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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110273/shifting-balance-on-a-static-mutation-selection-landscape-a-novel-scenario-of-positive-selection
#1
Christopher T Jones, Noor Youssef, Edward Susko, Joseph P Bielawski
A version of the mechanistic mutation-selection (MutSel) model that accounts for temporal dynamics at a site is presented. This is used to show that the rate ratio dN/dS at a site can be transiently >1 even when fitness coefficients are fixed or the fitness landscape is static. This occurs whenever a site drifts away from its fitness peak and is then forced back by selection, a process reminiscent of shifting balance. Shifting balance is strongest when the substitution process is not dominated by selection or drift, but admits interplay between the two...
November 8, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110179/analysis-the-effect-of-different-geometries-of-afm-s-cantilever-on-the-dynamic-behavior-and-the-critical-forces-of-three-dimensional-manipulation
#2
Moharam Habibnejad Korayem, Maniya B Saraie, Mahdieh B Saraee
An important challenge when using an atomic force microscope (AFM) is to be able to control the force exerted by the AFM for performing various tasks. Nevertheless, the exerted force is proportional to the deflection of the AFM cantilever, which itself is affected by a cantilever's stiffness coefficient. Many papers have been published so far on the methods of obtaining the stiffness coefficients of AFM cantilevers in 2D; however, a comprehensive model is yet to be presented on 3D cantilever motion. The discrepancies between the equations of the 2D and 3D analysis are due to the number and direction of forces and moments that are applied to a cantilever...
January 13, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110169/lack-of-overlap-and-large-discrepancies-in-the-characteristics-of-the-deceased-in-two-sources-of-drug-death-a-linkage-study-of-the-cause-of-death-and-the-police-registries-in-norway-2007-2009
#3
Ellen Johanna Amundsen
BACKGROUND: Registries for drug deaths may include different persons and provide different characteristics of the deceased. The aim of this study was to establish whether a database of drug-induced deaths (Cause of Death Registry (CDR) using the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) definition and the Police registry of drug deaths) included the same persons and provided the same characteristics of the deceased and thus yielded the same information for establishing targeted prevention measures...
January 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109846/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-actinomyces-and-related-genera-reveals-an-unusual-clindamycin-resistance-among-actinomyces-urogenitalis-strains
#4
Claudia Barberis, Mabel Budia, Susana Palombarani, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, María Soledad Ramírez, Barbara Arias, Laura Bonofiglio, Angela Famiglietti, Marta Mollerach, Marisa Almuzara, Carlos Vay
OBJECTIVES: Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Actinomyces and related genera are very limited in the literature. Data of predominant susceptibility profiles could contribute to the establishment of an accurate empirical treatment. METHODS: A total of 113 isolates from clinical samples were included in this study. Each isolate was identified using phenotypic methods and MALDI-TOF/MS. When discrepancies were observed, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109732/the-unified-model-of-vegetarian-identity-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-plant-based-food-choices
#5
Daniel L Rosenfeld, Anthony L Burrow
By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI)...
January 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109223/ab-initio-study-of-several-static-and-dynamic-properties-of-bulk-liquid-ni-near-melting
#6
B G Del Rio, L E González, D J González
Several static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid Ni at a thermodynamic state near its triple point have been evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated static structure shows very good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the static structure factor, which underlines a marked local icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. The dynamical structure reveals propagating density fluctuations, and the calculated dynamic structure factors, S(q,ω), show a good agreement with the inelastic x-ray scattering measurements...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109221/charge-and-energy-migration-in-molecular-clusters-a-stochastic-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equation-approach
#7
Thomas Plehn, Volkhard May
The performance of stochastic Schrödinger equations for simulating dynamic phenomena in large scale open quantum systems is studied. Going beyond small system sizes, commonly used master equation approaches become inadequate. In this regime, wave function based methods profit from their inherent scaling benefit and present a promising tool to study, for example, exciton and charge carrier dynamics in huge and complex molecular structures. In the first part of this work, a strict analytic derivation is presented...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108929/jaboya-sex-for-fish-a-qualitative-analysis-of-contextual-risk-factors-for-extramarital-partnerships-in-the-fishing-communities-in-western-kenya
#8
Zachary A Kwena, Chris A Shisanya, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Janet M Turan, Shari L Dworkin, Grace A Rota, Isaac J Mwanzo
Extramarital partnerships exacerbate high HIV prevalence rates in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored contextual risk factors and suggested interventions to reduce extramarital partnerships among couples in the fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Kenya. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 9-10 participants each (N = 118) and 16 in-depth interviews (N = 16) with fishermen and their spouses. Couples who participated were consented and separated for simultaneous gender-matched discussions/interviews...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108747/national-guidelines-for-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-literature-review-and-evidence-analysis
#9
Marjolein Verbiest, Evelyn Brakema, Rianne van der Kleij, Kate Sheals, Georgia Allistone, Siân Williams, Andy McEwen, Niels Chavannes
: National guidelines for smoking cessation in primary care can be effective in improving clinical practice. This study assessed which parties are involved in the development of such guidelines worldwide, which national guidelines address primary care, what recommendations are made for primary care settings, and how these recommendations correlate with each other and with current evidence. We identified national guidelines using an online resource. Only the most recent version of a guideline was included...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108439/de-novo-2p16-1-microdeletion-with-metastatic-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#10
Don Chamil Codipilly, Ralitza H Gavrilova, Eric G Tangalos
Microdeletions involving chromosome 2p15-16.1 are a rare genetic abnormality and have been reported in 18 separate patients, mainly children, since 2007. This microdeletion syndrome is characterised by a heterogeneous expression of intellectual impairment, dysmorphic facies, musculoskeletal abnormalities and potential neurodevelopmental anomalies. We report the first case of natural progression in an adult patient who died at a young age of metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma. Important learning points include the variable phenotypic expression of this microdeletion syndrome and the fact that clinicians must be thorough in investigating objective discrepancies in patients who cannot endorse classical symptoms...
