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Hsv microRNAs

Anna Majer, Kyle A Caligiuri, Kamilla K Gale, Yulian Niu, Clark S Phillipson, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth
Important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the host response during viral infection have begun to be defined. However, little is known about the functional roles of miRNAs within an in vivo acute viral encephalitis model. We therefore identified global changes in miRNA expression during acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE) in mice. We found that many of the highly upregulated miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146a and miR-15b) detected in HSV-1 infected brain tissue are known regulators of inflammation and innate immunity...
2017: PloS One
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Yucheng Zhang, Na He
Reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which lies latent in the dorsal root ganglions and cranial nerves before its reactivation, is capable of causing herpes zoster (HZ), but the specific mechanism of virus reactivation and latency remains unknown. It was proposed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids could potentially indicate infection. However, the connection between herpes zoster and circulating miRNAs has not been demonstrated. In this study, 41 HZ patients without superinfection were selected...
December 2, 2016: Viruses
Dongli Pan, Jean M Pesola, Gang Li, Seamus McCarron, Donald M Coen
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) latency entails the repression of productive ("lytic") gene expression. An attractive hypothesis to explain some of this repression involves inhibition of the expression of ICP0, a lytic gene activator, by a viral microRNA, miR-H2, which is completely complementary to ICP0 mRNA. To test this hypothesis, we engineered mutations that disrupt miR-H2 without affecting ICP0 in HSV-1. The mutant virus exhibited drastically reduced expression of miR-H2 but showed wild-type levels of infectious virus production and no increase in ICP0 expression in lytically infected cells, which is consistent with the weak expression of miR-H2 relative to the level of ICP0 mRNA in that setting...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Yi Zhang, Jun Dai, Jinfeng Tang, Li Zhou, Mengzhou Zhou
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the Herpes viridae, is associated with a wide variety of nervous system diseases including meningitis and encephalitis. The data presented here demonstrate that miR-649 promotes the replication of HSV-1 without affecting cell viability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that MALT1 (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1) is directly targeted by miR-649. We then found that MALT1 and the downstream NF-κB signaling pathway, are involved in miR-649-induced HSV-1 replication...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Y Liu, H L Yang, F F Zhong, J Y Fan
BACKGROUND: The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the only detectable viral gene expressed during latent infection in neurons. LAT inhibits apoptosis and maintains latency by promoting the survival of infected neurons. However, whether LAT functions during HSV-2 infection via its encoded RNAs or via its encoded proteins remain unknown. Increasing evidence has indicated that LAT is likely to functionally promote the establishment of latent infection via LAT-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs)...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Diogo Piedade, José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts...
2016: Viruses
Priya Raja, Jennifer S Lee, Dongli Pan, Jean M Pesola, Donald M Coen, David M Knipe
UNLABELLED: Latent infections by viruses usually involve minimizing viral protein expression so that the host immune system cannot recognize the infected cell through the viral peptides presented on its cell surface. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), for example, is thought to express noncoding RNAs such as latency-associated transcripts (LATs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) as the only abundant viral gene products during latent infection. Here we describe analysis of HSV-1 mutant viruses, providing strong genetic evidence that HSV-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is expressed during establishment and/or maintenance of latent infection in murine sensory neurons in vivo Studies of an ICP0 nonsense mutant virus showed that ICP0 promotes heterochromatin and latent and lytic transcription, arguing that ICP0 is expressed and functional...
May 17, 2016: MBio
Zahid M Delwar, Guoyu Liu, Yvonne Kuo, Cleo Lee, Luke Bu, Paul S Rennie, William W Jia
Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (oHSV-1) therapy is an emerging treatment modality that selectively destroys cancer. Here we report use of a glioma specific HSV-1 amplicon virus (SU4-124 HSV-1) to selectively target tumour cells. To achieve transcriptional regulation of the SU4-124 HSV-1 virus, the promoter for the essential HSV-1 gene ICP4 was replaced with a tumour specific survivin promoter. Translational regulation was achieved by incorporating 5 copies of microRNA 124 target sequences into the 3'UTR of the ICP4 gene...
May 10, 2016: Oncotarget
K-X Zhang, Y Matsui, C Lee, O Osamu, L Skinner, J Wang, A So, P S Rennie, W W Jia
Urothelial bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Although most cases are initially diagnosed as non-muscle-invasive, more than 80% of patients will develop recurrent or metastatic tumors. No effective therapy exists currently for late-stage metastatic tumors. By intravesical application, local administration of oncolytic Herpes Simplex virus (oHSV-1) can provide a promising new therapy for this disease. However, its inherent neurotoxicity has been a perceived limitation for such application...
2016: Gene Therapy
Zhiyuan Han, Xianjie Liu, Xiaoqing Chen, Xusha Zhou, Te Du, Bernard Roizman, Guoying Zhou
We report on the properties and function of two herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) microRNAs (miRNAs) designated "miR-H28" and "miR-H29." Both miRNAs accumulate late in productive infection at a time when, for the most part, viral DNA and proteins have been made. Ectopic expression of miRNA mimics in human cells before infection reduced the accumulation of viral mRNAs and proteins, reduced plaque sizes, and at vey low multiplicities of infection reduced viral yields. The specificity of the miRNA mimics was tested in two ways...
February 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guo-Qing Wu, Xiao Wang, Hong-Ying Zhou, Ke-Qun Chai, Qian Xue, Ai-Hong Zheng, Xiu-Ming Zhu, Jian-Yong Xiao, Xu-Hua Ying, Fu-Wei Wang, Tao Rui, Li-Yun Xu, Yong-Kui Zhang, Yi-Ji Liao, Dan Xie, Li-Qin Lu, Dong-Sheng Huang
The dual-luciferase reporter assay is widely used for microRNA target identification and the functional validation of predicted targets. To determine whether curcumin regulates expression of the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) by targeting its 3'untranslated region (3'UTR), two luciferase reporter systems containing exactly the same sequence of the EZH2 3'UTR were used to perform dual-luciferase reporter assays. Surprisingly, there were certain discrepancies between the luciferase activities derived from these two reporter constructs...
