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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922774/crop-model-assisted-phenomics-and-genome-wide-association-study-for-climate-adaptation-of-indica-rice-1-phenology
#1
Michael Dingkuhn, Richard Pasco, Julie M Pasuquin, Jean Damo, Jean-Christophe Soulié, Louis-Marie Raboin, Julie Dusserre, Abdoulaye Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Suchit Shrestha, Alpha Balde, Tobias Kretzschmar
Phenology and time of flowering are crucial determinants of rice adaptation to climate variation. A previous study characterized flowering responses of 203 diverse indica rices (the ORYTAGE panel) to ten environments in Senegal (six sowing dates) and Madagascar (two years and two altitudes) under irrigation in the field. This study used the physiological phenology model RIDEV V2 to heuristically estimate component traits of flowering such as cardinal temperatures (base temperature (Tbase) and optimum temperature), basic vegetative phase, photoperiod sensitivity and cold acclimation, and to conduct a genome-wide association study for these traits using 16 232 anonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922773/crop-model-assisted-phenomics-and-genome-wide-association-study-for-climate-adaptation-of-indica-rice-2-thermal-stress-and-spikelet-sterility
#2
Michael Dingkuhn, Richard Pasco, Julie Mae Pasuquin, Jean Damo, Jean-Christophe Soulié, Louis-Marie Raboin, Julie Dusserre, Abdoulaye Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Suchit Shrestha, Tobias Kretzschmar
Low night and high day temperatures during sensitive reproductive stages cause spikelet sterility in rice. Phenotyping of tolerance traits in the field is difficult because of temporal interactions with phenology and organ temperature differing from ambient. Physiological models can be used to separate these effects. A 203-accession indica rice diversity panel was phenotyped for sterility in ten environments in Senegal and Madagascar and climate data were recorded. Here we report on sterility responses while a companion study reported on phenology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922764/a-pentatricopeptide-repeat-protein-restores-nap-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-brassica-napus
#3
Zhi Liu, Faming Dong, Xiang Wang, Tao Wang, Rui Su, Dengfeng Hong, Guangsheng Yang
Two forms of male-sterile cytoplasm, designated nap and pol, are found in the oilseed rape species, Brassica napus. The nap cytoplasm is observed in most B. napus varieties, and it confers male sterility on a limited number of cultivars that lack the corresponding restorer gene, Rfn. In the present study, using linkage analysis in combination with 5652 BC1 progeny derived from a cross between a nap cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 181A and a restorer line H5, we delimited the Rfn gene to a 10.5 kb region on chromosome A09, which contained three putative ORFs...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922752/current-understanding-of-the-pathways-of-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-plants
#4
Takayuki Tohge, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Alisdair R Fernie
Flavonoids are a signature class of secondary metabolites formed from a relatively simple collection of scaffolds. They are extensively decorated by chemical reactions including glycosylation, methylation, and acylation. They are present in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables and as such in Western populations it is estimated that 20-50 mg of flavonoids are consumed daily per person. In planta they have demonstrated to contribute to both flower color and UV protection. Their consumption has been suggested to presenta wide range of health benefits...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922745/big-brother-uncouples-cell-proliferation-from-elongation-in-the-arabidopsis-primary-root
#5
Pietro Cattaneo, Christian S Hardtke
Plant organ size is sensitive to environmental conditions, but is also limited by hardwired genetic constraints. In Arabidopsis, a few organ size regulators have been identified. Among them, the BIG BROTHER (BB) gene has a prominent role in the determination of flower organ and leaf size. BB loss-of-function mutations result in a prolonged proliferation phase during leaf(-like) organ formation, and consequently larger leaves, petals and sepals. Whether BB has a similar role in root growth is unknown. Here we describe a novel bb allele which carries a P235L point mutation in the BB RING finger domain...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921552/immunomodulatory-effect-of-cryopreserved-platelets-altered-bdca3-dendritic-cell-maturation-and-activation-in-vitro
#6
Katrina K Ki, Lacey Johnson, Helen M Faddy, Robert L Flower, Denese C Marks, Melinda M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation of platelets (PLTs) is useful in remote areas to overcome logistic problems associated with supply and can extend the shelf life to 2 years. During cryopreservation, properties of PLTs are modified. Whether changes in the cryopreserved PLT (CPP) product are associated with modulation of recipients' immune function is unknown. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and the specialized blood DC antigen (BDCA)3(+) subset after exposure to CPPs...
