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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224097/menopause-estrogens-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-women
#1
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Randomized trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevents type 2 diabetes. Still, the mechanisms of these antidiabetic effects are a matter of controversy. This chapter provides an analysis of epidemiological and clinical evidence and proposes a mechanism for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention. It discusses the beneficial role of estradiol on glucose homeostasis that is lost at menopause and improved by MHT, which delays type 2 diabetes. This chapter aims to reconcile differences among studies of the effect of menopause and MHT formulations on type 2 diabetes and argues that discrepancies arise from physiological differences in methods used to assess glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224073/cleantag-adapters-improve-small-rna-next-generation-sequencing-library-preparation-by-reducing-adapter-dimers
#2
Sabrina Shore, Jordana M Henderson, Anton P McCaffrey
Next-generation small RNA sequencing is a valuable tool which is increasing our knowledge regarding small noncoding RNAs and their function in regulating genetic information. Library preparation protocols for small RNA have thus far been restricted due to higher RNA input requirements (>10 ng), long workflows, and tedious manual gel purifications. Small RNA library preparation methods focus largely on the prevention or depletion of a side product known as adapter dimer that tends to dominate the reaction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223711/an-automated-method-to-detect-and-quantify-fungiform-papillae-in-the-human-tongue-validation-and-relationship-to-phenotypical-differences-in-taste-perception
#3
Sally Eldeghaidy, Daniel Thomas, Martha Skinner, Rebecca Ford, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna Thomas, Joanne Hort, Susan Francis
Determination of the number of fungiform papillae (FP) on the human tongue is an important measure that has frequently been associated with individual differences in oral perception, including taste sensitivity. At present, there is no standardised method consistently used to identify the number of FP, and primarily scientists manually count papillae over a small region(s) of the anterior tip of a stained tongue. In this study, a rapid automated method was developed to quantify the number of FP across the anterior 2cm of an unstained tongue from high resolution digital images...
December 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223662/-discrepancies-and-confluences-in-perception-between-patients-and-nephrologists-of-chronic-kidney-disease-impact-on-vital-impetus-in-adults-not-undergoing-hemodialysis-results-of-the-french-maeva-study
#4
Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Thierry Baranger, Myriam Isnard-Rouchon, Philippe Zaoui, Christiane Mousson, Gibert Deray
RATIONALE: The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on vital impetus is poorly documented in patients not undergoing renal dialysis and discrepancies can be observed between patients and physicians in perception of QoL and impact of the disease. METHODS: A self-questionnaire was sent to 1282 French nephrologists and a mirrored self-questionnaire was given to patients (CKD stage 3, 4 or 5) by their nephrologist. Data were collected prospectively and anonymously...
December 6, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223192/training-needs-for-dementia-care-in-china-from-the-perspectives-of-mental-health-providers-who-what-and-how
#5
Ling Xu, Hsin-Yi Hsiao, Wenchen Denq, Iris Chi
BACKGROUND: Acknowledging increasing demand of dementia care for patients in China, this paper aims to understand the training needs of dementia care from the perspectives of mental health providers by examining who should be the trainees, what should be the contents of training, and how to deliver the training in China. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, data were gathered via four focus group discussions with 40 mental health providers in Beijing, China, in 2011...
December 10, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223164/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-moss-brachythecium-rivulare-hypnales-brachytheciaceae
#6
D V Goryunov, M D Logacheva, M S Ignatov, I A Milyutina, A V Fedorova, A V Troitsky
The mitochondrial genome of the pleurocarpous moss Brachythecium rivulare has been sequenced and annotated. The genome consists of 104,460 base pairs and has approximately the same gene set and organization as other bryophyte mitogenomes. Whole mitochondrial genome comparison between B. rivulare and Physcomitrella patens, Tetraphis pellucida, Anomodon rugelii, and Anomodon attenuatus was performed. The primary cause of bryophyte mitochondrial gene length variation was found to be numerous indels in the introns...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222477/a-novel-eeg-based-spectral-analysis-of-persistent-brain-function-alteration-in-athletes-with-concussion-history
#7
Tamanna T K Munia, Ali Haider, Charles Schneider, Mark Romanick, Reza Fazel-Rezai
