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Sama Kalyana Chakravarthy, Rajagopalaboopathi Jayasudha, Konduri Ranjith, Anirban Dutta, Nishal Kumar Pinna, Sharmila S Mande, Savitri Sharma, Prashant Garg, Somasheila I Murthy, Sisinthy Shivaji
Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome has been implicated in several diseases including auto-immune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancers and mental disorders. Keratitis is an inflammatory disease of the eye significantly contributing to corneal blindness in the developing world. It would be worthwhile to investigate the possibility of dysbiosis in the gut microbiome being associated with Keratitis. Here, we have analyzed fungal and bacterial populations in stool samples through high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 region for fungi and V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene for bacteria in healthy controls (HC, n = 31) and patients with fungal keratitis (FK, n = 32)...
2018: PloS One
Maiara Brusco de Freitas, Emilia Addison Machado Moreira, Camila Tomio, Yara Maria Franco Moreno, Felipe Perozzo Daltoe, Eliana Barbosa, Norberto Ludwig Neto, Vittoria Buccigrossi, Alfredo Guarino
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cystic fibrosis and antibiotic therapy on intestinal microbiota composition and intestinal inflammation in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional controlled study was conducted with 36 children and adolescents: 19 in the cystic fibrosis group (CFG) and 17 in the control group (CG) matched for age and sex. The CFG was subdivided based on the use of antibiotic therapy (CFAB group) and non-use of antibiotic therapy (CFnAB group). The following data were evaluated: colonization, antibiotic therapy, mutation, breastfeeding, use of infant formula, type of delivery, introduction of solid foods, body mass index, fecal calprotectin and intestinal microbiota composition (fluorescence in situ hybridization)...
2018: PloS One
Serap Süzük Yildiz, Meltem Yalinay, Tarkan Karakan
Microbiota is a dynamic system showing individual differences in both the number and species of microorganisms. Dietary habits, lifestyle, age, genetic predisposition of the host and use of antibiotics are effective on microbiota. The aim of our research was to carry out a quantitative comparison of Bifidobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis, Lactobacillus spp, Akkermansia mucinophilia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, important bacterial microbiota species, before and after antibiotic therapy treated with tetracycline and metronidazole in patients who are diagnosed as positive for Helicobacter pylori (HP), and to determine the effects of antibiotic use on the microbiota...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Edson R Rocha, Hector A Bergonia, Svetlana Gerdes, Charles Jeffrey Smith
The intestinal commensal and opportunistic anaerobic pathogen Bacteroides fragilis has an essential requirement for both heme and free iron to support growth in extraintestinal infections. In the absence of free iron, B. fragilis can utilize heme as the sole source of iron. However, the mechanisms to remove iron from heme are not completely understood. In this study, we show that the inner membrane ferrous iron transporter ∆feoAB mutant strain is no longer able to grow with heme as the sole source of iron...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jian-Zhong Ye, Ya-Ting Li, Wen-Rui Wu, Ding Shi, Dai-Qiong Fang, Li-Ya Yang, Xiao-Yuan Bian, Jing-Jing Wu, Qing Wang, Xian-Wan Jiang, Cong-Gao Peng, Wan-Chun Ye, Peng-Cheng Xia, Lan-Juan Li
AIM: To investigate changes in gut microbiota and metabolism during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet. METHODS: Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice were equally divided into four groups and fed a methionine-choline-sufficient diet for 2 wk (Control 2w group, n = 6) or 4 wk (Control 4w group, n = 6) or the MCD diet for 2 wk (MCD 2w group, n = 6) or 4 wk (MCD 4w group, n = 6). Liver injury, fibrosis, and intestinal barrier function were evaluated after 2 and 4 wk of feeding...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Martina Trckova, Alena Lorencova, Vladimir Babak, Jiri Neca, Miroslav Ciganek
A three-week trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of leonardite and lignite, natural sources of humic substances, on selected indicators of health status of weaned piglets. A total of 45 weaned piglets were assigned to three dietary treatments: Control - basal diet without any medication; Leonardite or Lignite - diet supplemented with lignite or leonardite at a dose of 20 g/kg, respectively. Leonardite differed from lignite in the content of humic substances and minerals. Diarrhoea incidence and severity, growth performance, haematological and biochemical status, biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum fatty acid (FA) profile and faecal microbiota composition were monitored...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Rajani Thanissery, Daina Zeng, Raul G Doyle, Casey M Theriot
