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Hangzhou Xu, Haiyan Pei, Yan Jin, Chunxia Ma, Yuting Wang, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li
The microbial community structures of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) generated for raw water (RW) from different locations and with different source types - including river water, lake water and reservoir water -were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Because the unit operations in the six DWTPs were similar, community composition in fresh sludge may be determined by microbial community in the corresponding RW. Although Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the dominant phyla among the six DWTS samples, no single phylum exhibited similar abundance across all the samples, owing to differences in total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, Al, Fe, and chloride in RW...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maja Bogdan, Ljilijana Perić, Katalin Ördög, Dubravka Vuković, Edit Urbán, József Sóki
An imipenem-resistant Bacteroides fragilis strain was isolated from the blood of a 72-year-old male patient with a urinary bladder tumor in Osijek, Croatia. This strain was also resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and harbored cfiA, ermF, and tetQ genes where the high-level expression of the cfiA carbapenem-resistant gene was driven by an IS1187 element. Interestingly, despite the carbapenem-resistant feature of the B. fragilis from blood, the patient relatively easily recovered from the bacteremia...
April 13, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Zhenwei Dai, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Geicho Nakatsu, William K K Wu, Liuyang Zhao, Zigui Chen, Francis K L Chan, Karsten Kristiansen, Joseph J Y Sung, Sunny Hei Wong, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: Alterations of gut microbiota are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in different populations and several bacterial species were found to contribute to the tumorigenesis. The potential use of gut microbes as markers for early diagnosis has also been reported. However, cohort specific noises may distort the structure of microbial dysbiosis in CRC and lead to inconsistent results among studies. In this regard, our study targeted at exploring changes in gut microbiota that are universal across populations at species level...
April 11, 2018: Microbiome
Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli
The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
M Cordovana, M Kostrzewa, J Sóki, E Witt, S Ambretti, A B Pranada
Bacteroides fragilis is a frequent anaerobic pathogen and can cause severe infections. Resistance to carbapenems, associated with the cfiA gene encoded carbapenemase, represents an emerging problem. To date, no rapid methods are available to detect and confirm this resistance mechanism in routine laboratories, and the missed recognition of carbapenemase-producing strains can lead to therapeutic failures. In this study we have investigated a whole MALDI-TOF MS-based workflow to detect carbapenemase-producing B...
April 4, 2018: Anaerobe
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Reza Ghotaslou, Mina Yekani, Mohammad Yousef Memar
The resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to the most antimicrobial agents has been reported in the world. Identification of the microbial resistance mechanisms can play an important role in controlling these resistances. Currently, B. fragilis is resistant to most antibiotics. The multi-drug efflux pumps have been shown to underlie the antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis strains. Two types of these efflux pumps including RND and MATE can be regarded as main structures responsible for antibiotic resistance...
May 2018: Microbiological Research
Sosuke Ogawa, Yoshikazu Yazaki
The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name...
April 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
E A Latham, K K Weldon, T A Wickersham, J A Coverdale, W E Pinchak
Bos indicus typically perform better than Bos taurus when consuming a low-quality diet; however, the response to supplementation is generally greater in B. taurus. The underlying mechanisms supporting these responses have not been fully elucidated. Characterization of differences in rumen prokaryotic populations and their functional role in the two subspecies may provide additional insight. Ten cannulated steers (5 Angus and 5 Brahman) were used in concurrent 5 × 5 Latin squares. Animals were offered ad libitum access to rice straw (4...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
The first indication of a potential mechanistic link between the pathobiology of the human gastrointestinal (GI)-tract microbiome and its contribution to the pathogenetic mechanisms of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) came a scant 4 years ago (1). Ongoing research continues to strengthen the hypothesis that neurotoxic microbial-derived components of the GI tract microbiome can cross aging GI tract and blood-brain barriers and contribute to progressive proinflammatory neurodegeneration, as exemplified by the AD-process...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Xin Zhou, Jing Li, Junli Guo, Bin Geng, Wenjie Ji, Qian Zhao, Jinlong Li, Xinlin Liu, Junxiang Liu, Zhaozeng Guo, Wei Cai, Yongqiang Ma, Dong Ren, Jun Miao, Shaobo Chen, Zhuoli Zhang, Junru Chen, Jiuchang Zhong, Wenbin Liu, Minghui Zou, Yuming Li, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Post-infarction cardiovascular remodeling and heart failure are the leading cause of myocardial infarction (MI)-driven death during the past decades. Experimental observations have involved intestinal microbiota in the susceptibility to MI in mice; however, in humans, identifying whether translocation of gut bacteria to systemic circulation contributes to cardiovascular events post-MI remains a major challenge. RESULTS: Here, we carried out a metagenomic analysis to characterize the systemic bacteria in a cohort of 49 healthy control individuals, 50 stable coronary heart disease (CHD) subjects, and 100 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
Maria Louise Leth, Morten Ejby, Christopher Workman, David Adrian Ewald, Signe Schultz Pedersen, Claus Sternberg, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht, Finn Lillelund Aachmann, Bjørge Westereng, Maher Abou Hachem
Metabolism of dietary glycans is pivotal in shaping the human gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms that promote competition for glycans among gut commensals remain unclear. Roseburia intestinalis, an abundant butyrate-producing Firmicute, is a key degrader of the major dietary fibre xylan. Despite the association of this taxon to a healthy microbiota, insight is lacking into its glycan utilization machinery. Here, we investigate the apparatus that confers R. intestinalis growth on different xylans. R...
