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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156051/natural-and-anthropogenic-influences-on-the-mating-system-of-the-common-morning-glory
#1
Diego F Alvarado-Serrano, Shu-Mei Chang, Regina S Baucom
Evolutionary biologists remain puzzled by the often dramatic variation of mating strategies within single species. Of particular interest is the extent to which environmental conditions shape patterns of variation of mating system components within mixed mating species, and how widespread anthropogenic manipulations may influence these associations. Here, we address this question in the common morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) by combining a dataset of floral traits, estimates of the mating system, and relevant environmental factors compiled for 22 populations of this species distributed along a wide range of environments from the Southeast and midwest USA...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154991/the-rice-constans-like-protein-oscol15-suppresses-flowering-by-promoting-ghd7-and-repressing-rid1
#2
Weixun Wu, Yingxin Zhang, Miao Zhang, Xiaodeng Zhan, Xihong Shen, Ping Yu, Daibo Chen, Qunen Liu, Sittipun Sinumporn, Kashif Hussain, Shihua Cheng, Liyong Cao
The photoperiodic flowering pathway is one of the most important regulatory networks controlling flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is a facultative short-day (SD) plant; flowering is promoted under inductive SD conditions and delayed under non-inductive long-day (LD) conditions. In rice, flowering inhibitor genes play an important role in maintaining the trade-off between reproduction and yield. In this study, we identified a novel floral inhibitor, OsCOL15, which encodes a CONSTANS-like transcription factor...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154864/hydroxycinnamoylmalated-flavone-c-glycosides-from-lemna-japonica
#3
Huan-Huan Bai, Ni-Ni Wang, Jiao Mi, Tao Yang, Dong-Mei Fang, Lin-Wei Wu, Hai Zhao, Guo-You Li
Three previously undescribed flavone C-glycosides (1-3), along with seven known ones (4-10), were isolated and characterized from the smallest flowering aquatic plant, Lemna japonica. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis and alkaline hydrolysis, compounds 1-3 were identified to be luteolin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (1), apigenin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-caffeoyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (2), and luteolin 6-C-(2″-O-trans-coumaroyl-d-malate)-β-glucoside (3). Compounds 1-3 are characteristic of a trans-coumaroyl-d-malate or trans-caffeoyl-d-malate linked to C-2″ of the glucose, which was reported for the first time...
November 14, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153716/facet-and-morphology-dependent-photocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-with-cds-nanoflowers-using-a-novel-mixed-solvothermal-strategy
#4
Yi Liu, Yongjin Ma, Wenwen Liu, Yanyang Shang, Anquan Zhu, Pengfei Tan, Xiang Xiong, Jun Pan
As the highest energy facet of wurtzite CdS, (0 0 2) facet is well worth investigating toward the contribution in photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution. In this study, flower-like CdS with highly preferred (0 0 2) facet was fabricated through a low temperature mixed-solvothermal strategy. The mixted-solvent of diethylenetriamine (DETA) and ethyl alcohol (EtOH) was used to inhibit the growth of (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) facets. For comparison, porous flower-like, belt-like and net-like CdS samples with different preferred degrees of (0 0 2) facet were controllably synthesized by the addition of H2O in different proportions...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152199/effect-of-pollen-and-resource-limitation-on-reproduction-of-zygophyllum-xanthoxylum-in-fragmented-habitats
#5
Min Chen, Xue-Yong Zhao
Limitations on pollen and resources may significantly affect plant reproduction in fragmented habitats. In this study, phenology and pollinator frequency and activity were investigated to estimate the role of pollinators in Zygophyllum xanthoxylum reproduction, and this species is ecologically important in northwest China. In addition, the relative impact of restrictive amounts of pollen and resources on the seed set per flower was evaluated. It was found that adding pollen boosted the size of the seed set per flower, but had no significant effect on the number of flowers...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152176/phytophagous-insect-oviposition-shifts-in-response-to-probability-of-flower-abortion-owing-to-the-presence-of-basal-fruits
#6
Shivani Jadeja, Brigitte Tenhumberg
Phytophagous insects use a wide range of indicators or associated cues to avoid laying eggs in sites where offspring survival is low. For insects that lay eggs in flowers, these unsuitable sites may be created by the host plant's resource allocation to flowers. In the sequentially flowering host plant, Yucca glauca, late-opening distal flowers are more likely to be aborted in the presence of already-initiated basal fruits because they are strong resource sinks. If flowers are aborted, all eggs of the phytophagous insect, Tegeticula yuccasella, within the flower die...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152168/pollination-by-the-locally-endangered-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-enhances-fruit-production-of-the-economically-important-durian-durio-zibethinus
#7
Sheema A Aziz, Gopalasamy R Clements, Kim R McConkey, Tuanjit Sritongchuay, Saifful Pathil, Muhammad Nur Hafizi Abu Yazid, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Pierre-Michel Forget, Sara Bumrungsri