Antibiotics are considered to be the first line of treatment for mild to moderately severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans. However, antibiotics are also risk factors for CDI as they decrease colonization resistance against C. difficile by altering the gut microbiota and metabolome. Finding compounds that selectively inhibit different stages of the C. difficile life cycle, while sparing the indigenous gut microbiota is important for the development of alternatives to standard antibiotic treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ravinder Nagpal, Carol A Shively, Susan A Appt, Thomas C Register, Kristofer T Michalson, Mara Z Vitolins, Hariom Yadav
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors a highly diverse and dynamic community of bacteria. The array of this gut bacterial community, which functions collectively as a fully unified organ in the host metabolism, varies greatly among different host species and can be shaped by long-term nutritional interventions. Non-human primates, our close phylogenetic relatives and ancestors, provide an excellent model for studying diet-microbiome interaction; however, compared to clinical and rodent studies, research targeting primate gut microbiome has been limited...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Federica Del Chierico, Francesca Abbatini, Alessandra Russo, Andrea Quagliariello, Sofia Reddel, Danila Capoccia, Romina Caccamo, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Valerio Nobili, Francesco De Peppo, Bruno Dallapiccola, Frida Leonetti, Gianfranco Silecchia, Lorenza Putignani
Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Florian Lamouche, Djamel Gully, Anaïs Chaumeret, Nico Nouwen, Camille Verly, Olivier Pierre, Coline Sciallano, Joël Fardoux, Christian Jeudy, Attila Szücs, Samuel Mondy, Christophe Salon, István Nagy, Attila Kereszt, Yves Dessaux, Eric Giraud, Peter Mergaert, Benoit Alunni
To circumvent the paucity of nitrogen sources in the soil legume plants establish a symbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. During symbiosis, the plants form root organs called nodules, where bacteria are housed intracellularly and become active nitrogen fixers known as bacteroids. Depending on their host plant, bacteroids can adopt different morphotypes, being either unmodified (U), elongated (E) or spherical (S). E- and S-type bacteroids undergo a terminal differentiation leading to irreversible morphological changes and DNA endoreduplication...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Manoj Kumar Sriramoju, Tzu-Jing Yang, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Ornithine transcarbamylases (OTCs) are conserved enzymes involved in arginine biosynthesis in microbes and the urea cycle in mammals. Recent bioinformatics analyses identified two unique OTC variants, N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Bacteroides fragilis (BfSOTC) and N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase from Xanthomonas campestris (XcAOTC). These two variants diverged from other OTCs during evolution despite sharing the common tertiary and quaternary structures, with the exception that the substrate recognition motifs are topologically knotted...
June 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Lee O 'Brien Andersen, Thor Bech Johannesen, Anne Line Engsbro, Christen Rune Stensvold, Henrik Vedel Nielsen, Peter Bytzer
OBJECTIVE: A low prevalence of intestinal parasites has been identified in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but potential associations with alterations in the bacterial microbiome remain largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate the relationship between parasites and bacteria in individuals with IBS in order to identify potential trans-kingdom microbial characteristics. DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from the Danish background population classified into IBS (n = 119), unspecific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (n = 114), and asymptomatic controls (n = 186) based on the Rome III criteria for IBS...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Adriaan van Beek, Bart de Haan, Huub Savelkoul, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
BACKGROUND: A dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome plays a role in the pathogenesis of several immunological diseases. These diseases often show a sex bias, suggesting sex differences in immune responses and in the intestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that sex differences in immune responses are associated with sex differences in microbiota composition. METHODS: Fecal microbiota composition (MITchip), mRNA expression in intestinal tissue (microarray), and immune cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were studied in male and female mice of two mouse strains (C57B1/6OlaHsd and Balb/cOlaHsd)...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Weicheng Li, Qiangchuan Hou, Yanjie Wang, Huimin Ma, Yahua Liu, Feiyan Zhao, Jing Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Jie Yu, Zhihong Sun, Tiansong Sun
BACKGROUND: The gut microbes of dairy cows are strongly associated with their health, but the relationship between milk production and the intestinal microbiota has seldom been studied. Thus, we explored the diversity of the intestinal microbiota during peak lactation of dairy cows. METHODS: The intestinal microbiota of nine dairy cows at peak lactation was evaluated using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (PacBio SMRT) sequencing approach. RESULTS: A total of 32,670 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, belonging to 12 phyla, 59 families, 107 genera, and 162 species...