April 2, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Chaoting Zhang, Ying Liu, Weijiao Gao, Yaqi Pan, Yunong Gao, Jing Shen, Hongchao Xiong
Cervical microbiota composition is associated with cervical HPV infection and CIN severity. Previous studies only assessed the total association between cervical microbiota and HPV infections or CINs, and yet no study reported the direct and indirect associations between cervical microbiota and CINs mediated by HPV infection, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect associations between microbiotas and CIN severity. Cervical microbiota of 126 women with CIN 1- (normal cytology and CIN 1) and 40 with CIN 2+ (CIN 2 and CIN 3) were analyzed using Illumina sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene...
April 2, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Gregory Arnal, Darrell W Cockburn, Harry Brumer, Nicole M Koropatkin
Bacteria that reside in the mammalian intestinal tract efficiently hydrolyze dietary carbohydrates, including starch, that escape digestion in the small intestine. Starch is an abundant dietary carbohydrate comprised of α1,4 and α1,6 linked glucose, yet mammalian intestinal glucoamylases cannot effectively hydrolyze starch that has frequent α1,6 branching as these structures hinder recognition and processing by α1,4-specific amylases. Here we present the structure of the cell surface amylase SusG from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron complexed with a mixed linkage amylosaccharide generated from transglycosylation during crystallization...
March 30, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Mori Kohji, Konishi Noriko, Suzuki Yasunori, Harada Sachiko, Maeda Masako, Akase Satoru, Obata Hiromi, Monma Chie, Nagano Miyuki, Kimoto Kana, Oda Mayuko, Somura Yoshiko, Hirai Akihiko, Shinkai Takayuki, Noda Mamoru, Sadamasu Kenji
Asymptomatic carriers have a major influence on the spreading of norovirus infections. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients and asymptomatic carriers affected by norovirus-related community gastroenteritis outbreaks. No significant difference between the two groups was observed in terms of the number of norovirus-antibody complexes with respect to total numbers. Principal coordinates analysis of the intestinal flora based on β-diversity analysis, revealed a different bacterial composition between patients and asymptomatic carriers, particularly regarding the genera Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, and Erwinia, as well as the Ruminococcaceae family...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Promi Das, Boyang Ji, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jens Nielsen
Network analysis of large metagenomic datasets generated by current sequencing technologies can reveal significant co-occurrence patterns between microbial species of a biological community. These patterns can be analyzed in terms of pairwise combinations between all species comprising a community. Here, we construct a co-occurrence network for abundant microbial species encompassing the three dominant phyla found in human gut. This was followed by an in vitro evaluation of the predicted microbe-microbe co-occurrences, where we chose species pairs Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, as well as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia inulinivorans as model organisms for our study...
2018: PloS One
Kathy N Lam, Eric C Martens, Trevor C Charles
Functional metagenomics is a powerful method that allows the isolation of genes whose role may not have been predicted from DNA sequence. In this approach, first, environmental DNA is cloned to generate metagenomic libraries that are maintained in Escherichia coli, and second, the cloned DNA is screened for activities of interest. Typically, functional screens are carried out using E. coli as a surrogate host, although there likely exist barriers to gene expression, such as lack of recognition of native promoters...
May 2018: MSystems
Yanmin Bao, Yinhu Li, Chuangzhao Qiu, Wenjian Wang, Zhenyu Yang, Lu Huang, Xin Feng, Yanhong Liu, Jing Li, Qian Zhou, Heping Wang, Dongfang Li, Hongmei Wang, Wenkui Dai, Yuejie Zheng
Background: Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a chronic purulent bronchitis which could cause recurrent coughing and wheezing in infants. Based on previous reports, main pathogens which caused PBB were identified in the patients, but their impacts on lung microbiota dysbiosis remain unclear. Methods: In this study, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected from PBB infants and tracheomalacia (TM) infants younger than 3 years old under the instruction of Shenzhen Children's Hospital, and 12 samples were randomly selected for 16S rDNA analysis in each group...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Matthew L Stoll, M Kathy Pierce, Jordan A Watkins, Mingce Zhang, Pamela F Weiss, Jennifer E Weiss, Charles O Elson, Randy Q Cron, Ranjit Kumar, Casey D Morrow, Trenton R Schoeb
Studies have identified abnormalities in the microbiota of patients with arthritis. To evaluate the pathogenicity of human microbiota, we performed fecal microbial transplantation from children with spondyloarthritis and controls to germ-free KRN/B6xNOD mice. Ankle swelling was equivalent in those that received patient vs. control microbiota. Principal coordinates analysis revealed incomplete uptake of the human microbiota with over-representation of two genera (Bacteroides and Akkermansia) among the transplanted mice...
March 24, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Andrew K Leight, Byron C Crump, Raleigh R Hood
Routine monitoring of shellfish growing waters for bacteria indicative of human sewage pollution reveals little about the bacterial communities that co-occur with these indicators. This study investigated the bacterial community, potential pathogens, and fecal indicator bacteria in 40 water samples from a shellfish growing area in the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bacterial community composition was quantified with deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and absolute gene abundances were estimated with an internal standard ( Thermus thermophilus genomes)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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