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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335036/validated-method-for-the-screening-and-quantification-of-baclofen-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-human-post-mortem-whole-blood-using-protein-precipitation-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Limon Nahar, Amy Smith, Rajan Patel, Rebecca Andrews, Sue Paterson
There has been a rapid increase in the number of prescriptions for baclofen (BLF), gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGL) in the UK since their introduction to therapy. Recent studies across the European Union and USA have shown the illicit abuse potential of these drugs and deaths have been observed. A simple, reliable and fully validated method was developed for the screening and quantification of BLF, GBP and PGL in human post-mortem (PM) blood. The analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standard were extracted from blood using a single addition acetonitrile protein precipitation reaction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous confirmation and quantification...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333667/effect-of-penetration-enhancers-on-the-percutaneous-delivery-of-pain-management-actives
#2
John Trimble, Bob Light
Transdermal compositions for pain management are comprised of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid drugs, and adjuvant drugs acting on: voltage-gated channels, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, acute musculoskeletal pain, and as an antidepressant. In this work, baclofen, bupivacaine, cyclobenzaprine, diclofenac, gabapentin, ibuprofen, ketamine, and pentoxifylline were loaded in transdermal compositions, prepared using a mixture of lipids (isopropyl palmitate and mineral oil) and one of two selected penetration enhancer mixtures: alkyl dimethicone, phenyl trimethicone, and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate; and cetostearyl polyoxyethylene ether and ethylene oxide/propylene oxide copolymer...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333299/bilateral-breast-reduction-without-opioid-analgesics-a-comparative-study
#3
Fereydoun Don Parsa, Justin Cheng, Brad Stephan, Nikki Castel, Leslie Kim, Daniel Murariu, Alan A Parsa
Background: Breast reduction has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia with adjunct opioid use. However, opioids are associated with a wide variety of adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, postoperative sedation, dizziness, and addiction. Objectives: This study compares bilateral breast reduction using a multimodal opioid-free pain management regimen vs traditional general anesthesia with adjunct opioids. Methods: A total of 83 female patients were enrolled in this study...
March 3, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332005/levetiracetam-synergizes-with-gabapentin-pregabalin-duloxetine-and-selected-antioxidants-in-a-mouse-diabetic-painful-neuropathy-model
#4
Radica Stepanović-Petrović, Ana Micov, Maja Tomić, Uroš Pecikoza
RATIONALE: We have reported that levetiracetam, a novel anticonvulsant with analgesic properties, synergizes with ibuprofen/aspirin/paracetamol in a model of diabetic painful neuropathy (DPN). Most guidelines recommend gabapentin, pregabalin, and duloxetine as first- or second-line agents for DPN. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of combination treatment of first-/second-line analgesics with levetiracetam in a model of DPN. Additionally, the levetiracetam's combinations with antioxidants, low dose of aspirin, coenzyme Q10, or α-lipoic acid were evaluated...
March 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329484/gabapentin-induced-aquagenic-wrinkling-of-the-palms
#5
Nazan Emiroglu, Fatma P Cengiz, Ozlem Su, Nahide Onsun
Aquagenic keratoderma (AK) or aquagenic wrinklingis a rare palmoplantar skin disease. It is sporadic orhereditary condition. It appears in childhood or youngadulthood and it is seen as multiple asymptomaticsmall shiny papules on the peripheral margin ofpalms and/or soles after submersion in water. Thepathogenesis and etiology of ASA remains unclear.Drugs sometimes trigger AK. Herein, we present thecase of a 29-year-old man who had begun treatmentwith gabapentin three weeks before the onset of hiscutaneous symptoms...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328571/neuropathic-pain-induced-enhancement-of-spontaneous-and-pain-evoked-neuronal-activity-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-that-is-attenuated-by-gabapentin
#6
Vijay K Samineni, Louis S Premkumar, Carl L Faingold
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating pathological condition that is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal central processing occurs during the development of neuropathic pain induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. Yet, it is unclear what role neurons in supraspinal pain network sites, such as the periaqueductal gray, play in altered behavioral sensitivity seen during chronic pain conditions. To elucidate these mechanisms, we studied the spontaneous and thermally-evoked firing patterns of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons in awake behaving rats treated with paclitaxel to induce neuropathic pain...