September 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919332/correlation-of-radical-scavenging-capacity-and-amoebicidal-activity-of-matricaria-recutita-l-asteraceae
#7
Soumaya Hajaji, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Ignacio A Jiménez, Isabel L Bazzocchi, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
Some Acanthamoeba strains are able to cause Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) worldwide because of their pathogenicity. The treatment of Acanthamoeba infections is complicated due to the existence of a highly resistant cyst stage in their life cycle. Therefore, the elucidation of novel sources of anti-Acanthamoeba agents is an urgent need. In the present study, an evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-Acanthamoeba activity of compounds in flower extracts of Tunisian chamomile (Matricaria recutita L...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917927/utilizing-cellulose-sheets-as-structure-promoter-constructing-different-micro-nano-titanate-nanotubes-networks-for-green-water-purification
#8
Lulu Xu, Ye Xiong, Baokang Dang, Chao Wang, Chunde Jin, Qingfeng Sun, Xiaochun Zhang
In this work, we provide a novel strategy of constructing different micro-nano structure (arrayed, multilevel, flower-like) titanate nanotubes (TNTs) networks with cellulose sheets as structure promoter. Through cellulose self-locking and inter-locking, several micro-nano TNTs networks with higher specific surface area are obtained and applied to toxic heavy metal Pb(2+) cations removal. It not only makes abundant toxic Pb(2+) ions exchange with the inter-layer Na(+) ions of TNTs, but also allows many Pb(2+) ions to be deposited onto the TNTs surface...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917854/tilia-tomentosa-pectins-exhibit-dual-mode-of-action-on-phagocytes-as-%C3%AE-glucuronic-acid-monomers-are-abundant-in-their-rhamnogalacturonans-i
#9
Yordan N Georgiev, Berit S Paulsen, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Milan Ciz, Manol H Ognyanov, Ondrej Vasicek, Frode Rise, Petko N Denev, Antonin Lojek, Tsvetelina G Batsalova, Balik M Dzhambazov, Haruki Yamada, Reidar Lund, Hilde Barsett, Albert I Krastanov, Irina Z Yanakieva, Maria G Kratchanova
Silver linden flowers contain different pectins (PSI-PSIII) with immunomodulating properties. PSI is a low-esterified pectic polysaccharide with predominant homogalacturonan region, followed by rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) with arabinogalactan II and RGII (traces) domains. PSII and PSIII are unusual glucuronidated RGI polymers. PSIII is a unique high molecular weight RGI, having almost completely O-3 glucuronidated GalA units with >30% O-3 acetylation at the Rha units. Linden pectins induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO generation from non-stimulated whole blood phagocytes and macrophages, resp...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917186/compounds-isolated-from-eriobotrya-deflexa-leaves-protect-against-ultraviolet-radiation-b-induced-photoaging-in-human-fibroblasts
#10
Chung-Yu Huang, Yi-Tzu Lin, Hsiang-Chun Kuo, Wen-Fei Chiou, Mei-Hsien Lee
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to skin photoaging because of the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and downregulation of type I collagen and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Eriobotrya deflexa (Hemsl.) Nakai (Rosaceae) is a flowering plant endemic to Taiwan, and its leaves have been used as an expectorant and in antitussive folk remedy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that an E. deflexa leaf extract functions as a free radical scavenger. The current evaluated the antiphotoaging effect of partitioned fractions and specific compounds from the leaves of E...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917058/lineage-tracing-of-genome-edited-alleles-reveals-high-fidelity-axolotl-limb-regeneration
#11
Grant Parker Flowers, Lucas D Sanor, Craig M Crews