The neurocognitive sequelae of a sport-related concussion and its management are poorly defined. Detecting deficits are vital in making a decision about the treatment plan as it can persist one year or more following a brain injury. The reliability of traditional cognitive assessment tools is debatable, and thus attention has turned to assessments based on electroencephalogram (EEG) to evaluate subtle post-concussive alterations. In this study, we calculated neurocognitive deficits combining EEG analysis with three standard post-concussive assessment tools...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222022/do-resident-case-logs-meet-acgme-requirements-a-comparison-between-acute-care-and-elective-cases
#8
Kathryn R Wolf, Zachary A Taylor, Sarah B Placek, Michael W Tsai, Brenton R Franklin, E Matthew Ritter
PURPOSE: Operative experience is at the core of general surgery residency, and recently operative volume requirements for graduating residents were increased. The ACGME has outlined 4 areas of required resident participation and documentation in order for a surgical case to be logged: determination or confirmation of the diagnosis, provision of preoperative care, selection and accomplishment of the operative procedure, and direction of the postoperative care. The purpose of this study was to examine whether general surgery residents are currently meeting the required care participation documentation standard and to examine the effect of acute care vs...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222006/wrist-accelerometry-for-physical-activity-measurement-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-need-for-individually-calibrated-cut-points
#9
Laura A McCracken, Jasmin K Ma, Christine Voss, Franco H N Chan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Christopher R West
OBJECTIVE: To create and compare individual and group-based cut-points for wrist-accelerometry that corresponds to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Participants completed a graded treadmill-wheeling test while being assessed for oxygen consumption, wrist-acceleration vector magnitude, and spoke acceleration. Oxygen consumption was converted to SCI metabolic equivalents (SCI METS) and linear regression was applied to determine an individualized vector magnitude cut-point (counts per minute, VM-CPM) corresponding with MVPA (≥3 SCI METS)...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221984/accounting-for-apparent-deviations-between-calorimetric-and-van-t-hoff-enthalpies
#10
Samuel A Kantonen, Niel M Henriksen, Michael K Gilson
BACKGROUND: In theory, binding enthalpies directly obtained from calorimetry (such as ITC) and the temperature dependence of the binding free energy (van't Hoff method) should agree. However, previous studies have often found them to be discrepant. METHODS: Experimental binding enthalpies (both calorimetric and van't Hoff) are obtained for two host-guest pairs using ITC, and the discrepancy between the two enthalpies is examined. Modeling of artificial ITC data is also used to examine how different sources of error propagate to both types of binding enthalpies...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221909/maintaining-the-active-zone-demand-supply-and-disposal-of-core-active-zone-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv
Chemical synapses are sites of cell-cell contact specialized for transmission of signals between neurons and their respective targets. Neurotransmission occurs through the secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized presynaptic membrane regions known as Active Zones (AZs). AZ composition and function are now characterized quite well. Much less is known, however, on the manners by which these unique specializations are maintained for weeks, months, and presumably years. Here we focus on core AZ components that make up the Cytoskeleton associated with the AZ (CAZ) - their lifetimes, their supply and their disposal...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221487/clinical-laboratory-verification-of-thyroglobulin-concentrations-in-the-presence-of-autoantibodies-to-thyroglobulin-comparison-of-eia-radioimmunoassay-and-lc-ms-ms-measurements-in-an-urban-hospital
#12
Sarah E Wheeler, Li Liu, Harry C Blair, Richard Sivak, Nancy Longo, Jeffery Tischler, Kathryn Mulvey, Octavia M Peck Palmer
OBJECTIVE: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements assess recurrence in post-thyroidectomy thyroid cancer patients. Tg measurements by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) can be falsely elevated by interference from Tg autoantibodies (TgAb). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is less susceptible to TgAb interference and has been the standard-of-care test for TgAb positive patients. Recently developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods may eliminate TgAb interference. We assessed the performance of Tg measurements by EIA, RIA and LC-MS/MS to evaluate TgAb interference differences...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221461/seeking-a-second-medical-opinion-composition-reasons-and-perceived-outcomes-in-israel
#13
Liora Shmueli, Nadav Davidovitch, Joseph S Pliskin, Ran D Balicer, Igal Hekselman, Geva Greenfield
BACKGROUND: Seeking a second-opinion (SO) is a common clinical practice that can optimize treatment and reduce unnecessary procedures and risks. We aim to characterize the composition of the population of SO seekers, their reasons for seeking a SO and choosing a specific physician, and their perceived outcomes following the SO. METHODS: A cross-sectional national telephone survey, using a representative sample of the general Israeli population (n = 848, response rate = 62%)...
