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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730548/orthopedic-infections-caused-by-obligatory-anaerobic-gram-negative-rods-report-of-two-cases
#1
Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pedzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grazyna Mlynarczyk
Anaerobic bone and joint infections are uncommon, although the number of anaerobic infections is presumably underestimated because of difficulties with isolation and identification of obligate anaerobes. This study describes two cases of complicated Bacteroides fragilis peri-implant infection of the lumbar spine, infection of the hip and osteomyelitis. Bacteria were identified with the use of a mass spectrometer, VITEK MS system. Drug susceptibility was performed with the use of E-test. The EUCAST breakpoints were used for interpretation with B...
July 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724349/16s-rrna-gene-based-association-study-identified-microbial-taxa-associated-with-pork-intramuscular-fat-content-in-feces-and-cecum-lumen
#2
Shaoming Fang, Xingwei Xiong, Ying Su, Lusheng Huang, Congying Chen
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) that deposits among muscle fibers or within muscle cells is an important meat quality trait in pigs. Previous studies observed the effects of dietary nutrients and additives on improving the pork IMF. Gut microbiome plays an important role in host metabolism and energy harvest. Whether gut microbiota exerts effect on IMF remains unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure of 500 samples from porcine cecum and feces using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
July 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719392/intestinal-microbiome-in-scleroderma-recent-progress
#3
Elizabeth R Volkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our evolving understanding of how gut microbiota affects immune function and homeostasis has led many investigators to explore the potentially pathologic role of gut microbiota in autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the rapidly advancing field of microbiome research in systemic sclerosis (SSc), an incurable autoimmune disease with significant gastrointestinal morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports have identified common perturbations in gut microbiota across different SSc cohorts...
July 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713349/the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-chilean-subjects-reveals-a-high-abundance-of-the-phylum-verrucomicrobia
#4
Sayaka Fujio-Vejar, Yessenia Vasquez, Pamela Morales, Fabien Magne, Patricia Vera-Wolf, Juan A Ugalde, Paola Navarrete, Martin Gotteland
The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712201/case-of-xanthogranulomatous-oophoritis
#5
Bushra Khan, Aliya Begum Aziz, Rashida Ahmed
Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is characterized by destruction of the tissues of the organ involved and replacement by chronic inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional neutrophils with or without multinucleated or Touton giant cells. Exact aetiology is not known but the theory of infection with organisms like Proteus, E coli, and Bacteroides fragilis is most popular. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is not common and usually involves the endometrium; however, xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the ovaries is a rare entity...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712163/molecular-characterization-of-fecal-microbiota-of-healthy-chinese-tobacco-smoker-subjects-in-shaanxi-province-xi-an-china
#6
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq, Muhammad Shahzad, Xiaokang Wu, Chaofeng Ma, Jiru Xu
BACKGROUND: Tobacco Smoking, most commonly, can cause the diseases affecting the lungs and heart. Human gut microbiota plays a key role to decide the health status of the host. Current study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chinese tobacco smokers and to study the alteration in diversity and similarity of gut microbiota, with comparison of healthy non-smokers. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from fourteen healthy tobacco smokers and six from healthy non-smoker individuals...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710611/bad-bacteria-in-acute-appendicitis-rare-but-relevant
#7
Alexander Reinisch, Patrizia Malkomes, Nils Habbe, Wolf Otto Bechstein, Juliane Liese
PURPOSE: Bacterial infections are a factor for morbidity in patients with acute appendicitis (AA). The spreading of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a significant problem in surgery, and the most relevant MDR pathogens are summarized as Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococci (ESKAPE) bacteria. Data regarding the species and distribution of bacteria in AA are available, but information about the resistances and their relevance is deficient...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709106/microcosms-for-evaluating-microbial-indicator-persistence-and-mobilization-in-fluvial-sediments-during-rainfall-events
#8
Julia Martín-Díaz, Cristina García-Aljaro, Míriam Pascual-Benito, Belén Galofré, Anicet R Blanch, Francisco Lucena
Mediterranean rivers, which are subject to long, dry periods and heavy rainfall events, could be particularly useful for understanding future climate scenarios. This study generated microcosms that mimicked riverbank sediment resuspension into the water of a typical Mediterranean river as a consequence of heavy rainfall. The mobilization and inactivation of six fecal pollution indicators and microbial source tracking markers were evaluated. The T90 values in the sediments were: 4 days for sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacterium, 11 days for culturable E...