Fruit bats provide valuable pollination services to humans through a unique coevolutionary relationship with chiropterophilous plants. However, chiropterophily in the Old World and the pollination roles of large bats, such as flying foxes (Pteropus spp., Acerodon spp., Desmalopex spp.), are still poorly understood and require further elucidation. Efforts to protect these bats have been hampered by a lack of basic quantitative information on their role as ecosystem service providers. Here, we investigate the role of the locally endangered island flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus in the pollination ecology of durian (Durio zibethinus), an economically important crop in Southeast Asia...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151883/speciation-history-of-a-species-complex-of-primulina-eburnea-gesneriaceae-from-limestone-karsts-of-southern-china-a-biodiversity-hot-spot
#8
Jing Wang, Bin Ai, Hanghui Kong, Ming Kang
Limestone karsts in southern China are characterized by high edaphic and topographic heterogeneity and host high levels of species richness and endemism. However, the evolutionary mechanisms for generating such biodiversity remain poorly understood. Here, we performed species delimitation, population genetic analyses, simulations of gene flow and analyses of floral morphological traits to infer the geographic history of speciation in a species complex of Primulina eburnea from limestone karsts of southern China...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151843/acquiring-and-preprocessing-leaf-images-for-automated-plant-identification-understanding-the-tradeoff-between-effort-and-information-gain
#9
Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Jana Wäldchen, Patrick Mäder
Background: Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images). Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151641/foliar-treatment-of-bacillus-methylotrophicus-ke2-reprograms-endogenous-functional-chemicals-in-sesame-to-improve-plant-health
#10
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, In-Jung Lee
The present study was aimed to investigate the health of vegetative and reproductive parts of sesame plants during Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 interaction by their pigments, sugars, organic acid, amino acids, hormones and antioxidant production analysis. In a green-house study, B. methylotrophicus KE2 was sprayed to sesame plants at late flowering stage. The bacterial treatment enhanced photosynthetic pigments of plants including pods than their controls. The shoots of plants had higher amount of sucrose, glucose, galactose, xylitol and malic acid, and while the pods of plants showed the more accumulation of sucrose, glucose, inulin and xylitol in bacterium treated plants...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151352/plasmid-dna-delivery-nanotopography-matters
#11
Hao Song, Meihua Yu, Yao Lu, Zhengying Gu, Yannan Yang, Min Zhang, Jianye Fu, Chengzhong Yu
Plasmid DNA molecules with unique loop structures have widespread bio-applications, in many cases relying heavily on delivery vehicles to introduce them into cells and achieve their functions. Herein, we demonstrate that control over delicate nanotopography of silica nanoparticles as plasmid DNA vectors has significant impact on the transfection efficacy. For silica nanoparticles with rambutan-, raspberry- and flower-like morphologies comprised of spike, hemisphere and bowl type subunit nanotopographies, respectively, the rambutan-like nanoparticles with spiky surfaces demonstrate the highest plasmid DNA binding capability and transfection efficacy of 88%, higher than reported silica based nano-vectors...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151068/crataegus-special-extract-ws-1442-up-to-date-review-of-experimental-and-clinical-experiences
#12
M Zorniak, B Szydlo, T F Krzeminski
Extracts and tinctures made from Crataegus spp. (Hawthorn) have been used as cardioprotective remedies since ancient times. WS 1442 special extract, manufactured by Dr. W. Schwabe Pharmaceuticals©, made from Crataegus spp. Leaves and flowers is one of the most studied and popular of preparations received from Hawthorn. It is integral, and most important active component of such herbal drugs as Crataegutt® novo 450, and CardioMax®. This standardized extract contains 18.75% oligomeric procyanidins (OPC), which have beneficial cardioprotective values and play a role as free-radicals scavengers, that protect the ischemic heart tissue from neutrophile elastase action successions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149840/geometric-morphometrics-reveals-shifts-in-flower-shape-symmetry-and-size-following-gene-knockdown-of-cycloidea-and-anthocyanidin-synthase
#13
Brent A Berger, Vincent A Ricigliano, Yoland Savriama, Aedric Lim, Veronica Thompson, Dianella G Howarth
BACKGROUND: While floral symmetry has traditionally been assessed qualitatively, recent advances in geometric morphometrics have opened up new avenues to specifically quantify flower shape and size using robust multivariate statistical methods. In this study, we examine, for the first time, the ability of geometric morphometrics to detect morphological differences in floral dorsoventral asymmetry following virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Using Fedia graciliflora Fisch. & Meyer (Valerianaceae) as a model, corolla shape of untreated flowers was compared using canonical variate analysis to knockdown phenotypes of CYCLOIDEA2A (FgCYC2A), ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE (FgANS), and empty vector controls...
