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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045349/male-specific-association-between-fat-free-mass-index-and-faecal-microbiota-in-2-to-3-year-old-australian-children
#1
Paula Smith-Brown, Mark Morrison, Lutz Krause, Peter S W Davies
OBJECTIVES: Maturation of the gut microbiota has been shown to influence childhood growth while alterations in microbiota composition are proposed to be causally related to the development of overweight and obesity. The objective of this study is to explore the association between microbiota profile, body size and body composition in young children. METHODS: Faecal microbiota was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing while body composition was assessed using the deuterium oxide dilution technique in a cohort of 37 well-nourished 2 to 3 year old Australian children...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038461/the-bacteroidales-produce-an-n-acylated-derivative-of-glycine-with-both-cholesterol-solubilising-and-hemolytic-activity
#2
Alli Lynch, Elaine Crowley, Eoghan Casey, Rafael Cano, Rachel Shanahan, Ger McGlacken, Julian R Marchesi, David J Clarke
The contribution of the gut microbiota to the metabolism of cholesterol is not well understood. In this study, we identify 21 fosmid clones from a human gut microbiome metagenomic library that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, produce halos on LB agar supplemented with 0.01% (w/v) cholesterol (LBC agar). Analysis of 14 of these clones revealed that they all share a fragment of DNA with homology to the genome of Bacteroides vulgatus. The gene responsible for halo production on LBC agar, named choA, was identified as an N-acyltransferase known to produce an acylated glycine molecule called commendamide...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038457/bacteriome-genetic-structures-of-urban-deposits-are-indicative-of-their-origin-and-impacted-by-chemical-pollutants
#3
Romain Marti, Céline Bécouze-Lareure, Sébastien Ribun, Laurence Marjolet, Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Jean-Baptiste Aubin, Gislain Lipeme Kouyi, Laure Wiest, Didier Blaha, Benoit Cournoyer
Urban activities generate surface deposits over impervious surfaces that can represent ecological and health hazards. Bacteriome genetic structures of deposits washed off during rainfall events, over an urban industrial watershed, were inferred from 16 S rRNA gene (rrs) sequences generated by high throughput sequencing. Deposits were sampled over a 4 year-period from a detention basin (DB). Major shifts, matching key management practices, in the structure of these urban bacteriomes, were recorded. Correlation analyses of rrs similarities between samples and their respective concentrations in chemical pollutants, markers of human fecal contaminations (HF183) and antimicrobial resistances (integrons), were performed...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034108/intestinal-microbiota-changes-in-mice-lacking-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-bifidobacteria-make-the-difference
#4
Markus M Heimesaat, Gernot Reifenberger, Viktoria Vicena, Anita Illes, Gabriella Horvath, Andrea Tamas, Balazs D Fulop, Stefan Bereswill, Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypetide (PACAP) constitutes a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the host exerting essential cytoprotective properties, whereas PACAP(-/-) mice display increased susceptibility to distinct immunopathological conditions. The orchestrated interplay between the gut microbiota and the host is pivotal in immune homeostasis and resistance to disease. Potential pertubations of the intestinal microbiota in PACAP(-/-) mice, however, have not been addressed so far. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive survey of the intestinal microbiota composition in PACAP(-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice starting 2 weeks postpartum until 18 months of age applying quantitative culture-independent techniques...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033923/emerging-trends-in-smart-probiotics-functional-consideration-for-the-development-of-novel-health-and-industrial-applications
#5
REVIEW
Racha El Hage, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Tom Van de Wiele
The link between gut microbiota and human health is well-recognized and described. This ultimate impact on the host has contributed to explain the mutual dependence between humans and their gut bacteria. Gut microbiota can be manipulated through passive or active strategies. The former includes diet, lifestyle, and environment, while the latter comprise antibiotics, pre- and probiotics. Historically, conventional probiotic strategies included a phylogenetically limited diversity of bacteria and some yeast strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028448/characterization-of-the-stool-microbiome-in-hispanic-preschool-children-by-weight-status-and-time
#6
Emily B Hollister, Byron A Foster, Mahmoud Dahdouli, Jesica Ramirez, Zhao Lai
BACKGROUND: Variations in gut microbiota composition and diversity have been associated with childhood adiposity, although most studies describing this have been cross-sectional in nature. Our objective was to evaluate associations between body weight and the gut microbiota over time in obese preschool-age children. METHODS: Obese, preschool-age, Hispanic children provided stool samples at baseline and following a 6-month behavioral intervention. Normal-weight (NW) children also provided stool samples...
