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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304098/bacteriophages-as-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-and-enteric-virus-removal
#1
REVIEW
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293225/bacterial-composition-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-fecal-samples-from-individuals-consuming-omnivorous-or-vegetarian-diets
#3
Ermanno Federici, Roberta Prete, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Massimo Moretti, Aldo Corsetti, Giovanni Cenci
This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292677/multiple-lines-of-evidence-to-identify-sewage-as-the-cause-of-water-quality-impairment-in-an-urbanized-tropical-watershed
#4
Marek Kirs, Veljo Kisand, Mayee Wong, Roberto A Caffaro-Filho, Philip Moravcik, Valerie J Harwood, Bunnie Yoneyama, Roger S Fujioka
Indicator bacteria, which are conventionally used to evaluate recreational water quality, can originate from various non-human enteric and extra-enteric sources, hence they may not be indicative of human health risk nor do they provide information on the sources of contamination. In this study we utilized traditional (enterococci and Escherichia coli) and alternative (Clostridium perfringens) indicator bacteria, F(+)-specific coliphage, molecular markers for microorganisms associated with human sewage (human-associated Bacteroides and polyomaviruses), and microbial community analysis tools (16S rRNA gene fragment amplicon sequencing), to identify and evaluate human sewage-related impact in the Manoa watershed in Honolulu, Hawaii...
March 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289545/-bacteroides-ihuae-sp-nov-a-new-bacterial-species-isolated-from-the-human-respiratory-microbiome
#5
M D M Fonkou, A Morand, P-E Fournier, D Raoult, G Dubourg
We present the main features of 'Bacteroides ihuae' sp. nov., strain Marseille-P2824(T) (CSUR P2824), isolated from the sputum of healthy Frenchwoman living in Marseille.
May 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286571/we-are-not-alone-a-case-for-the-human-microbiome-in-extra-intestinal-diseases
#6
EDITORIAL
S Shivaji
BACKGROUND: "Dysbiosis" in the gut microbiome has been implicated in auto-immune diseases, in inflammatory diseases, in some cancers and mental disorders. The challenge is to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of dysbiosis so as to understand the disease manifestation. MAIN BODY: Next generation sequencing and genome enabled technologies have led to the establishment of the composition of gut microbiomes and established that "dysbiosis" is the cause of several diseases...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280715/enterotype-may-drive-the-dietary-associated-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#7
Ana C F de Moraes, Gabriel R Fernandes, Isis T da Silva, Bianca Almeida-Pititto, Everton P Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra R G Ferreira
Analyses of typical bacterial clusters in humans named enterotypes may facilitate understanding the host differences in the cardiometabolic profile. It stills unknown whether the three previously described enterotypes were present in populations living below the equator. We examined how the identification of enterotypes could be useful to explain the dietary associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilian subjects. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 268 adults (54.2% women) reported their dietary habits and had clinical and biological samples collected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278201/the-symbiotic-bacterial-surface-factor-polysaccharide-a-on-bacteroides-fragilis-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-in-human-fetal-enterocytes-via-toll-receptors-2-and-4
#8
Fei Jiang, Di Meng, Meiqian Weng, Weishu Zhu, Wenxue Wu, Dennis Kasper, W Allan Walker
Colonizing bacteria interacting with the immature, unlike the mature, human intestine favors inflammation over immune homeostasis. As a result, ten percent of premature infants under 1500 grams weight develop an inflammatory necrosis of the intestine after birth, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). NEC is a major health problem in this population causing extensive morbidity and mortality and an enormous expenditure of health care dollars. NEC can be prevented by giving preterm infants their mother's expressed breast milk or ingesting selective probiotic organisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274127/-development-and-evaluation-of-a-new-selective-culture-medium-kbm-anaero-rs-gnr-for-detection-of-anaerobic-gram-negative-rods
#9
Taeko Narita, Kyohei Kato, Hiroki Hanaiwa, Tetsuhiro Harada, Yumiko Funashima, Makoto Akiwa, Jun-Ichiro Sekiguchi, Zenzo Nagasawa, Tsukuru Umemura
The laboratory culture methods for isolating drug-resistant pathogens has been the gold standard in medical microbiology, and play pivotal roles in the overall management of infectious diseases. Recently, several reports have emphasized the development of antibiotics-resistance among anaerobic gram-negative rods, especially Genus Bacteroides and Prevotella. Therefore, a selective culture method to detect these pathogens is needed. We developed here the new selective culture medium, termed "KBM Anaero RS-GNR," for detecting anaerobic Gram-negative rods...
