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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454108/detection-of-b-fragilis-group-and-diversity-of-bft-enterotoxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-markers-cepa-cfia-and-nim-among-intestinal-bacteroides-fragilis-strains-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Marjan Rashidan, Masoumeh Azimirad, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mehdi Ghobakhlou, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
We compared frequency of the members of B. fragilis group in 100 and 20 colon biopsy specimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients. Agar dilution and PCR were orderly used to detect minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin, imipenem, and metronidazole, and carriage of related resistance genes cepA, cfi, and nim. B. fragilis group was detected in 38% of IBD (UC: 36/89; CD:1/11) and 25% (5/20) of non-IBD patients. While B. vulgatus (UC: 20/36, CD: 1/2, control: 1/6); B. fragilis (UC: 18/36, CD: 1/2, control: 5/6); B...
February 14, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453724/using-combined-multiple-techniques-to-characterize-refractory-organics-during-anammox-process-with-mature-coal-chemical-wastewater-as-influent
#2
Jiachun Yang, Li Zhang, Kechen Xu, Yongzhen Peng
This study combined spectroscopy techniques to assess the composition of refractory organics and highlighted the potential application of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy within future monitoring of coal chemical wastewater treatment by the anammox process. The results showed that the anammox process could effectively degrade refractory organic substances, with fulvic-like, UV-humic acid, and Vis-humic acid component removal efficiencies of 43.61, 53.93, and 100%, respectively. In this study, EEM fluorescence spectroscopy was proven to be an effective method of assessing the removal of dissolved organic nitrogen during anammox treatment of mature coal chemical wastewater...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452399/response-of-goose-intestinal-microflora-to-the-source-and-level-of-dietary-fiber
#3
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#4
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439731/metalonda-a-flexible-r-package-for-identifying-time-intervals-of-differentially-abundant-features-in-metagenomic-longitudinal-studies
#5
Ahmed A Metwally, Jie Yang, Christian Ascoli, Yang Dai, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
BACKGROUND: Microbial longitudinal studies are powerful experimental designs utilized to classify diseases, determine prognosis, and analyze microbial systems dynamics. In longitudinal studies, only identifying differential features between two phenotypes does not provide sufficient information to determine whether a change in the relative abundance is short-term or continuous. Furthermore, sample collection in longitudinal studies suffers from all forms of variability such as a different number of subjects per phenotypic group, a different number of samples per subject, and samples not collected at consistent time points...
February 13, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434315/association-of-gut-microbial-communities-with-plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-lbp-in-premenopausal-women
#6
Jessica S Citronberg, Keith R Curtis, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Katherine Newton, Charlotte Atkinson, Xiaoling Song, Johanna W Lampe, Meredith Aj Hullar
The mechanisms by which obesity increases cancer risk are unclear, but some lines of evidence suggest that gut microbial communities (GMC) may contribute to chronic inflammation in obese individuals through raised systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We evaluated associations of the GMC in stool with plasma LPS-binding protein (LBP, a measure of LPS) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in 110 premenopausal women in the United States. Diet was assessed using 3-day food records and GMCs were evaluated using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434076/differences-in-gut-microbiota-profiles-between-autoimmune-pancreatitis-and-chronic-pancreatitis
#7
Shin Hamada, Atsushi Masamune, Tatsuhide Nabeshima, Tooru Shimosegawa
Host-derived factors alter gut microenvironment, and changes in gut microbiota also affect biological functions of host. Alterations of gut microbiota have been reported in a wide variety of diseases, but the whole picture of alterations in pancreatic diseases remains to be clarified. In particular, the gut microbiota may be affected by malnutrition or impaired exocrine pancreas function that is associated with pancreatic diseases. We here conducted comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota in patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a pancreatic manifestation of the systemic IgG4-related disease, and chronic pancreatitis (CP)...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433221/colonic-fermentation-of-polyphenolics-from-sea-buckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-berries-assessment-of-effects-on-microbial-diversity-by-principal-component-analysis
#8
Sampan Attri, Kavita Sharma, Pinky Raigond, Gunjan Goel
The present study investigates the stability of polyphenolic in Sea buckthorn berries juice (SBJ) during different phases of digestion and its effect on colonic microbial diversity. At each stage, the Total polyphenolic content (TPC), Total antioxidant activity (TAA) and polyphenolic profile was determined. A 1.64 and 2.20 folds increase in TPC with 4.88 and 9.61 folds increase in TAA were observed during gastric and small intestine digestion (p<0.05) with the release of quercetin from food matrix. The digestion resulted in deformation of intact crystalline structure as indicated by scanning electron micrographs...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432848/characterization-of-a-recombinant-bacteroides-fragilis-sialidase-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Takaaki Yamamoto, Hideyo Ugai, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Ayano Tada, Miad Elahi, Hitoshi Houchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
The human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis produces sialidases that remove a terminal sialic acid from host-derived polysaccharides. Sialidase is considered to be involved in B. fragilis infection pathology. A native B. fragilis sialidase has been purified and characterized, and was shown to be post-translationally modified by glycosylation. However, the biochemical properties of recombinant B. fragilis sialidase expressed in a heterologous host remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the enzymatic properties of the 60-kDa sialidase NanH1 of B...