October 13, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028412/the-bacteroid-periplasm-in-soybean-nodules-is-an-interkingdom-symbiotic-space
#7
Kent N Strodtman, Severin E Stevenson, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney, Jay J Thelen, Joseph C Polacco, David W Emerich
The functional role of the periplasm of nitrogen-fixing bacteroids has not been determined. Proteins were isolated from the periplasm and cytoplasm of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens bacteroids and were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics. Identification of bacteroid periplasmic proteins was aided by periplasm prediction programs. Approximately 40% of all the proteins identified as periplasmic in the B. diazoefficiens genome were found expressed in the bacteroid form of the bacteria, indicating the periplasm is a metabolically active symbiotic space...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026604/transglucosidase-improves-the-bowel-movements-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-preliminary-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#8
Akihiro Shimozato, Makoto Sasaki, Naotaka Ogasawara, Yasushi Funaki, Masahide Ebi, Chiho Goto, Satoshi Koikeda, Takashi Joh, Kunio Kasugai
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the relationship between gut microbiota and bowel movements. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate transglucosidase treatment efficacy for bowel movements in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to clarify the relationship between bowel movements, dietary habits, gut microbiota and fecal short-chain fatty acids. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 66 patients received placebo or transglucosidase (300 or 900 mg/day) orally, for 12 weeks...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023377/response-of-intestinal-bacterial-flora-to-the-long-term-feeding-of-aflatoxin-b1-afb1-in-mice
#9
Xiai Yang, Liangliang Liu, Jing Chen, Aiping Xiao
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed...
October 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022389/the-composition-and-metabolism-of-faecal-microbiota-is-specifically-modulated-by-different-dietary-polysaccharides-and-mucin-an-isothermal-microcalorimetry-study
#10
K Adamberg, K Kolk, M Jaagura, R Vilu, S Adamberg
The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018117/reciprocal-prioritization-to-dietary-glycans-by-gut-bacteria-in-a-competitive-environment-promotes-stable-coexistence
#11
Yunus E Tuncil, Yao Xiao, Nathan T Porter, Bradley L Reuhs, Eric C Martens, Bruce R Hamaker
When presented with nutrient mixtures, several human gut Bacteroides species exhibit hierarchical utilization of glycans through a phenomenon that resembles catabolite repression. However, it is unclear how closely these observed physiological changes, often measured by altered transcription of glycan utilization genes, mirror actual glycan depletion. To understand the glycan prioritization strategies of two closely related human gut symbionts, Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, we performed a series of time course assays in which both species were individually grown in a medium with six different glycans that both species can degrade...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017951/identification-of-cfia-coding-genes-in-bacteroides-fragilis-isolates-recovered-in-argentina-inconsistencies-in-cfia-organization-and-nomenclature
#12
Mirta R Litterio, Daniela Cejas, Gabriel Gutkind, Marcela Radice
CfiA (CcrA) metallo-β-lactamase is the main carbapenem resistance mechanism in B. fragilis. From cfiA positive isolates detected in a previous surveillance study, 3 displayed resistance to imipenem while the remaining were susceptible. The aim of this study was to identify the cfiA alleles and to analyze the presence of IS elements in their upstream regions. CfiA-1, CfiA-4, CfiA-13, CfiA-19 and CfiA-22 were detected. IS elements belonging to IS21 family and IS942 group were identified upstream to cfiA in the 3 imipenem resistant isolates...
October 7, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017628/effects-of-microencapsulated-lactobacillus-plantarum-lip-1-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-hyperlipidaemic-rats
#13
Jiao J Song, Wen J Tian, Lai-Yu Kwok, Ya L Wang, Yi N Shang, Bilige Menghe, Jun G Wang
The in vivo effects of administering free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 cells (2·0×109 colony-forming units/d) were evaluated in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Results from real-time quantitative PCR targeting to LIP-1 cells showed a higher colon colonisation count of LIP-1 in the rats receiving microencapsulated cells compared with free cells (P<0·05). Moreover, the microencapsulated LIP-1 treatment resulted in a more obvious lipid-lowering effect (P<0·05). Meanwhile, their faecal samples had significantly less lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria (especially Bilophila, Sutterella and Oscillibacter) and mucosa-damaging bacteria (Bilophila and Akkermansia muciniphila), whereas significantly more SCFA-producing bacteria (P<0·05) (namely Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Ruminococcus) and bacteria that potentially possessed bile salt hydrolase activity (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus), and other beneficial bacteria (Alistipes and Turicibacter)...
