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staging of glioma

Jeremy Tetsuo Miyauchi, Stella E Tsirka
Gliomas are primary malignancies of the brain. Tumors are staged based on malignancy, nuclear atypia, and infiltration of the surrounding brain parenchyma. Tumors are often diagnosed once patients become symptomatic, at which time the lesion is sizable. Glioblastoma (grade IV glioma) is highly aggressive and difficult to treat. Most tumors are diagnosed de novo. The gold standard of therapy, implemented over a decade ago, consists of fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide, but unfortunately, chemotherapeutic resistance arises...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurology
Supriya Gujjar Suresh, Arathi Srinivasan, Julius Xavier Scott, Santosh Mohan Rao, Balasubramaniam Chidambaram, Sanjay Chandrasekar
Context: Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute the second most common pediatric cancers. Unlike leukemia, management of CNS tumors requires a good multidisciplinary team. Higher rates of treatment abandonment are documented in view of complexity of the treatment with long duration, involving neurosurgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and high cost of treatment. Morbidity associated with CNS tumors may be significant in terms of physical deficits as well as neuropsychological and neuroendocrine sequelae...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Shi-Yang Xie, Guang Li, Chong Han, Yang-Yang Yu, Nan Li
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is exceptionally deadly because the tumors lack sensitive early-stage diagnostic biomarkers and are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) in NSCLC radioresistance. The clinical data showed that the RKIP expression level was generally lower in radioresistant NSCLC tissues than in radiosensitive tissues. Reduced RKIP expression was related to NSCLC radioresistance and poor prognosis. In vitro experiments showed that RKIP knockdown increased radioresistance and metastatic ability in NSCLC cell lines...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
M J Lobon-Iglesias, G Giraud, D Castel, C Philippe, M A Debily, C Briandet, F Fouyssac, E de Carli, C Dufour, D Valteau-Couanet, C Sainte-Rose, T Blauwblomme, K Beccaria, M Zerah, S Puget, R Calmon, N Boddaert, S Bolle, P Varlet, J Grill
Children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) need new and more efficient treatments. They can be developed at relapse or at diagnosis, but therefore they must be combined with radiotherapy. Survival of children after recurrence and its predictors were studied to inform the possibility to design early phase clinical trials for DIPG at this stage. Among 142 DIPG patients treated between 1998 and 2014, 114 had biopsy-proven DIPG with histone H3 status available for 83. We defined as long survivors' patients who survived more than 3 months after relapse which corresponds to the minimal life expectancy requested for phase I/II trials...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
David J Pisapia
CONTEXT: - In the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors, our concept of infiltrating gliomas as a molecular dichotomy between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumors has been codified. Advances in animal models of glioma and a wealth of sophisticated molecular analyses of human glioma tissue have led to a greater understanding of some of the biologic underpinnings of gliomagenesis. OBJECTIVE: - To review our understanding of gliomagenesis in the setting of the recently updated WHO classification of central nervous system tumors...
December 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Wenyang Zhao, Fei Peng, Mengting Shu, Huailei Liu, Xu Hou, Xiaoxiong Wang, Junyi Ye, Boxian Zhao, Kaikai Wang, Chen Zhong, Linmeng Xue, Ming Gao, Yaohua Liu, Shiguang Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glioma is the most devastating cancer in the brain and has a poor prognosis in adults. Therefore, there is a critical need for novel therapeutic strategies for the management of glioma patients. Isogambogenic acid, an active compound extracted from the Chinese herb Garcinia hanburyi, induces autophagic cell death. METHODS: Cell viability was detected with MTT assays. Cell proliferation was assessed using the colony formation assay. Morphological changes associated with autophagy and apoptosis were tested by TEM and Hoechst staining, respectively...
November 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Tieyi Hu, Jiazhuang Xi
Background: Malignant glioma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and is known to exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity in its deregulation of different oncogenic pathways. The molecular subclasses of human glioma are not well known. Thus, it is crucial to identify vital oncogenic pathways in glioma with significant relationships to patient survival. Methods: In this study, we devised a bioinformatics strategy to map patterns of oncogenic pathway activation in glioma, from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hussein Abbas, Ngoc Hoang Bao Bui, Kimal Rajapakshe, Justin Wong, Preethi Gunaratne, Kenneth Y Tsai, Cristian Coarfa, Elsa R Flores
TP63 is required to maintain stem cell pluripotency and suppresses the metastatic potential of cancer cells through multiple mechanisms. These functions are differentially regulated by individual isoforms, necessitating a deeper understanding of how the distinct transcriptional programs controlled by these isoforms affect cancer progression and outcomes. In this study, we conducted a pan-cancer analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify transcriptional networks regulated by TAp63 and ΔNp63 using transcriptomes derived from epidermal cells of TAp63-/- and ΔNp63-/- mice...