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432368/fecal-microbiota-differences-according-to-the-risk-of-advanced-colorectal-neoplasms
#10
Hyo-Joon Yang, Min-Jung Kwon, Yoosoo Chang, Seul-Ki Song, Kwang-Sung Ahn, Han-Na Kim, Yeojun Yun, Hyung-Lae Kim, Dong Il Park
GOALS AND BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare differences in the fecal microbiota according to the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) based on a risk-score model in a large Korean cohort. STUDY: Stool samples were collected from 1122 health screening recipients: 404 enrolled in the average risk (AR) group, 514 in the moderate risk (MR) group, and 204 in the high risk (HR) group, in accordance with their risk of ACN. The fecal microbiota was characterized using pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430381/characterization-of-a-glycoside-hydrolase-family-78-%C3%AE-l-rhamnosidase-from-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-vpi-5482-and-identification-of-functional-residues
#11
Binchun Li, Yaru Ji, Yanqin Li, Guobin Ding
A putative glycoside hydrolase family 78 α-l-rhamnosidase BtRha78A from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482 was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzymatic properties of recombinant BtRha78A were characterized in detail. Recombinant BtRha78A might efficiently hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl α-l-rhamnopyranoside. BtRha78A displayed the highest activity at 60 °C in pH 6.5. BtRha78A exhibited a good pH stability and relatively high thermostability. BtRha78A could be tolerant of a low concentration of alcohols...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429978/islet-reactive-cd8-t-cell-frequencies-in-the-pancreas-but-not-in-blood-distinguish-type-1-diabetic-patients-from-healthy-donors
#12
Slobodan Culina, Ana Ines Lalanne, Georgia Afonso, Karen Cerosaletti, Sheena Pinto, Guido Sebastiani, Klaudia Kuranda, Laura Nigi, Anne Eugster, Thomas Østerbye, Alicia Maugein, James E McLaren, Kristin Ladell, Etienne Larger, Jean-Paul Beressi, Anna Lissina, Victor Appay, Howard W Davidson, Søren Buus, David A Price, Matthias Kuhn, Ezio Bonifacio, Manuela Battaglia, Sophie Caillat-Zucman, Francesco Dotta, Raphael Scharfmann, Bruno Kyewski, Roberto Mallone
The human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted zinc transporter 8186-194 (ZnT8186-194) and other islet epitopes elicit interferon-γ secretion by CD8+ T cells preferentially in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients compared with controls. We show that clonal ZnT8186-194-reactive CD8+ T cells express private T cell receptors and display equivalent functional properties in T1D and healthy individuals. Ex vivo analyses further revealed that CD8+ T cells reactive to ZnT8186-194 and other islet epitopes circulate at similar frequencies and exhibit a predominantly naïve phenotype in age-matched T1D and healthy donors...
