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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#1
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198673/diversity-and-enterotype-in-gut-bacterial-community-of-adults-in-taiwan
#2
Chao Liang, Han-Chi Tseng, Hui-Mei Chen, Wei-Chi Wang, Chih-Min Chiu, Jen-Yun Chang, Kuan-Yi Lu, Shun-Long Weng, Tzu-Hao Chang, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chen-Tsung Weng, Hwei-Ming Wang, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal microbiota, particularly gut microbiota, is associated with human health. The biodiversity of gut microbiota is affected by ethnicities and environmental factors such as dietary habits or medicine intake, and three enterotypes of the human gut microbiome were announced in 2011. These enterotypes are not significantly correlated with gender, age, or body weight but are influenced by long-term dietary habits. However, to date, only two enterotypes (predominantly consisting of Bacteroides and Prevotella) have shown these characteristics in previous research; the third enterotype remains ambiguous...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197360/enhancing-the-clinical-coverage-and-anticancer-efficacy-of-immune-checkpoint-blockade-through-manipulation-of-the-gut-microbiota
#3
Jonathan M Pitt, Marie Vétizou, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Patricia Lepage, Mathias Chamaillard, Laurence Zitvogel
Although anticancer therapy with immune checkpoint blockers has seen unprecedented success, it fails to control neoplasia in most patients and often causes immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Our recent research shows the immunostimulatory and antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species of the gut microbiota, signifying novel approaches to improve such immunotherapies.
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196137/effects-of-dietary-nutrient-levels-on-microbial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-the-ileal-contents-of-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#4
Yujiao Ji, Xiangfeng Kong, Huawei Li, Qian Zhu, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194995/aerobic-anoxygenic-phototrophs-in-gold-mine-tailings-in-nopiming-provincial-park-manitoba-canada
#5
Elizabeth Hughes, Breanne Head, Chris Maltman, Michele Piercey-Normore, Vladimir Yurkov
A sampling trip to Central Gold Mine, Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, was taken in September 2011. Abundance, distribution, and physiology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAP) from 4 locations were studied. Enumeration revealed 14.6% of culturable microbes were AAP. Five strains (NM4.16, NM4.18, C4, C9, C11) were chosen for analysis. All grow best on complex media without vitamin requirements and with an optimal pH 7.0-8.0, with strain C4 preferring pH 6.0. Strain NM4.18 tolerates the highest pH 11.0. Optimal temperature for all is 28 °C (range of 2-37 °C except NM4...
February 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#6
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185880/water-quality-at-points-of-use-in-the-galapagos-islands
#7
William A Gerhard, Wan Suk Choi, Kelly M Houck, Jill R Stewart
Piped drinking water is often considered a gold standard for protecting public health but research is needed to explicitly evaluate the effect of centralized treatment systems on water quality in developing world settings. This study examined the effect of a new drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) on microbial drinking water quality at the point-of-use on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos using fecal indicator bacteria total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Samples were collected during six collection periods before and after operation of the DWTP began from the freshwater sources (n=4), the finished water (n=6), and 50 sites throughout the distribution system (n=287)...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183172/dynamic-changes-of-yak-bos-grunniens-gut-microbiota-during-growth-revealed-by-pcr-dgge-and-metagenomics
#8
Yuanyang Nie, Zhiwei Zhou, Jiuqiang Guan, Baixue Xia, Xiaolin Luo, Yang Yang, Yu Fu, Qun Sun
Objective: To understand the dynamic structure, function, and influence on nutrient metabolism in hosts, it was crucial to assess the genetic potential of gut microbial community in yaks of different ages. Method: The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing on colon content of 15 semi-domestic yaks were investigated. Unweighted pairwise grouping method with mathematical averages (UPGMA) clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to analize the DGGE fingerprint...
January 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179092/altered-molecular-signature-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-compared-with-healthy-controls-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Hai-Ning Liu, Hao Wu, Yu-Zhuo Chen, Yan-Jie Chen, Xi-Zhong Shen, Tao-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported significant changes in intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients based on quantitative real-time PCR analysis. AIMS: We aimed to review the alterations in intestinal microbiota. METHODS: An online search up to June 9, 2016, was conducted. This systematic review and meta-analysis included differential expression of intestinal microbiota in patients with IBS versus healthy controls (HCs) and subgroup analysis...
