune system, especially activation of IL-23/IL-17 axis, has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. For example, anti-IL-23 therapy is effective in psoriasis patients, and thus IL-23 is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis. The skin barrier provides protection of the human body against infection from external pathogens...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jason E Hsu, Moni B Neradilek, Stacy M Russ, Frederick A Matsen
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium-specific cultures are commonly positive in revised shoulders without obvious signs of infection. To help identify patients at risk for these "stealth" presentations of positive Propionibacterium cultures, we assessed the value of a preoperative skin culture in predicting the results of deep cultures obtained at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty in patients without clinical evidence of infection. METHODS: The study enrolled 60 patients undergoing revision for a prior shoulder arthroplasty without clinical evidence of infection...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
C Correa-Martinez, A Brentrup, K Hess, K Becker, A H Groll, F Schaumburg
Coprinopsis cinerea is an environmental fungus which can cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients, often leading to death. Here we report the case of a paediatric patient with an invasive wound infection due to C. cinerea, which was successfully treated with surgical debridement and oral posaconazole.
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Katherine Y Le, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The primary virulence factor of the skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis , is the ability to form biofilms on surfaces of implanted materials. Much of this microorganism's pathogenic success has been attributed to its ability to evade the innate immune system. The primary defense against S. epidermidis biofilm infection consists of complement activation, recruitment and subsequent killing of the pathogen by effector cells. Among pathogen-derived factors, the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), as well as the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), and the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) have been shown to modulate effector cell-mediated killing of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bart Theelen, Claudia Cafarchia, Georgios Gaitanis, Ioannis Dimitrios Bassukas, Teun Boekhout, Thomas L Dawson
Malassezia are lipid dependent basidiomycetous yeasts that inhabit the skin and mucosa of humans and other warm-blooded animals, and are a major component of the skin microbiome. They occur as skin commensals, but are also associated with various skin disorders and bloodstream infections. The genus currently comprises 17 species and has recently been assigned its own class, Malasseziomycetes. Importantly, multiple Malassezia species and/or genotypes may cause unique or similar pathologies and vary in their antifungal susceptibility...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Danilo Bueno Naves, Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, Gilvani Alves Meira, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso State, represents an important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic area. This study described epidemiological and clinical aspects of the occurrence, VL/HIV coinfection and lethality related to VL in Rondonópolis. Data from autochthonous cases reported between 2011 and 2016 were obtained from official information systems. During this period, 81 autochthonous cases were reported, with decreasing incidence through 2016. Contrastingly, the lethality rate was 8...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Almut Prkno, Matthias Kaiser, Daniela Goerigk, Martin Pfeffer, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Donata Hoffmann, Martin Beer, Alexander Starke
Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. elephant, rhinoceros, okapi). Of note, a review of the literature produced only three reports of CPXV in individual or small groups of South American camelids. The goal of this review was to describe the current knowledge as it relates to clinical features of CPXV infection in South American camelids and to compare the clinical manifestations with those described in other animal species...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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