February 2, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423048/specific-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-prognosis-of-budd-chiari-syndrome
#13
Yu-Ling Sun, Wen-Qi Li, Peng-Xu Ding, Zhi-Wei Wang, Chang-Hua Wei, Xiu-Xian Ma, Rui-Fang Zhang, Yan Wu, Lin Zhou, Ruo-Peng Liang, Yan-Peng Zhang, Yi-Pu Zhao, Rong-Tao Zhu, Jian Li
Gut microbiota is associated with liver diseases. However, gut microbial characteristics of Budd-Chiari syndrome (B-CS) have not been reported. Here, by MiSeq sequencing, gut microbial alterations were characterized among 37 health controls, 20 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 31 initial B-CS patients (B-CS group), 33 stability patients after BCS treatment (stability group) and 23 recurrent patients after BCS treatment (recurrence group). Gut microbial diversity was increased in B-CS versus LC. Bacterial community of B-CS clustered with controls but separated from LC...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420664/the-first-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iii-from-a-thermophile-structural-basis-for-thermal-stability-and-reduced-activity
#14
Igor Sabljić, Marko Tomin, Mihaela Matovina, Iva Sučec, Ana Tomašić Paić, Antonija Tomić, Marija Abramić, Sanja Tomić
Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPP III) isolated from the thermophilic bacteria Caldithrix abyssi (Ca) is a two-domain zinc exopeptidase, a member of the M49 family. Like other DPPs III, it cleaves dipeptides from the N-terminus of its substrates but differently from human, yeast and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (mesophile) orthologs, it has the pentapeptide zinc binding motif (HEISH) in the active site instead of the hexapeptide (HEXXGH). The aim of our study was to investigate structure, dynamics and activity of CaDPP III, as well as to find possible differences with already characterized DPPs III from mesophiles, especially B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420293/patients-with-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-harbor-colonic-biofilms-containing-tumorigenic-bacteria
#15
Christine M Dejea, Payam Fathi, John M Craig, Annemarie Boleij, Rahwa Taddese, Abby L Geis, Xinqun Wu, Christina E DeStefano Shields, Elizabeth M Hechenbleikner, David L Huso, Robert A Anders, Francis M Giardiello, Elizabeth C Wick, Hao Wang, Shaoguang Wu, Drew M Pardoll, Franck Housseau, Cynthia L Sears
Individuals with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently harbor abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiome; however, the microbiota associated with precancerous lesions in hereditary CRC remains largely unknown. We studied colonic mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), who develop benign precursor lesions (polyps) early in life. We identified patchy bacterial biofilms composed predominately of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Genes for colibactin (clbB) and Bacteroides fragilis toxin (bft), encoding secreted oncotoxins, were highly enriched in FAP patients' colonic mucosa compared to healthy individuals...
February 2, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420132/tumour-associated-and-non-tumour-associated-microbiota-addendum
#16
Burkhardt Flemer, Maeve Herlihy, Micheal O'Riordain, Fergus Shanahan, Paul W O'Toole
In a recent study1 we reported that tissue-associated microbial Co-abundance Groups (CAGs) were differentially associated with CRC. Two of the CAGs, which we named Pathogen CAG and Prevotella CAG, were correlated with a gene expression signature indicative of a TH17 response. A TH17 response has been associated with decreased survival in patients with CRC2, and members of the Pathogen CAG such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis have been repeatedly reported to be associated with CRC-development...
February 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416558/organic-acid-production-from-potato-starch-waste-fermentation-by-rumen-microbial-communities-from-dutch-and-thai-dairy-cows
#17
Susakul Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Antonius H P van de Weijer, Antonie H van Gelder, Alfons J M Stams, Willem M de Vos, Caroline M Plugge
Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Results: In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415499/in-vivo-assessment-of-resistant-starch-degradation-by-the-caecal-microbiota-of-mice-using-rna-based-stable-isotope-probing-a-proof-of-principle-study
#18
Elena Herrmann, Wayne Young, Verena Reichert-Grimm, Severin Weis, Christian U Riedel, Douglas Rosendale, Halina Stoklosinski, Martin Hunt, Markus Egert
Resistant starch (RS) is the digestion resistant fraction of complex polysaccharide starch. By reaching the large bowel, RS can function as a prebiotic carbohydrate, i.e., it can shape the structure and activity of bowel bacterial communities towards a profile that confers health benefits. However, knowledge about the fate of RS in complex intestinal communities and the microbial members involved in its degradation is limited. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) was used to identify mouse bowel bacteria involved in the assimilation of RS or its derivatives directly in their natural gut habitat...
February 6, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412357/identification-of-the-alpha-enolase-p46-in-the-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-of-bacteroides-fragilis
#19
Thais Gonçalves Ferreira, Camilla Nunes Dos Reis Trindade, Petra Bell, André Teixeira-Ferreira, Jonas E Perales, Rossiane C Vommaro, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues, Eliane de Oliveira Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are the most important components of the normal human gut microbiome, but are also major opportunistic pathogens that are responsible for significant mortality, especially in the case of bacteraemia and other severe infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses. Up to now, several virulence factors have been described that might explain the involvement of B. fragilis in these infections. The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) has been proposed to play a role in pathogenesis and symbiosis in gram-negative bacteria, by releasing soluble proteins and other molecules...
March 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411528/alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-patients-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#20
Youlian Zhou, Zhitao Ou, Xiaoping Tang, Yongjian Zhou, Haoming Xu, Xianfei Wang, Kang Li, Jie He, Yanlei Du, Hong Wang, Ye Chen, Yuqiang Nie
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation and changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we aim to investigate the gut microbiota patterns of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected individuals in populations from South China. We enrolled 33 patients with HIV (14 participants treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] for more than 3 months; the remaining 19 individuals had not received treatment) and 35 healthy controls (HC) for a cross-sectional comparison of gut microbiota using stool samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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