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Coronary cardiac computed tomography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645476/relation-of-coronary-artery-calcium-score-and-risk-of-cancer-from-a-danish-population-based-follow-up-study-in-patients-who-underwent-cardiac-computed-tomography
#1
Nicklas Vinter, Amanda M S Christesen, Leif S Mortensen, Jes S Lindholt, Søren P Johnsen, Anne Tjønneland, Lars Frost
Evidence of a causal link between atherosclerosis and cancer is sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between extent of coronary atherosclerosis determined by coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and risk of cancer. We conducted a historical population-based cohort study of 28,549 cancer-free patients identified in the Western Denmark Heart Registry. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for measurement of CACS for suspected coronary artery disease. The outcome was an incident cancer diagnosis: total, tobacco-related, lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639400/motion-estimation-for-cardiac-functional-analysis-using-two-x-ray-computed-tomography-scans
#2
George S K Fung, Luisa Ciuffo, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Katsuyuki Taguchi
PURPOSE: This work concerns computed tomography (CT)-based cardiac functional analysis (CFA) with a reduced radiation dose. As CT-CFA requires images over the entire heartbeat, the scans are often performed at 10-20% of the tube current settings that are typically used for coronary CT angiography. A large image noise then degrades the accuracy of motion estimation. Moreover, even if the scan was performed during the sinus rhythm, the cardiac motion observed in CT images may not be cyclic with patients with atrial fibrillation...
June 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637776/targeting-of-extracellular-rna-reduces-edema-formation-and-infarct-size-and-improves-survival-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#3
Philipp Stieger, Jan-Marcus Daniel, Christiane Thölen, Jochen Dutzmann, Kai Knöpp, Dursun Gündüz, Muhammad Aslam, Marian Kampschulte, Alexander Langheinrich, Silvia Fischer, Hector Cabrera-Fuentes, Yong Wang, Kai C Wollert, Johann Bauersachs, Rüdiger Braun-Dullaeus, Klaus T Preissner, Daniel G Sedding
BACKGROUND: Following myocardial infarction (MI), peri-infarct myocardial edema formation further impairs cardiac function. Extracellular RNA (eRNA) released from injured cells strongly increases vascular permeability. This study aimed to assess the role of eRNA in MI-induced cardiac edema formation, infarct size, cardiac function, and survival after acute MI and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ribonuclease 1 (RNase-1) treatment as an eRNA-degrading intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622946/estimation-of-myocardial-flow-reserve-utilizing-an-ultrafast-cardiac-spect-comparison-with-coronary-angiography-fractional-flow-reserve-and-the-syntax-score
#4
Masao Miyagawa, Yoshiko Nishiyama, Teruyoshi Uetani, Akiyoshi Ogimoto, Shuntaro Ikeda, Hayato Ishimura, Emiri Watanabe, Rami Tashiro, Yuki Tanabe, Teruhito Kido, Akira Kurata, Teruhito Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Quantitative assessment of myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is challenging but may facilitate evaluation of multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We enrolled 153 patients with suspected or known CAD, referred for pharmacological stress MPI. They underwent a (99m)Tc-perfusion stress/rest SPECT with an ultrafast cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) camera. Dynamic data were acquired and time-activity curves fitted to a 1-tissue compartment analysis with input function...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621042/clinical-evaluation-of-anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary-artery-aaoca
#5
Silvana Molossi, Hitesh Agrawal
The clinical evaluation of patients with an anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA), a congenital abnormality of the origin or course of a coronary artery that arises from the aorta, is challenging given its first presentation being sudden cardiac arrest in about half of the patients. Symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath and syncope during exertion should be of concern in evaluating young athletes and nonathletes. The lack of abnormal signs on the physical exam and electrocardiogram further adds to the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis...
June 16, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616562/coronary-calcification-compromises-myocardial-perfusion-irrespective-of-luminal-stenosis
#6
Michael Y Henein, Tarek Bengrid, Rachel Nicoll, Ying Zhao, Bengt Johansson, Axel Schmermund
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcification (CAC) assessed by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and myocardial perfusion assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a group of symptomatic patients. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 120 patients (age 65.1 ± 8.9 years, 88 males) who presented with atypical chest pain to Bethanien Hospital, Frankfurt, Germany, between 2007 and 2010 and who underwent CAC scoring using MDCT, CMR, and conventional coronary angiography...