June 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Peng Wu, Guihao Zhang, Jie Zhao, Jiawei Chen, Yang Chen, Weina Huang, Jialei Zhong, Jiarong Zeng
Mounting evidence indicates that microbiome plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The dogma that urine in healthy individuals must be sterile has been overturned. Dysbiosis of the urinary microbiome has been revealed responsible for various urological disorders, including prostate cancer. The link between chronic inflammation, microbiome and solid tumors has been established for various neoplastic diseases. However, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of urinary microenvironment of bladder cancer has not been yet reported...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jiashun Chen, Baoju Kang, Qian Jiang, Mengmeng Han, Yurong Zhao, Lina Long, Chenxing Fu, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a critical molecule in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is beneficial to intestinal functions. However, its influence on intestinal microbiota and metabolism is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of a low-protein (LP) diet supplemented with AKG on cecal microbial communities and the parameters of microbial metabolism in growing pigs. Twenty-seven young pigs (Large White × Landrace) with an average initial body weight of 11.96 ± 0.18 kg were randomly allotted into three groups ( n = 9): a normal protein (NP) diet containing 20% crude protein (CP); LP diet formulated with 17% CP (LP diet); or LP diet supplemented with 10 g kg-1 of AKG (ALP diet)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Huantian Cui, Yuzi Cai, Li Wang, Beitian Jia, Junchen Li, Shuwu Zhao, Xiaoqian Chu, Jin Lin, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yuhong Bian, Pengwei Zhuang
Berberine (BBR), an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellode , and Berberis , has been widely used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the mechanism of BBR on UC is unknown. In this study, we investigated the activities of T regulatory cell (Treg) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mouse model after BBR administration. We also investigated the changes of gut microbiota composition using 16S rRNA analysis. We also examined whether BBR could regulate the Treg/Th17 balance by modifying gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yogesh Bhattarai, Brianna B Williams, Eric J Battaglioli, Weston R Whitaker, Lisa Till, Madhusudan Grover, David R Linden, Yasutada Akiba, Karunya K Kandimalla, Nicholas C Zachos, Jonathan D Kaunitz, Justin L Sonnenburg, Michael A Fischbach, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap
Tryptamine, a tryptophan-derived monoamine similar to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is produced by gut bacteria and is abundant in human and rodent feces. However, the physiologic effect of tryptamine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here, we show that the biological effects of tryptamine are mediated through the 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4 R), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) uniquely expressed in the colonic epithelium. Tryptamine increases both ionic flux across the colonic epithelium and fluid secretion in colonoids from germ-free (GF) and humanized (ex-GF colonized with human stool) mice, consistent with increased intestinal secretion...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Tiffany L Carson, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, Bradford E Jackson, William J Van Der Pol, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey Morrow, Monica L Baskin
OBJECTIVE: Racial health disparities persist among black and white women for colorectal cancer. Understanding racial differences in the gut microbiota and related covariates (e.g., stress) may yield new insight into unexplained colorectal cancer disparities. METHODS: Healthy non-Hispanic black or white females (age ≥19 years) provided survey data, anthropometrics, and stool samples. Fecal DNA was collected and isolated from a wipe. PCR was used to amplify the V4 region of the 16SrRNA gene and 250 bases were sequenced using the MiSeq platform...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
L L Zhao, H C Yin, T F Lu, Y J Niu, Y Y Zhang, S Q Li, Y P Wang, H Y Chen
High-throughput sequencing technologies play important roles in the study of animal enteric microorganisms. Fecal samples collected from 3 strains (9 samples) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) ducks raised in an isolator. Duck intestinal bacterial flora were analyzed by sequencing distinct regions of the 16S rRNA genes using an Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The result showed the most abundant primary enteric microbial phyla of 3 different strains of 70-week-old SPF ducks were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, the most abundant primary enteric microbial order were Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Aeromonadales, and the most abundant primary enteric microbial genera were Bacteroides, Comamonas, and Enterococcus...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
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