July 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703874/the-functional-potential-and-active-populations-of-the-pit-mud-microbiome-for-the-production-of-chinese-strong-flavour-liquor
#9
Yong Tao, Xiang Wang, Xiangzhen Li, Na Wei, Hong Jin, Zhancheng Xu, Qinglan Tang, Xiaoyu Zhu
The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA)...
July 13, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702003/reduced-mass-and-diversity-of-the-colonic-microbiome-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-their-improvement-with-ketogenic-diet
#10
Alexander Swidsinski, Yvonne Dörffel, Vera Loening-Baucke, Christoph Gille, Önder Göktas, Anne Reißhauer, Jürgen Neuhaus, Karsten-Henrich Weylandt, Alexander Guschin, Markus Bock
Background: Colonic microbiome is thought to be involved in auto-immune multiple sclerosis (MS). Interactions between diet and the colonic microbiome in MS are unknown. Methods: We compared the composition of the colonic microbiota quantitatively in 25 MS patients and 14 healthy controls.Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 162 ribosomal RNA derived bacterial FISH probes was used. Ten of the MS patients received a ketogenic diet for 6 months. Changes in concentrations of 35 numerically substantial bacterial groups were monitored at baseline and at 2, 12, and 23/24 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700717/integrated-analysis-of-zone-specific-protein-and-metabolite-profiles-within-nitrogen-fixing-medicago-truncatula-sinorhizobium-medicae-nodules
#11
Aaron J Ogden, Mahmoud Gargouri, JeongJin Park, David R Gang, Michael L Kahn
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) between rhizobia and legumes requires metabolic coordination within specialized root organs called nodules. Nodules formed in the symbiosis between S. medicae and barrel medic (M. truncatula) are indeterminate, cylindrical, and contain spatially distinct developmental zones. Bacteria in the infection zone II (ZII), interzone II-III (IZ), and nitrogen fixation zone III (ZIII) represent different stages in the metabolic progression from free-living bacteria into nitrogen fixing bacteroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698467/effect-of-soy-isoflavones-on-growth-of-representative-bacterial-species-from-the-human-gut
#12
Lucía Vázquez, Ana Belén Flórez, Lucía Guadamuro, Baltasar Mayo
The present work aimed to assess the susceptibility of dominant and representative bacterial populations from the human gut to isoflavones and their metabolites. To do so, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isoflavone glycosides, isoflavone aglycones, and equol to 37 bacterial strains was determined by broth microdilution. Additionally, for 10 representative strains, growth curves, growth rate (μ), and optical density (OD600 nm) of the cultures at 24 h were also determined. MICs of daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein were >2048 μg mL(-1) for all strains assayed, while that of equol ranged from 16 μg mL(-1) for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694488/outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-by-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-bacteroides-fragilis-represent-different-metabolic-activities
#13
Natalya B Zakharzhevskaya, Anna A Vanyushkina, Ilya A Altukhov, Aleksey L Shavarda, Ivan O Butenko, Daria V Rakitina, Anastasia S Nikitina, Aleksandr I Manolov, Alina N Egorova, Eugene E Kulikov, Innokentii E Vishnyakov, Gleb Y Fisunov, Vadim M Govorun
Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694294/bacteroides-fragilis-enterotoxin-induces-the-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-endothelial-cells-but-interferes-their-autophagosomal-fusion-with-lysosomes-for-complete-autophagic-flux-through-a-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-ap-1-and-c-ebp-homologous-protein
#14
Su Hyuk Ko, Jong Ik Jeon, Hyun Soo Myung, Young-Jeon Kim, Jung Mogg Kim
Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), plays an essential role in mucosal inflammation. Although autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse infectious diseases, little is known about autophagy in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the role of BFT in the autophagic process in endothelial cells (ECs). Stimulation of human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) with BFT increased LC3-II conversion from LC3-I and protein expression of p62, Atg5 and Atg12...