March 2017: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613933/quantification-of-radiation-dose-reduction-by-reducing-z-axis-coverage-in-320-detector-coronary-ct-angiography
#7
D J Murphy, A Keraliya, N Himes, A Aghayev, R Blankstein, M L Steigner
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the radiation dose reduction achievable by minimizing z-axis coverage in 320-detector coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 130 CCTAs performed on 320-detector CT that offers up to 16cm z-axis coverage (adjustable in 2cm increments), allowing complete coverage of the heart in a single gantry rotation. For each CT we obtained the radiation dose (CTDIvol and DLP), measured the z-axis field of view and measured the craniocaudal cardiac size (distance from the left main coronary artery to the cardiac apex)...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613405/an-association-between-volumes-of-the-cardiac-chambers-and-troponin-levels-in-individuals-submitted-to-cardiac-coronary-computed-tomography
#8
Zach Rozenbaum, Yaron Arbel, Yoav Granot, Dotan Cohen, Haim Shmilovich, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Ehud Chorin, Ofer Havakuk, Merav Cohen, Shlomo Berliner, Yan Topilsky, Galit Aviram
BACKGROUND: Previous echocardiographic studies have revealed an association between enlarged cardiac chamber volumes and elevated troponin concentrations. An automatic 4-chamber volumetric analysis tool was adopted to investigate this association in patients who underwent cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography (CCTA). HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that troponin concentration within the normal range correlates with cardiac chambers' volumes. METHODS: Serum troponin was obtained from 157 ambulatory patients before undergoing CCTA for nonacute coronary artery evaluation...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607546/histologic-sequelae-of-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-dystrophic-calcification
#9
Shahryar G Saba, John N Makaryus, Navid Rahmani, Ram Jadonath
We present cardiac computed tomography (CT) findings demonstrating apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dystrophic calcification of the left ventricular apex. The absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease demonstrated by coronary CT angiography suggests that increased wall tension and decreased microvascular perfusion over time account for the dyskinetic apical myocardium, rather than myocardial infarction secondary to atherosclerotic plaque rupture. These observations support CT as the imaging modality of choice to visualize the deposition of calcium in injured myocardial tissue, a recognized occurrence in chronically infarcted myocardium...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604567/epicardial-fat-pathophysiology-and-clinical-significance
#10
Elijah Douglass, Shana Greif, William Frishman
Over the last decade and a half there has been much interest in understanding the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiac pathology. EAT is a visceral adipose deposit with putative paracrine function. In the non-diseased state, EAT releases cardioprotective cytokines and chemokines to the coronary vasculature. In pathological states, EAT releases an inflammatory cytokine profile that is believed to contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). EAT imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a correlation between EAT size and CAD...
May 3, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600860/estimating-the-accuracy-of-a-reduced-order-model-for-the-calculation-of-fractional-flow-reserve-ffr
#11
Etienne Boileau, Sanjay Pant, Carl Roobottom, Igor Sazonov, Jingjing Deng, Xianghua Xie, Perumal Nithiarasu
Image-based non-invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an emergent approach to determine the functional relevance of coronary stenoses. The present work aimed to determine the feasibility of using a method based on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and reduced-order models (0D-1D) for the evaluation of coronary stenoses. The reduced-order methodology (cFFRro ) was kept as simple as possible and did not include pressure drop or stenosis models. The geometry definition was incorporated into the physical model used to solve coronary flow and pressure...
June 9, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600674/-value-of-cardiac-ct-in-the-diagnostic-work-up-of-coronary-artery-disease-update-2017
#12
M Meyer, T Henzler
The quantification of coronary calcifications using noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) as well as coronary CT angiography (cCTA) have rapidly evolved in the recent years. Nowadays, both techniques are increasingly clinically accepted regarding risk stratification and accurate exclusion of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). The higher acceptance of cCTA is mainly based on the higher robustness, lower radiation exposure through continuous technical innovations as well as by the growing scientific evidence...
June 9, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597744/noninvasive-techniques-for-the-diagnosis-of-anomalous-origin-of-the-left-coronary-artery-from-the-pulmonary-artery-in-adult-patients
#13
Natalia DłużNiewska, Magdalena Kostkiewicz, Lidia Tomkiewicz-Pająk, Maciej Krupiński, Jakub Podolec, Maria Olszowska, Piotr Podolec
Background Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly which requires surgical treatment, which improves left ventricular function and clinical outcomes. The definitive diagnosis of ALCAPA is based on coronary angiography, however, noninvasive visualization of the origin of the coronary artery is often helpful in the diagnosis of ALCAPA. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate noninvasive techniques for the diagnosis of ALCAPA, and present the clinical outcomes in adults after surgical correction of ALCAPA...