March 22, 2017: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272161/association-of-maternal-gestational-weight-gain-with-the-infant-fecal-microbiota
#10
Alyssa Robinson, Lauren Fiechtner, Brianna Roche, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo, Elsie M Taveras, Kohei Hasegawa
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy characteristics may influence the infant fecal microbiota during early life. We aimed to examine associations of maternal gestational weight gain with infant fecal microbiota composition, bacterial community richness, and Shannon diversity index. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort study of healthy infants. We collected prenatal data, including report of mother's gestational weight gain, and infant fecal samples from 84 infant-mother dyads...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270806/combined-signature-of-the-fecal-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-patients-with-gout
#11
Tiejuan Shao, Li Shao, Haichang Li, Zhijun Xie, Zhixing He, Chengping Wen
This study employed microbiome and metabolome analysis to explore the fecal signatures of gout patients. Fecal samples from 52 male individuals (26 healthy controls and 26 gout patients) were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The signatures of microbiome showed being up-regulation of opportunistic pathogens, such as Bacteroides, Porphyromonadaceae Rhodococcus, Erysipelatoclostridium and Anaerolineaceae. The signatures of metabolome were some altered metabolites which may involve uric acid excretion, purine metabolism, and inflammatory responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270263/the-intestinal-proteome-of-diabetic-and-control-children-is-enriched-with-different-microbial-and-host-proteins
#12
Elsa Pinto, Marisol Anselmo, Manuela Calha, Andrew Bottrill, Isabel Duarte, Peter W Andrew, Maria L Faleiro
In this study, the intestinal microbial proteome of children with established type 1 diabetes (T1D) was compared with the proteome of healthy children (Control) with the aim to identify differences in the activity of the intestinal microbiota that not only will contribute to a deeper knowledge of the functionality of the gut in these children but also may provide new approaches to improve the control of the disease. Faecal protein extracts collected from three T1D children (aged 9.3±0.6 years) and three Control children (aged 9...
February 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261164/impact-of-westernized-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-children-on-leyte-island
#13
Jiro Nakayama, Azusa Yamamoto, Ladie A Palermo-Conde, Kanako Higashi, Kenji Sonomoto, Julie Tan, Yuan-Kun Lee
Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257448/monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-bacteroides-fragilis-enterotoxins-bft1-and-bft2-and-their-use-in-immunoassays
#14
Saraspadee Mootien, Paul M Kaplan
We have developed 22 mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Bacteroides fragilis zinc metalloprotease toxins 1 and 2 (BFT1 and BFT2). Mice were immunized with recombinant BFT1 or BFT2 proteins with metalloprotease activity. Eight of the mAbs bind specifically to BFT1. One mAb, 2H6, binds specifically to BFT2. The remaining 13 mAbs bind to both BFT1 and BFT2. The eight BFT1-specific mAbs recognize at least five different epitopes on the toxin. Four of the BFT1-specific mAbs neutralized rBFT1 metalloprotease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255691/the-naringenin-induced-exoproteome-of-rhizobium-etli-ce3
#15
Niurka Meneses, Hermenegildo Taboada, Michael F Dunn, María Del Carmen Vargas, Natasha Buchs, Manfred Heller, Sergio Encarnación
Flavonoids excreted by legume roots induce the expression of symbiotically essential nodulation (nod) genes in rhizobia, as well as that of specific protein export systems. In the bean microsymbiont Rhizobium etli CE3, nod genes are induced by the flavonoid naringenin. In this study, we identified 693 proteins in the exoproteome of strain CE3 grown in minimal medium with or without naringenin, with 101 and 100 exoproteins being exclusive to these conditions, respectively. Four hundred ninety-two (71%) of the extracellular proteins were found in both cultures...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253911/childhood-bmi-in-relation-to-microbiota-in-infancy-and-lifetime-antibiotic-use
#16
K Korpela, M A C Zijlmans, M Kuitunen, K Kukkonen, E Savilahti, A Salonen, C de Weerth, W M de Vos
BACKGROUND: Children with high body mass index (BMI) at preschool age are at risk of developing obesity. Early identification of factors that increase the risk of excessive weight gain could help direct preventive actions. The intestinal microbiota and antibiotic use have been identified as potential modulators of early metabolic programming and weight development. To test if the early microbiota composition is associated with later BMI, and if antibiotic use modifies this association, we analysed the faecal microbiota composition at 3 months and the BMI at 5-6 years in two cohorts of healthy children born vaginally at term in the Netherlands (N = 87) and Finland (N = 75)...