January 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108144/postmortem-in-vitro-ethanol-production-it-could-be-more-common-than-we-think
#11
Maria José Quintas, Pedro Costa, Paula Melo, André Castro, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the most frequent determination in a Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Despite its apparent simplicity, the results interpretation can be complex and always have relevant social and legal implications, particularly in postmortem analysis. In the present report we describe the case of a 55-year-old male with an apparent natural death by myocardial infarction, whose initial BAC was 0.18g/L but, in repeated determinations prompted by discrepancies observed in the first two, it rapidly increased to 0...
January 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107693/attrition-among-iranian-nursing-students-a-qualitative-study
#12
Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Fatemeh Oskouie, Mansoureh Zagheri Tafreshi
Attrition is a major challenge facing nursing students that results in substantial costs on the education, health, and treatment systems across countries and can have an unwanted effect on the quality and quantity of health services provided as well as on the health of citizens. This descriptive study investigated nursing students' perceptions toward factors influencing attrition. We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. Nineteen students enrolled in nursing bachelor program were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling...
January 6, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107671/recent-sequence-variation-in-probe-binding-site-affected-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-group-b-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#13
Everlyn Kamau, Charles N Agoti, Clement S Lewa, John Oketch, Betty E Owor, Grieven P Otieno, Anne Bett, Patricia A Cane, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Direct immuno-fluorescence test (IFAT) and multiplex real-time RT-PCR have been central to RSV diagnosis in Kilifi, Kenya. Recently, these two methods showed discrepancies with an increasing number of PCR undetectable RSV-B viruses. OBJECTIVES: Establish if mismatches in the primer and probe binding sites could have reduced real-time RT-PCR sensitivity. STUDY DESIGN: Nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes were sequenced for real-time RT-PCR positive and negative samples...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106726/discrepancy-between-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-and-ns4-based-serotypes-association-with-their-subgenomic-sequences
#15
Nan Nwe Win, Shingo Nakamoto, Tatsuo Kanda, Hiroki Takahashi, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shuang Wu, Fumio Imazeki, Shigeru Mikami, Osamu Yokosuka, Tohru Gonoi, Hiroshi Shirasawa
Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4) region and 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105796/the-geographical-distribution-of-grey-wolves-canis-lupus-in-china-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Lu Wang, Ya-Ping Ma, Qi-Jun Zhou, Ya-Ping Zhang, Peter Savolaimen, Guo-Dong Wang
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China, published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China...
November 18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105713/whole-remnant-and-maximum-voxel-spect-ct-dosimetry-in-131-i-nai-treatments-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#17
Pablo Mínguez, Glenn Flux, José Genollá, Alejandro Delgado, Emilia Rodeño, Katarina Sjögreen Gleisner
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible differences between SPECT/CT based whole-remnant and maximum-voxel dosimetry in patients receiving radio-iodine ablation treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). METHODS: Eighteen DTC patients were administered 1.11 GBq of (131) I-NaI after near-total thyroidectomy and rhTSH stimulation. Two patients had two remnants, so in total dosimetry was performed for 20 sites. Three SPECT/CT scans were performed for each patient at 1, 2, and 3-7 days after administration...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105172/her2-gene-amplification-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-evaluating-a-cish-based-method
#18
Nazanin Sharifi, Arash Salmaninejad, Samira Ferdosi, Abolfazl Nesaei Bajestani, Malihe Khaleghiyan, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Mansour Jamali, Mohammad Reza Nowroozi, Abbas Shakoori
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. The role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in the pathogenesis and progression of human PCa remains poorly understood. In contradiction with breast cancer, studies on HER2 overexpression and gene amplification in PCa have produced varying results, although the HER2 oncogene has been implicated in the biology of numerous tumor types, and serves as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. Technical challenges are considered the main reasons for data discrepancies...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104997/poverty-related-diseases-prds-unravelling-complexities-in-disease-responses-in-cameroon
#19
Valerie Makoge, Harro Maat, Lenneke Vaandrager, Maria Koelen
BACKGROUND: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a specific country or region. Such indicators are useful but fail to explain the nature of the linkages between poverty and disease or poverty and health. This paper presents results of a study among university students, unravelling how they perceive diseases, the linkages with poverty, their responses to diseases and the motivations behind reported responses...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104709/utility-of-social-media-and-crowd-sourced-data-for-pharmacovigilance-a-scoping-review-protocol
#20
Andrea C Tricco, Wasifa Zarin, Erin Lillie, Ba Pham, Sharon E Straus
INTRODUCTION: Adverse events associated with medications are under-reported in postmarketing surveillance systems. A systematic review of published data from 37 studies worldwide (including Canada) found the median under-reporting rate of adverse events to be 94% in spontaneous reporting systems. This scoping review aims to assess the utility of social media and crowd-sourced data to detect and monitor adverse events related to health products including pharmaceuticals, medical devices, biologics and natural health products...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
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