February 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596216/effect-of-ischemia-duration-and-protective-interventions-on-the-temporal-dynamics-of-tissue-composition-after-myocardial-infarction
#14
Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Carlos Galan-Arriola, Javier Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jaume Aguero, Gonzalo Lopez-Martin, Sandra Gomez-Talavera, Jaime Garcia-Prieto, Austin Benn, Antonio de Molina, Manuel Barreiro-Perez, Ana Martin-Garcia, Ines Garcia-Lunar, Gonzalo Pizarro, Javier Sanz, Pedro Sánchez, Valentin Fuster, Borja Ibanez
Rationale: The impact of cardioprotective strategies and ischemia duration on post ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) myocardial tissue composition (edema, myocardium at risk [MaR], infarct size [IS], salvage, intramyocardial hemorrhage [IMH] and microvascular obstruction [MVO]) is not well understood. Objective: To study the effect of ischemia duration and protective interventions on the temporal dynamics of myocardial tissue composition in a translational animal model of I/R by the use of state-of-the-art imaging technology...
June 8, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592383/long-term-outcome-prediction-by-functional-parameters-derived-from-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#15
Dominik C Benz, Fran Mikulicic, Christoph Gräni, Dominic Moret, Mathias Possner, Olivier F Clerc, Annina A Studer Bruengger, Oliver Gaemperli, Ronny R Buechel, Aju P Pazhenkottil, Philipp A Kaufmann
BACKGROUND: Estimation of hemodynamic relevance of a coronary stenosis from coronary computed angiography (CCTA) has raised substantial interest. Recently, the corrected coronary opacification (CCO) decrease and the transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) have been suggested as faster alternatives to the FFRCT. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the diagnostic accuracy of CCO decrease and TAG translates into an added prognostic value in patients evaluated for coronary artery disease (CAD)...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591059/left-sinus-of-valsalva-aneurysm-ruptured-into-left-ventricle-a-case-report-of-320-multidetector-ct-findings
#16
Kyungsoo Bae, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Hyang-Im Lee, Jeong Yoon Jang, Sung Eun Park, Kyeong Hwa Ryu, Hye Jin Baek, Bo Hwa Choi, Jin Il Moon, Soo Buem Cho
RATIONALE: Ruptured aneurysm originating from the left coronary sinus of Valsalva into the left ventricle (LV) is extremely rare. Imaging features of sinus aneurysm has been commonly reported using echocardiography or angiography. Here, we report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of left sinus of Valsalva aneurysm extending into the LV and caused severe aortic regurgitation (AR) in a 44-year-old male with latent infective endocarditis. The role of MDCT in preoperative surgical planning was also emphasized...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584585/an-audit-on-the-appropriateness-of-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-referrals-in-a-tertiary-cardiac-center
#17
Ahmed Ali Alderazi, Mary Lynch
BACKGROUND: In response to growing concerns regarding the overuse of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the clinical setting, multiple societies, including the American College of Cardiology Foundation, have jointly published revised criteria regarding the appropriate use of this imaging modality. However, previous research indicates significant discrepancies in the rate of adherence to these guidelines. AIM: To assess the appropriateness of CCTA referrals in a tertiary cardiac center in Bahrain...
January 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583439/incidental-coronary-calcifications-on-routine-chest-ct-clinical-implications
#18
REVIEW
Michael N Pakdaman, Alan Rozanski, Daniel S Berman
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a marker of atherosclerosis and an independent risk factor for cardiac-related mortality, with much of the 50% decline in mortality over the past 30 years being attributed to early detection of coronary disease and intervention of modifiable risk factors. With over 10 million computed tomography (CT) examinations of the chest performed in the United States yearly, CAC can be identified in a very large number of patients. In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence underlying the relationship between radiologic identification of CAC, atherosclerosis, and cardiac outcomes and the implications of its assessment on standard chest CT...
April 28, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580737/pragmatic-approach-to-chest-pain-patients-discharged-with-undetectable-high-sensitivity-troponin-t-and-normal-electrocardiogram-the-stabs-ct-protocol
#19
Warrick Bishop, Gary Girao
A strategy that discharges chest pain patients with negative high-sensitivity troponin and non-ischaemic electrocardiography changes may still result in 0.44% of patients experiencing myocardial infarction within 30 days. We observed that a pragmatic approach that systematically discharged 25 patients on cardio-protective medications of aspirin, metoprolol and atorvastatin followed with prompt (<10 days) coronary computed tomography angiography resulted in no major adverse cardiac event and adverse drug reaction 30 days post-presentation...
June 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580059/single-coronary-artery-arising-from-the-right-sinus-of-valsalva-presenting-with-chest-pain
#20
Charlene Liew, Michael MacDonald, Angeline C C Poh
Single coronary artery is a rare anomaly, with a reported incidence of 0.024%. It can be diagnosed on coronary computed tomography angiography, where the presence of ostial narrowing and compression between the great vessels must be carefully excluded, since these malignant forms can lead to sudden cardiac death and other ischemic complications. We describe a case of single coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva presenting with symptoms of ischemic chest pain.
December 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
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