December 1, 2015: Scientific Reports
Yusha Ru, Yan Zhang, Shaozhen Zhao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (21-2i nucleotictes), single-stranded, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional or translational level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. miRNAs ubiquitously exist in the genome of an organism. More than two hundred miRNA species are expressed in the eye, of which 25% are found in the cornea. miRNAs play important roles in corneal development, differentiation, glycogen metabolism, post-injury regeneration, and maintenance of homeostasis...
March 2015: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Huiliang Zhao, Chunying Zhang, Guangjun Hou, Jijun Song
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) microRNAs (miRNAs) mostly located in transcription-associated transcript (LAT) region have been identified that play critical roles in the intricate host-pathogen interaction networks. Increasing evidences throw new insight into the role of miRNA-mediated miRNA-mRNA cross-talk in HSV-1 latent or acute infection. In the present study, we found that hsv-1 miR-H4-5p (here termed as miR-H4b) can down-regulate the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A, p16) in neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cell lines...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Samantha L White, Pavel I Ortinski, Shayna H Friedman, Lei Zhang, Rachael L Neve, Robert G Kalb, Heath D Schmidt, R Christopher Pierce
A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. Consistent with these findings, the present results show that administration of the CP-AMPAR antagonist, Naspm, into the caudal lateral core or caudal medial shell of the nucleus accumbens attenuated cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Moreover, viral-mediated overexpression of 'pore dead' GluA1 subunits (via herpes simplex virus (HSV) GluA1-Q582E) in the lateral core or medial shell attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking...
February 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Seok Joong Yun, Pildu Jeong, Ho Won Kang, Ye-Hwan Kim, Eun-Ah Kim, Chunri Yan, Young-Ki Choi, Dongho Kim, Jung Min Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Sang Tae Kim, Won Tae Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Gou-Young Koh, Sung-Kwon Moon, Isaac Yi Kim, Jayoung Kim, Yung-Hyun Choi, Wun-Jae Kim
PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in biological fluids are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of urological diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of the study was to identify and validate urinary cell-free miRNAs that can segregate patients with PCa from those with BPH. METHODS: In total, 1,052 urine, 150 serum, and 150 prostate tissue samples from patients with PCa or BPH were used in the study. A urine-based miRNA microarray analysis suggested the presence of differentially expressed urinary miRNAs in patients with PCa, and these were further validated in three independent PCa cohorts, using a quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 2015: International Neurourology Journal
Xianzhi Jiang, Don Brown, Nelson Osorio, Chinhui Hsiang, Lbachir BenMohamed, Steven L Wechsler
At least six microRNAs (miRNAs) appear to be encoded by the latency-associated transcript (LAT) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The gene for ICP0, an important immediate early (IE) viral protein, is anti-sense to, and overlaps with, the region of LAT from which miRNA H2 (miR-H2) is derived. We recently reported that a mutant (McK-ΔH2) disrupted for miR-H2 on the wild-type HSV-1 strain McKrae genomic background has increased ICP0 expression, increased neurovirulence, and slightly more rapid reactivation...
February 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Alejandro M Aranda, Alberto L Epstein
Following primary infections HSV-1 replicates productively in epithelial cells and enters sensory neurons via nerve termini. After retrograde transport the virus genome is delivered into the cell nucleus, where it establishes lifelong latent infections. During latency, the virus genome remains as a chromatinized episome expressing only a set of latency-associated transcripts (LAT) and a group of microRNAs that inhibit expression of key lytic viral functions. Periodically the virus can reactivate to reinitiate lytic, secondary infections at peripheral tissues...
May 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Mahsa Rasekhian, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Safieh Amini, Kayhan Azadmanesh
BACKGROUND: In gene therapy, the use of RNA molecules as therapeutic agents has shown advantages over plasmid DNA, including higher levels of safety. However, transient nature of RNA has been a major obstacle in application of RNA in gene therapy. METHODS: Here, we used the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and the 3' non-translated region of Poliovirus to design an enterovirus-like RNA for the expression of a reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein) and a suicide gene (thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus)...
2015: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Bunsoon Choi, Hyoun-Ah Kim, Chang-Hee Suh, Hae Ok Byun, Ju-Yang Jung, Seonghyang Sohn
The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression and inflammation in a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced Behçet's Disease (BD) mouse model. miR-21 was compared between BD patients and healthy controls in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). For miR-21 inhibition, miR-21 antagomir was applied to BD mice. The change of symptoms was monitored. The levels of cytokines and related molecules were determined by ELISA and real time qPCR. Treatment with colchicine or pentoxifylline down-regulated the level of miR-21 with improved symptoms in mice...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shuang Tang, Marta Bosch-Marce, Amita Patel, Todd P Margolis, Philip R Krause
UNLABELLED: In order to understand factors that may influence latency-associated transcription and latency-associated transcript (LAT) phenotypes, we studied the expression of the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) LAT-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). We mapped the transcription initiation sites of all three primary miRNA transcripts and identified the ICP4-binding sequences at the transcription initiation sites of both HSV-2 LAT (pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II, which target ICP34.5, and miR-III, which targets ICP0) and L/ST (a pri-miRNA for miR-I and miR-II) but not at that of the primary miR-H6 (for which the target is unknown)...
May 2015: Journal of Virology
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