July 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694023/reactivity-toward-bifidobacterium-longum-and-enterococcus-hirae-demonstrate-robust-cd8-t-cell-response-and-better-prognosis-in-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Yihui Rong, Zheng Dong, Zhixian Hong, Yun Jin, Wei Zhang, Bailong Zhang, Wei Mao, Huifang Kong, Chunping Wang, Bin Yang, Xudong Gao, Zhenyu Song, Susan E Green, Haihan K Song, Hongbo Wang, Yinying Lu
Recent studies suggest that several bacterial species are involved in tumor immunosurveillance and antitumor immunity. The role of bacteria in immune responses in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is still unknown. In this study, we examined the bacteria-reactive CD8(+) T cell response in patients with HBV-related HCC. We found that circulating CD8(+) T cells from healthy individuals demonstrated minimal or zero specificity toward a series of commensals and bacteria previously associated with antitumor effects, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium longum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Enterococcus hirae...
July 7, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693916/phosphonodifluoropyruvate-is-a-mechanism-based-inhibitor-of-phosphonopyruvate-decarboxylase-from-bacteroides-fragilis
#16
Katharina Pallitsch, Megan P Rogers, Forest H Andrews, Friedrich Hammerschmidt, Michael J McLeish
Bacteroides fragilis, a human pathogen, helps in the formation of intra-abdominal abscesses and is involved in 90% of anaerobic peritoneal infections. Phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase (PnPDC), a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme, plays a key role in the formation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate, a component of the cell wall of B. fragilis. As such PnPDC is a possible target for therapeutic intervention in this, and other phosphonate producing organisms. However, the enzyme is of more general interest as it appears to be an evolutionary forerunner to the decarboxylase family of ThDP-dependent enzymes...
June 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690602/geography-ethnicity-or-subsistence-specific-variations-in-human-microbiome-composition-and-diversity
#17
REVIEW
Vinod K Gupta, Sandip Paul, Chitra Dutta
One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats-Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review focuses on the general trend in the human microbiome evolution-a gradual transition in the gross compositional structure along with a continual decrease in diversity of the microbiome, especially of the gut microbiome, as the human populations passed through three stages of subsistence like foraging, rural farming and industrialized urban western life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686482/outer-membrane-vesicles-blebbing-contributes-to-b-vulgatus-mpk-mediated-immune-response-silencing
#18
Jan Kevin Maerz, Alex Steimle, Anna Lange, Annika Bender, Birgit Fehrenbacher, Julia-Stefanie Frick
The Gram negative intestinal symbiont Bacteroides vulgatus mpk is able to prevent from induction of colonic inflammation in Rag1(-/-) mice and promotes immune balance in Il2(-/-) mice. These inflammation-silencing effects are associated with B. vulgatus mpk-mediated induction of semi-mature dendritic cells, especially in the colonic lamina propria (cLP). However the beneficial interaction of bacteria with host immune cells is limited due to the existence of a large mucus layer covering the intestinal epithelium...
July 7, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685630/the-potential-role-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Maitham Abbas Khajah
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of an unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis involves an interplay of infectious, genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The current therapeutic options have various limitations in terms of cost, side effect profile, and the development of drug resistance and dependence. Therefore, there is a need to develop future therapeutic options which are safe and effective to control the inflammatory process. This review focuses in a method for the administration of fecal matters (which contains a mixture of various commensals) from a healthy donor to the inflamed colon called fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) aiming to correct the underlying dysbiosis in the gut as one of the major driving force for the inflammatory process...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683448/gut-microbiota-in-health-diverticular-disease-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-time-for-microbial-marker-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#20
Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Elisa Schiavoni, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Andrea Poscia, Eleonora Gaetani, Francesco Franceschi, Giovanni Cammarota, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Luca Masucci, Franco Scaldaferri, Antonio Gasbarrini
Few data exist on differences in gut microbiota composition among principal gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. We evaluated the differences in gut microbiota composition among uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. DD, IBS, and IBD patients along with healthy controls (CT) were enrolled in our Italian GI outpatient clinic. Stool samples were collected. Microbiota composition was evaluated through a metagenomic gene-targeted approach...
July 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases
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