March 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299349/gabapentin-inhibits-protein-kinase-c-epsilon-translocation-in-cultured-sensory-neurons-with-additive-effects-when-coapplied-with-paracetamol-acetaminophen
#7
Vittorio Vellani, Chiara Giacomoni
Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs)...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294369/a-simple-and-cost-effective-hplc-uv-method-for-the-detection-of-levetiracetam-in-plasma-serum-of-patients-with-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Lynette Engelbrecht, C J Grobler, Malie Rheeders
A simple, fast and cost-effective method was developed and validated for the determination of levetiracetam (LEV) in plasma/serum of patients using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultra violet detection. The stability of LEV plasma/serum samples over time and in different blood collection tubes was evaluated. Serum/plasma samples were deproteinised by methanol spiked with the internal standard, gabapentin. HPLC was carried out on a Venusil XBP C18, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm column, flow rate of 1...
March 10, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293643/neutrophils-infiltrate-the-spinal-cord-parenchyma-of-rats-with-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
Victoria L Newton, Jonathan D Guck, Mary A Cotter, Norman E Cameron, Natalie J Gardiner
Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ). At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291143/the-role-of-multimodal-analgesia-in-spine-surgery
#10
Mark F Kurd, Tyler Kreitz, Gregory Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro
Optimal postoperative pain control allows for faster recovery, reduced complications, and improved patient satisfaction. Historically, pain management after spine surgery relied heavily on opioid medications. Multimodal regimens were developed to reduce opioid consumption and associated adverse effects. Multimodal approaches used in orthopaedic surgery of the lower extremity, especially joint arthroplasty, have been well described and studies have shown reduced opioid consumption, improved pain and function, and decreased length of stay...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290248/the-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-subunit-and-absence-epilepsy-beyond-calcium-channels
#11
Roberta Celli, Ines Santolini, Michela Guiducci, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Pasquale Parisi, Pasquale Striano, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Richard T Ngomba, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Spike-wave discharges, underlying absence seizures, are generated within a cortico-thalamo-cortical network that involves the somatosensory cortex, the reticular thalamic nucleus, and the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei. Activation of T-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) contributes to the pathological oscillatory activity of this network, and some of the first-line drugs used in the treatment of absence epilepsy inhibit T-type calcium channels. The α2δ subunit is a component of high voltage-activated VSCCs (i...
March 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287355/donepezil-an-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-can-attenuate-gabapentinoid-induced-somnolence-in-patients-with-neuropathic-pain-a-retrospective-chart-review
#12
Takamichi Kogure, Masahiko Sumitani, Kiyoshi Ikegami, Hiroaki Abe, Jun Hozumi, Reo Inoue, Kazuo Kawahara, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Donepezil, an oral acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is used to treat Alzheimer's disease and reportedly attenuates opioid-induced sedation in patients with cancer pain. Neuropathic pain is often treated with gabapentinoids (pregabalin, gabapentin), but gabapentinoid-induced somnolence sometimes prevents patients from using these agents. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with neuropathic pain to examine whether donepezil is useful for gabapentinoid-induced somnolence. We investigated pain severity in 13 patients before and after taking gabapentinoids and donepezil, the degree of gabapentinoid-induced somnolence before and after starting donepezil, and gabapentinoid dose escalation after taking donepezil...
March 2017: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259723/influence-of-single-dose-quetiapine-on-fear-network-activity-a-pharmaco-imaging-study
#13
J Diemer, P Zwanzger, I Fohrbeck, M Zavorotnyy, S Notzon, K Silling, V Arolt, K Domschke, B Pfleiderer
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent psychiatric disorders. Current treatment guidelines recommend antidepressants, the calcium modulator gabapentin, and benzodiazepines as pharmacological treatments. However, delayed onset of action precludes the use of antidepressants as an acute treatment, while benzodiazepines can be recommended only as an emergency treatment due to their inherent risk of dependence. Therefore, an alternative pharmacological agent with acute efficacy is needed...