December 8, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221415/water-water-correlations-in-electrolyte-solutions-probed-by-hyper-rayleigh-scattering
#14
David P Shelton
Long-range ion-induced correlations between water molecules have been observed by second-harmonic or hyper-Rayleigh scattering experiments with conflicting results. The most recent work observed a large difference between the results for H2O and D2O, and large discrepancies with the previously proposed theory. However, the present observations are in quantitative agreement with the model where the ion electric field induces second harmonic generation by the water molecules, and ion-ion correlations given by the Debye-Huckel theory account for intensity saturation at high ion concentration...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220822/fatigue-and-biological-properties-of-ti-6al-4v-eli-cellular-structures-with-variously-arranged-cubic-cells-made-by-selective-laser-melting
#15
M Dallago, V Fontanari, E Torresani, M Leoni, C Pederzolli, C Potrich, M Benedetti
Traditional implants made of bulk titanium are much stiffer than human bone and this mismatch can induce stress shielding. Although more complex to produce and with less predictable properties compared to bulk implants, implants with a highly porous structure can be produced to match the bone stiffness and at the same time favor bone ingrowth and regeneration. This paper presents the results of the mechanical and dimensional characterization of different regular cubic open-cell cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of Ti6Al4V alloy, all with the same nominal elastic modulus of 3GPa that matches that of human trabecular bone...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220766/a-global-framework-to-model-spatial-ecosystems-exposure-to-home-and-personal-care-chemicals-in-asia
#16
Cedric Wannaz, Antonio Franco, John Kilgallon, Juliet Hodges, Olivier Jolliet
This paper analyzes spatially ecosystem exposure to home and personal care (HPC) chemicals, accounting for market data and environmental processes in hydrological water networks, including multi-media fate and transport. We present a global modeling framework built on ScenAT (spatial scenarios of emission), SimpleTreat (sludge treatment plants), and Pangea (spatial multi-scale multimedia fate and transport of chemicals), that we apply across Asia to four chemicals selected to cover a variety of applications, volumes of production and emission, and physico-chemical and environmental fate properties: the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS), the personal care preservative methyl paraben (MeP), and the emollient decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220480/-working-away-in-that-grey-area%C3%A2-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-challenges-general-practitioners-experience-when-managing-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#17
Aisling A Jennings, Tony Foley, Sheena McHugh, John P Browne, Colin P Bradley
Background: general practitioners (GPs) have identified the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) as a particularly challenging aspect of dementia care. However, there is a paucity of research on why GPs find BPSD challenging and how this influences the care they offer to their patients with dementia. Objectives: to establish the challenges GPs experience when managing BPSD; to explore how these challenges influence GPs' management decisions; and to identify strategies for overcoming these challenges...
December 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220102/identification-of-a-62-kda-major-allergen-from-artemisia-pollen-as-a-putative-galactose-oxidase
#18
Wanyi Fu, Zhongshan Gao, Ling Gao, Jing Jin, Meiling Liu, Yuemei Sun, Shandong Wu, Lingying Wu, Hongshan Ma, Yimin Dong, Xuefeng Wang, Biyuan Gao, Huiying Wang, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Serge A Versteeg, Ronald van Ree
BACKGROUND: Around 20 years ago, a 60-70 kDa protein was reported as a major allergen of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen. This study was to identify and characterize its molecular properties. METHODS: Sera from 113 Chinese and 20 Dutch Artemisia allergic/sensitized subjects (and pools thereof) were used to identify the 60-70 kDa allergen. Pollen extracts of seven Artemisia species were compared by immunoblotting. Transcriptomics and proteomics (mass spectrometry) of A...
December 8, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219594/phase-competition-in-the-palmer-chalker-xy-pyrochlore-er_-2-pt_-2-o_-7
#19
A M Hallas, J Gaudet, N P Butch, Guangyong Xu, M Tachibana, C R Wiebe, G M Luke, B D Gaulin
We report neutron scattering measurements on Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7}, a new addition to the XY family of frustrated pyrochlore magnets. Symmetry analysis of our elastic scattering data shows that Er_{2}Pt_{2}O_{7} orders into the k=0, Γ_{7} magnetic structure (the Palmer-Chalker state), at T_{N}=0.38  K. This contrasts with its sister XY pyrochlore antiferromagnets Er_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Er_{2}Ge_{2}O_{7}, both of which order into Γ_{5} magnetic structures at much higher temperatures, T_{N}=1.2 and 1.4 K, respectively...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219360/positron-cooling-and-annihilation-in-noble-gases
#20
D G Green
Positron cooling and annihilation in room temperature noble gases is simulated using accurate scattering and annihilation cross sections calculated with many-body theory, enabling the first simultaneous probing of the energy dependence of the scattering and annihilation cross sections. A strikingly small fraction of positrons is shown to survive to thermalization: ∼0.1 in He, ∼0 in Ne, ∼0.15 in Ar, ∼0.05 in Kr, and ∼0.01 in Xe. For Xe, the time-varying annihilation rate Z[over ¯]_{eff}(τ) is shown to be highly sensitive to the depletion of the momentum distribution due to annihilation, conclusively explaining the long-standing discrepancy between gas-cell and trap-based measurements...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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