March 3, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251782/one-year-calorie-restriction-impacts-gut-microbial-composition-but-not-its-metabolic-performance-in-obese-adolescents
#17
Alicia Ruiz, Tomás Cerdó, Ruy Jáuregui, Dietmar H Pieper, Ascensión Marcos, Alfonso Clemente, Federico García, Abelardo Margolles, Manuel Ferrer, Cristina Campoy, Antonio Suárez
Recent evidence has disclosed a connection between gut microbial glycosidase activity and adiposity in obese. Here, we measured microbial α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities and sorted fluorescently labeled β-galactosidase containing (βGAL) microorganisms in faecal samples of eight lean and thirteen obese adolescents that followed a controlled calorie restriction program during one year. β-galactosidase is a highly distributed functional trait, mainly expressed by members of Blautia, Bacteroides, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter and Propionibacterium...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249795/early-exposure-to-agricultural-soil-accelerates-the-maturation-of-the-early-life-pig-gut-microbiota
#18
Nguyen Vo, Tsung Cheng Tsai, Charles Maxwell, Franck Carbonero
Reduced microbial exposure in early childhood is postulated to be associated with subsequent immune deficiencies and associated health conditions. This corollary to the "hygiene hypothesis" has grown of popularity in the medical field, but can only be really tested with animal models. Based on previous observation that access to outdoor environment improves piglets' growth performance, we simulated early microbial exposure by providing pigs with topsoil during the lactation phase. Specifically, pigs from 20 litters were assigned to either control treatments (C) or soil treatments (S): pigs exposed to topsoil from day 4 postpartum to the end of lactation...
February 27, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244516/construction-and-simulation-of-the-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens-usda110-metabolic-network-a-comparison-between-free-living-and-symbiotic-states
#19
Yi Yang, Xiao-Pan Hu, Bin-Guang Ma
Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is a rhizobium able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium by establishing mutualistic symbiosis with soybean. It has been recognized as an important parent strain for microbial agents and is widely applied in agricultural and environmental fields. In order to study the metabolic properties of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the differences between a free-living cell and a symbiotic bacteroid, a genome-scale metabolic network of B. diazoefficiens USDA110 was constructed and analyzed...
February 28, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242723/resolution-of-mismatched-overlap-holliday-junction-intermediates-by-the-tyrosine-recombinase-intdot
#20
Kenneth Ringwald, Sumiko Yoneji, Jeffrey Gardner
CTnDOT is an integrated conjugative element found in Bacteroides species. CTnDOT encodes for and transfers antibiotic resistance genes. The element integrates into and excises from the host chromosome via a Holliday junction intermediate as part of a site-specific recombination mechanism. The CTnDOT integrase, IntDOT, is a tyrosine recombinase with core-binding, catalytic and amino terminal domains. Unlike well-studied tyrosine recombinases such as lambda Int, IntDOT is able to resolve Holliday junctions containing heterology (mismatched bases) between the sites of strand exchange...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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