October 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990221/growth-performance-of-piglets-during-the-first-two-weeks-of-lactation-affects-the-development-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#14
B Morissette, G Talbot, C Beaulieu, M Lessard
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of newborn piglet weight gain during the first 2 weeks of lactation on the luminal and mucosal microbiota of the ileum and colon. The microbiota from high-weight-gain (HWG) and low-weight-gain (LWG) 2-week-old piglets was characterized by amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) and compared using diversity indices and multivariate statistical analyses. At birth, LWG piglets weighted in average 0.26 kg less than HWG piglets (p = .002). The weight difference between LWG and HWG piglets increased with time and reached 2...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986386/bacterial-isolates-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-from-odontogenic-abscesses-in-rabbits-48-cases
#15
Sara Gardhouse, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Joanne Paul-Murphy, Barbara A Byrne, Michelle G Hawkins
The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched from 2000 through 2014 for records of client-owned rabbits with positive cultures from odontogenic abscesses. Data reviewed included sex, age, abscess location, sampling technique, previous antimicrobial treatments, microorganisms identified and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacteria. Forty-eight client owned rabbits with one or more odontogenic abscesses and culture results were evaluated. One hundred and eighty-five isolates (52 aerobic, 133 anaerobic) were identified from 61 positive cultures from odontogenic abscesses...
October 6, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982977/3-sulfo-galactosyl-dependent-adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-hs-multivalent-adhesion-molecule-is-attenuated-by-sulfatase-activity
#16
Fitua Al-Saedi, Diana Pereira Vaz, Daniel H Stones, Anne Marie Krachler
Bacterial adhesion to host receptors is an early and essential step in bacterial colonization, and the nature of adhesin-receptor interactions determines bacterial localization and thus the outcome of these interactions. Here, we determined the host receptors for the Multivalent Adhesion Molecule (MAM) from the gut commensal E. coli HS (MAMHS), which contains an array of seven mammalian cell entry (MCE) domains. The MAMHS adhesin interacted with a range of host receptors, through recognition of a shared 3-O-sulfo-galactosyl moiety...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979254/illumina-sequencing-approach-to-characterize-thiamine-metabolism-related-bacteria-and-the-impacts-of-thiamine-supplementation-on-ruminal-microbiota-in-dairy-cows-fed-high-grain-diets
#17
Xiaohua Pan, Fuguang Xue, Xuemei Nan, Zhiwen Tang, Kun Wang, Yves Beckers, Linshu Jiang, Benhai Xiong
The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979240/effect-of-functional-oligosaccharides-and-ordinary-dietary-fiber-on-intestinal-microbiota-diversity
#18
Weiwei Cheng, Jing Lu, Boxing Li, Weishi Lin, Zheng Zhang, Xiao Wei, Chengming Sun, Mingguo Chi, Wei Bi, Bingjun Yang, Aimin Jiang, Jing Yuan
Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978875/agaro-oligosaccharides-regulate-gut-microbiota-and-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-mice
#19
Yasuki Higashimura, Yasunori Baba, Ryo Inoue, Tomohisa Takagi, Katsura Mizushima, Hiromu Ohnogi, Akira Honda, Yasushi Matsuzaki, Yuji Naito
Gut microbiota are deeply associated with the prevalence of obesity. Agarose is hydrolyzed easily to yield oligosaccharides, designated as agaro-oligosaccharides (AGO). This study evaluated the effects of AGO on obese phenotype and gut microbial composition in mice. Mice were administered AGO in drinking water (AGO-receiving mice). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses revealed their fecal microbiota profiles. Serum bile acids were ascertained using a LC-MS/MS system. Compared to the control group, AGO administration significantly reduced epididymal adipose tissue weights and serum non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, but the cecal content weights were increased...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976925/prebiotics-mediate-microbial-interactions-in-a-consortium-of-the-infant-gut-microbiome
#20
Daniel A Medina, Francisco Pinto, Aline Ovalle, Pamela Thomson, Daniel Garrido
Composition of the gut microbiome is influenced by diet. Milk or formula oligosaccharides act as prebiotics, bioactives that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes. The influence of prebiotics on microbial interactions is not well understood. Here we investigated the transformation of prebiotics by a consortium of four representative species of the infant gut microbiome, and how their interactions changed with dietary substrates. First, we optimized a culture medium resembling certain infant gut parameters...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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