November 27, 2017: Cancer Research
Tao Liu, Chanji Wu, Guohu Weng, Zhongyan Zhao, Xiangying He, Chuanyi Fu, Zhiyan Sui, Shi-Xiong Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prior studies have shown that bufalin inhibits cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in various human cancers. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) has been shown to function as an important regulator of tumor progression at various stages. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-203 expression and bufalin treatment on glioma cell proliferation and stem cell-like phenotypes. METHODS: We used cell viability assay, colony formation assay, cell apoptosis assay and neurosphere formation assay to dectect the treatment effect of bufalin on U251 and U87 cells...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hannah Schneider, Birthe Lohmann, Hans-Georg Wirsching, Kathy Hasenbach, Elisabeth J Rushing, Karl Frei, Martin Pruschy, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Michael Weller
The poor prognosis associated with advanced age in patients with glioblastoma remains poorly understood. Glioblastoma in the elderly has been particularly associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angiogenesis, and early uncontrolled studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic agent bevacizumab (BEV), an antibody to VEGF, might be preferentially active in this patient population. Accordingly, we explored host age-dependent differences in survival and benefit from radiotherapy (RT) or BEV in syngeneic mouse glioma models...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
Kimberly M Arnold, Ryan T Pohlig, Jennifer Sims-Mourtada
Hedgehog (HH) and Wnt pathway activation have been implicated in poor prognosis of breast cancer. Crosstalk between these two pathways has been demonstrated to be important in breast cancer progression, however the association between these two pathways and breast cancer survival rate is unknown. The present study comprised a cohort of 36 patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) to investigate co-activation of HH and canonical Wnt pathway in association to patient outcome. All patients had varying degrees of cytoplasmic sonic HH and glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli)-1 staining, which positively correlated with tumor stage...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
Wenting Rui, Yan Ren, Yin Wang, Xinyi Gao, Xiao Xu, Zhenwei Yao
BACKGROUND: The genetic status of 1p/19q is important for differentiating oligodendroglioma, isocitrate-dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant, and 1p/19q-codeleted from diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. PURPOSE: To assess the value of magnetic resonance textural analysis (MRTA) on T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for making a genetically integrated diagnosis of true oligodendroglioma by WHO guidelines...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Chunming Jiang, Fang Shen, Jianmin Du, Xiang Fang, Xiaoli Li, Jin Su, Xiaohua Wang, Xianmei Huang, Zhangli Liu
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies suggested autophagy was involved in temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioma. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CASC2 was shown to be downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and was related to the TMZ resistance. However, whether CASC2 affects TMZ resistance through regulating autophagy is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the role and mechanism of CASC2 in TMZ-induced drug resistance in glioma cells. METHODS: Glioma and the adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 32 patients were collected...
November 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
J Sun, D-M Li, J Huang, J Liu, B Sun, D-L Fu, G-S Mao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the depolymerization in metalloproteinase (ADAM17), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the expression of Ki-67 of glioma patients and the correlations with malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 53 brain glioma samples resected from patients who had surgery from April 2015 to May 2016 at Chinese People's Armed Police Force General Hospital were selected. According to the degree of malignancy: 22 patients were divided into a deterioration group (stage I to II); 31 patients in highly deteriorated group (stage III to IV); 14 brain tissue samples of traumatic decompression from the hospital as control group...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Tiankun Ren, Yanan Wang, Caihong Wang, Mengtian Zhang, Wang Huang, Jiandong Jiang, Wenbin Li, Jinlan Zhang
A novel anti-tumor candidate drug, 5-chlorogenic acid (5-CQA) injection, was used for the treatment of malignant glioma in clinical trial (phase I) in China. The isolation and identification of the metabolites of 5-CQA injection in humans were investigated in the present study. Urine and feces samples obtained after intramuscular administration of 5-CQA injection to healthy adults have been analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass and multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS(n))...
November 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Liu Yang, Yueyun Ma, Yijuan Xin, Ruobin Han, Rui Li, Xiaoke Hao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding regulatory RNAs that regulate protein expression by reducing mRNA stability and/or translation, via base pairing with full or partial sequence‑complementary target mRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs have roles as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. The members of the miRNA181 (miR181) family have been reported to be downregulated in early stage human glioma, and to be involved in glioma development. The current study demonstrated that all subtypes of the miRNA 181 family were downregulated at stages of human glioma, including miR181a1, a2, b1, b2, c and d...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Qi Yao, Gang Cai, Qi Yu, Jianhong Shen, Zhikai Gu, Jian Chen, Wei Shi, Jinlong Shi
The R132H mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-R132H) is associated with better prognosis in glioma patients. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) in glioma are believed to be responsible for glioma growth and maintenance. However, the relation between the R132H mutation and GSCs is not fully understood. In the present study, GSC markers were detected in patients with IDH1-R132H or wild-type IDH1 (IDH1-wt) by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry (TMA-IHC). The relationship between the expression patterns of GSC markers and the clinicopathological characteristics in glioma were analyzed...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Jian-Jun Gu, Kai-Chun Fan, Jian-He Zhang, Hong-Jie Chen, Shou-Sen Wang
Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is characterized by extensive proliferation and the diffused invasion of tumor cells. Due to the intricate signaling pathways involved in glioma progression, more effective targeted therapies and prognostic biomarkers in clinical practice are required. The suppression of proto-oncogene function or recovery of tumor suppressor gene function remains one of the primary approaches in gene therapy. The close association between the abnormal expression or mutation of microRNA (miRNA) and the tumorigenesis, progression and staging in glioma have been demonstrated previously...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Bilan Wang, Ting Yu, Yuzhu Hu, Mengmeng Xiang, Haoning Peng, Yunzhu Lin, Lu Han, Lingli Zhang
Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) is a critical transcriptional factor of Sonic hedgehog pathway which has been proved to participate in the initiation and progression of tumor in mammalians. However, its clinical value in breast cancer remains unknown. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the association of Gli1 over-expression, clinic-pathological characteristics, molecular subtypes and prognosis in breast cancer. According to included criteria, 13 eligible studies containing 2816 patients all around the world were selected in this study...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
Ming Zhao, Li-Li Guo, Ning Huang, Qiong Wu, Li Zhou, Hui Zhao, Jing Zhang, Kuang Fu
The objective of the present study was to quantitatively analyze the permeability of tumor entity and peritumor edema in glioma grading, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In the present retrospective study, 80 patients underwent T1-weighted DCE-MRI examination at 3.0 T and the pathological results (including astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma) were obtained between January 2012 and June 2015. All cases were surgically validated as grade I-IV gliomas. The original DCE-MRI data were analyzed using dual compartment modified Tofts model...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
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