November 17, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149417/spl13-regulates-shoot-branching-and-flowering-time-in-medicago-sativa
#14
Ruimin Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156...
November 17, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147812/geissoschizine-synthase-controls-flux-in-the-formation-of-monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids-in-a-catharanthus-roseus-mutant
#15
Yang Qu, Antje M K Thamm, Matthew Czerwinski, Sayaka Masada, Kyung Hee Kim, Graham Jones, Ping Liang, Vincenzo De Luca
A Catharanthus roseus mutant accumulates high levels of ajmalicine at the expense of catharanthine and vindoline. The altered chemistry depends on increased expression and biochemical activities of strictosidine β-glucosidase and ajmalicine synthase activities and reduced expression and biochemical activity of geissoschizine synthase. The Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] is a commercially important horticultural flower species and is a valuable source for several monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), such as the powerful antihypertensive drug ajmalicine and the antineoplastic agents, vinblastine and vincristine...
November 17, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147780/the-effect-of-removing-numerically-dominant-non-native-honey-bees-on-seed-set-of-a-native-plant
#16
Annika J Nabors, Henry J Cen, Keng-Lou J Hung, Joshua R Kohn, David A Holway
Pollination services are compromised by habitat destruction, land-use intensification, pesticides, and introduced species. How pollination services respond to such stressors depends on the capacity of pollinator assemblages to function in the face of environmental disruption. Here, we quantify how pollination services provided to a native plant change upon removal of the non-native, western honey bee (Apis mellifera)-a numerically dominant floral visitor in the native bee-rich ecosystems of southern California...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146906/qtl-mapping-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-classical-d-locus-controlling-seed-and-flower-color-in-linum-usitatissimum-flax
#17
Gurudatt Pavagada Sudarshan, Manoj Kulkarni, Leonid Akhov, Paula Ashe, Hamid Shaterian, Sylvie Cloutier, Gordon Rowland, Yangdou Wei, Gopalan Selvaraj
The flowers of flax (linseed) are blue-hued, ephemeral and self-pollinating, and the seeds are typically brown. A century-old interest in natural yellow seed variants and a historical model point to recessive alleles in B1, D and G loci being responsible, but the functional aspects had remained unknown. Here, we characterized the "D" locus by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and identified a FLAVONOID 3'5' HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) gene therein. It does not belong to the F3'5'H clade, but resembles biochemically characterized F3'Hs (flavonoid 3' hydroxylase) but without F3'H activity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146812/evolution-of-flower-color-pattern-through-selection-on-regulatory-small-rnas
#18
Desmond Bradley, Ping Xu, Irina-Ioana Mohorianu, Annabel Whibley, David Field, Hugo Tavares, Matthew Couchman, Lucy Copsey, Rosemary Carpenter, Miaomiao Li, Qun Li, Yongbiao Xue, Tamas Dalmay, Enrico Coen
Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate genes in plants and animals. Here, we show that population-wide differences in color patterns in snapdragon flowers are caused by an inverted duplication that generates sRNAs. The complexity and size of the transcripts indicate that the duplication represents an intermediate on the pathway to microRNA evolution. The sRNAs repress a pigment biosynthesis gene, creating a yellow highlight at the site of pollinator entry. The inverted duplication exhibits steep clines in allele frequency in a natural hybrid zone, showing that the allele is under selection...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146357/effects-of-exogenous-application-of-cppu-naa-and-ga4-7-on-parthenocarpy-and-fruit-quality-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l
#19
Chunlu Qian, Nannan Ren, Jingye Wang, Qiang Xu, Xuehao Chen, Xiaohua Qi
In protected vegetable fields, plant growth regulators are often used to improve cucumber fruit growth. However, the effects of plant growth regulators on the appearance and nutritional quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) remain largely unknown. In the present study, 100 mg/L N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or gibberellin A4+A7 (GA4+7) was applied to the female cucumber flowers 1 day before anthesis and at anthesis. The CPPU, NAA and GA4+7 treatments resulted in parthenocarpic fruits with similar weights, sizes and shapes as the pollinated fruits...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145607/phenology-of-the-dalmatian-toadflax-biological-control-agent-mecinus-janthiniformis-coleoptera-curculionidae-in-utah
#20
Samantha A Willden, Edward W Evans
The phenology of the stem-mining weevil Mecinus janthiniformis Toševski and Caldara (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as adults attacking Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller (Plantaginaceae), was studied in 2014-2015 at two low elevation sites in northern Utah. The seasonal pattern of adult weevil abundance on the host plant at the two sites was most similar between years when described by degree-day accumulation, versus calendar date. Repeated censusing over the growing season revealed that males appeared first and subsequently peaked in abundance on the host plant earlier than females did, such that the adult population was dominated by males early in the season and by females late in the season...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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