January 21, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171819/mobilisation-of-microbial-indicators-microbial-source-tracking-markers-and-pathogens-after-rainfall-events
#10
Cristina García-Aljaro, Julia Martín-Díaz, Enric Viñas-Balada, William Calero-Cáceres, Francisco Lucena, Anicet R Blanch
Climate change is expected to affect the Mediterranean region by causing an increase in the number of heavy rainfall events. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extreme river flow variations due to rainfall on the persistence and mobilisation of various microorganisms. These included faecal pollution indicators (Escherichia coli (EC), somatic coliphages (SOMCPH) and sulphite reducing clostridia spores (SRC)), microbial source tracking indicators (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 strain phages (GA17PH) and sorbitol fermenting bifidobacteria (SFBIF)), and two pathogens (Salmonella spp and Enterovirus)...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170428/comparative-study-on-the-in-vitro-effects-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-seaweed-alginates-on-human-gut-microbiota
#11
Shaofeng Bai, Huahai Chen, Liying Zhu, Wei Liu, Hongwei D Yu, Xin Wang, Yeshi Yin
Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169531/branimycins-b-and-c-antibiotics-produced-by-the-abyssal-actinobacterium-pseudonocardia-carboxydivorans-m-227
#12
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Luis Otero, Jonathan Fernández, Juan José Palacios, Jesús Martín, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
Two new antibiotics, branimycins B (2) and C (3), were produced by fermentation of the abyssal actinobacterium Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans M-227, isolated from deep seawater of the Avilés submarine Canyon. Their structures were elucidated by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds exhibit antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria, including Corynebacterium urealyticum, Clostridium perfringens, and Micrococcus luteus, and against the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169321/a-new-perspective-on-studying-burial-environment-before-archaeological-excavation-analyzing-bacterial-community-distribution-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#13
Jinjin Xu, Yanfei Wei, Hanqing Jia, Lin Xiao, Decai Gong
Burial conditions play a crucial role in archaeological heritage preservation. Especially, the microorganisms were considered as the leading causes which incurred degradation and vanishment of historic materials. In this article, we analyzed bacterial diversity and community structure from M1 of Wangshanqiao using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that microbial communities in burial conditions were diverse among four different samples. The samples from the robber hole varied most obviously in community structure both in Alpha and Beta diversity...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167938/comparative-analysis-of-the-bacterial-membrane-disruption-effect-of-two-natural-plant-antimicrobial-peptides
#14
Attila Farkas, Gergely Maróti, Attila Kereszt, Éva Kondorosi
In the Medicago truncatula genome about 700 genes code for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) small peptides that are expressed in the symbiotic organ, the root nodule, where they control terminal differentiation of the endosymbiotic rhizobium bacteria to nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Cationic NCR peptides were predicted to have antimicrobial activities. Here antibacterial activities of NCR247, NCR335, polymyxin B (PMB), and streptomycin were investigated and compared on two foodborne pathogens Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes as representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167665/microbial-strain-level-population-structure-and-genetic-diversity-from-metagenomes
#15
Duy Tin Truong, Adrian Tett, Edoardo Pasolli, Curtis Huttenhower, Nicola Segata
Among the human health conditions linked to microbial communities, phenotypes are often associated with only a subset of strains within causal microbial groups. While it has been critical for decades in microbial physiology to characterize individual strains, this has been challenging when using culture-independent high-throughput metagenomics. We introduce StrainPhlAn, a novel metagenomic strain identification approach, and apply it to characterize the genetic structure of thousands of strains from >125 species in >1,500 gut metagenomes drawn from populations spanning North/South American, European, Asian, and African countries...
February 6, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167213/metagenomics-approach-to-the-study-of-the-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-fed-with-gluten-formulated-diet
#16
Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A Hakim, Mickie L Powell, Ranjit Kumar, Peter G Eipers, Casey D Morrow, Michael Crowley, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163966/an-active-principle-of-nigella-sativa-l-thymoquinone-showing-significant-antimicrobial-activity-against-anaerobic-bacteria
#17
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159789/cross-comparison-of-human-wastewater-associated-molecular-markers-in-relation-to-fecal-indicator-bacteria-and-enteric-viruses-in-recreational-beach-waters
#18
B Hughes, D Beale, P G Dennis, S Cook, W Ahmed
: Detecting human wastewater contamination in recreational waters is of critical importance to regulators due to the risks posed to public health. To identify such risks, human wastewater associated microbial source tracking (MST) markers have been developed. At present, however, greater understanding of the suitability of these markers for the detection of diluted human wastewater in environmental waters is necessary to predict risk. Here, we compared the process limit of detection (PLOD) and quantification (PLOQ) of six human wastewater associated MST markers [Bacteroides HF183 (HF183), E...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151975/colonization-with-enterotoxigenic-bacteroides-fragilis-is-associated-with-early-stage-colorectal-neoplasia
#19
Rachel V Purcell, John Pearson, Alan Aitchison, Liane Dixon, Frank A Frizelle, Jacqueline I Keenan
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is a toxin-producing bacteria thought to possibly promote colorectal carcinogenesis by modulating the mucosal immune response and inducing epithelial cell changes. Here, we aim to examine the association of colonic mucosal colonization with ETBF and the presence of a range of lesions on the colonic neoplastic spectrum. METHODS: Mucosal tissue from up to four different colonic sites was obtained from a consecutive series of 150 patients referred for colonoscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144631/studying-vertical-microbiome-transmission-from-mothers-to-infants-by-strain-level-metagenomic-profiling
#20
Francesco Asnicar, Serena Manara, Moreno Zolfo, Duy Tin Truong, Matthias Scholz, Federica Armanini, Pamela Ferretti, Valentina Gorfer, Anna Pedrotti, Adrian Tett, Nicola Segata
The gut microbiome becomes shaped in the first days of life and continues to increase its diversity during the first months. Links between the configuration of the infant gut microbiome and infant health are being shown, but a comprehensive strain-level assessment of microbes vertically transmitted from mother to infant is still missing. We collected fecal and breast milk samples from multiple mother-infant pairs during the first year of life and applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing followed by computational strain-level profiling...
January 2017: MSystems
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