March 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258733/-perioperative-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-cardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Souvik Maitra, Dalim K Baidya, Sulagna Bhattacharjee, Anirban Som
OBJECTIVES: Sternotomy for cardiac surgeries causes significant postoperative pain and when not properly managed may cause significant morbidity. As neuropathic pain is a significant component here, gabapentin and pregabalin may be effective in these patients and may reduce postoperative opioid consumption. The purpose of this systematic review was to find out efficacy of gabapentin and pregabalin in acute postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Published prospective human randomized clinical trials, which compared preoperative and/or postoperative gabapentin/pregabalin with placebo or no treatment for postoperative pain management after cardiac surgery has been included in this review...
March 1, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256585/lrp1-influences-trafficking-of-n-type-calcium-channels-via-interaction-with-the-auxiliary-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-subunit
#15
Ivan Kadurin, Simon W Rothwell, Beatrice Lana, Manuela Nieto-Rostro, Annette C Dolphin
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit, which determines the main functional and pharmacological attributes of the channel. The CaV1 and CaV2 channels are associated with auxiliary β- and α2δ-subunits. The molecular mechanisms involved in α2δ subunit trafficking, and the effect of α2δ subunits on trafficking calcium channel complexes remain poorly understood. Here we show that α2δ-1 is a ligand for the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1), a multifunctional receptor which mediates trafficking of cargoes...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247977/burning-mouth-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-treatments
#16
REVIEW
Yuan F Liu, Yohanan Kim, Timothy Yoo, Peter Han, Jared C Inman
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized, controlled trials...
March 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243376/preventive-gabapentin-versus-pregabalin-to-decrease-postoperative-pain-after-lumbar-microdiscectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Mohsin Qadeer, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Jawad Rashid, Syed Ather Enam, Salman Sharif, Ghulam Murtaza
STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare pregabalin and gabapentin for mean postoperative visual analog score (VAS) for pain in patients undergoing single-level lumbar microdiscectomy for intervertebral disc prolapse at a tertiary care hospital. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Pregabalin has a superior pharmacokinetic profile and analgesic effect at lower doses than gabapentin; however, analgesic efficacy must be established during the perioperative period after lumbar spine surgery...
February 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242628/dtb-select-3-march-2017
#18
(no author information available yet)
Potential for abuse and misuse of pregabalin and gabapentin | Risk of depression and suicidal thoughts with ▼apremilast | Are patients overly optimistic about outcomes? | Pioglitazone and cardiovascular outcomes | Antipsychotics and risk of acute respiratory failure in patients with COPD | Improving adherence to lipid-lowering drugs | ▼Canagliflozin associated with increased risk of amputation | Medical research news stories: how independent and qualified are commenters?
February 27, 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242474/antiseizure-antidepressant-and-antipsychotic-medication-prescribing-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents
#19
Sai Praneeth R Bathena, Ilo E Leppik, Andres M Kanner, Angela K Birnbaum
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of epilepsy is highest in the elderly and the prevalence of epilepsy is higher in nursing home residents than in other cohorts. Co-medications that act in the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently prescribed in this population. The objective was to identify the most commonly prescribed antiseizure drugs (ASDs) and determine the frequency of use of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications in elderly nursing home residents receiving ASDs. METHODS: Data were obtained from a pharmacy database serving 18,752 patients in Minnesota and Wisconsin nursing homes...
February 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242287/chronic-administration-of-gabapentin-and-a-gabapentin-carbamazepine-combination-reversibly-suppress-testicular-function-in-male-wistar-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#20
Opeyemi Samson Osuntokun, Gbola Olayiwola, Ayowole Oladele, Idowu Ola, Oludele AyokaAbiodun
The effect of chronic administration of gabapentin, carbamazepine or a gabapentin-carbamazepine combination on testicular function in male rats was investigated to determine the effect of combining reduced doses of anti-epileptic drugs on the management of seizures, particularly with respect to the testis sequellae of chronic anti-epileptic administration. Male rats were randomized into four groups (n=10). Each group received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections for 28days as follows: Group I, normal saline 0...
February 13, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
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