Salamanders are unparalleled among tetrapods in their ability to regenerate many structures, including entire limbs, and the study of this ability may provide insights into human regenerative therapies. The complex structure of the limb poses challenges to the investigation of the cellular and molecular basis of its regeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas, we genetically labelled unique cell lineages within the developing axolotl embryo and tracked the frequency of each lineage within amputated and fully regenerated limbs...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916943/emergency-neurological-life-support-acute-non-traumatic-weakness
#12
Anna Finley Caulfield, Oliver Flower, Jose A Pineda, Shahana Uddin
Acute non-traumatic weakness may be life-threatening if it involves the respiratory muscles and/or is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Most patients presenting with acute muscle weakness have a worsening neurological disorder that requires a rapid, systematic evaluation and detailed neurological exam to localize the disorder. Urgent laboratory tests and neuroimaging are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Because acute weakness is a common presenting sign of neurological emergencies, it was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916922/evaluation-of-zmcct-haplotypes-for-genetic-improvement-of-maize-hybrids
#13
Yipu Li, Lixiu Tong, Lele Deng, Qiyu Liu, Yuexian Xing, Chao Wang, Baoshen Liu, Xiaohong Yang, Mingliang Xu
The elite ZmCCT haplotypes which have no transposable element in the promoter could enhance maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot and improve yield-related traits, while having no or mild impact on flowering time. Therefore, they are expected to have great value in future maize breeding programs. A CCT domain-containing gene, ZmCCT, is involved in both photoperiod response and stalk rot resistance in maize. At least 15 haplotypes are present at the ZmCCT locus in maize germplasm, whereas only three of them are found in Chinese commercial maize hybrids...
September 15, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916594/della-gaf1-complex-is-a-main-component-in-gibberellin-feedback-regulation-of-ga20ox2-in-arabidopsis
#14
Jutarou Fukazawa, Masahiko Mori, Satoshi Watanabe, Chika Miyamoto, Takeshi Ito, Yohsuke Takahashi
Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate many aspects of plant growth and development, including germination, elongation, flowering, and floral development. Negative feedback regulation contributes to homeostasis of the GA level. DELLAs are negative regulators of GA signaling and are rapidly degraded in the presence of GAs. DELLAs regulate many target genes, including AtGA20ox2, encoding the GA-biosynthetic enzyme GA 20-oxidase. As DELLAs do not have an apparent DNA-binding motif, transcription factors that act in association with DELLA are necessary for regulating the target genes...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915631/in-vivo-autophagy-and-biogenesis-of-autophagosomes-within-male-haploid-cells-during-spermiogenesis
#15
Ping Yang, Nisar Ahmed, Lingling Wang, Hong Chen, Yasir Waqas, Tengfei Liu, Abdul Haseeb, Nasrullah Bangulzai, Yufei Huang, Qiusheng Chen
Autophagy is a unique catabolic pathway that is linked to several physiological processes. However, its role in the process of spermiogenesis is largely unknown. The aim of the current study was to determine the in vivo role of autophagy and the origin of autophagosome membrane biogenesis within male haploid cells. Our immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LC3 and ATG7 localization were increased dramatically in round to elongated spermatids (haploid cells) towards the lumen of seminiferous tubules, however, poorly expressed in the early stages of germ cells near the basal membrane...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915488/plant-mating-systems-self-incompatibility-and-evolutionary-transitions-to-self-fertility-in-the-mustard-family
#16
REVIEW
June B Nasrallah
Flowering plants have evolved diverse mechanisms that promote outcrossing. The most widespread of these outbreeding devices are self-incompatibility systems, the highly selective prefertilization mating barriers that prevent self-fertilization by disrupting pollen-pistil interactions. Despite the advantages of outcrossing, loss of self-incompatibility has occurred repeatedly in many plant families. In the mustard family, the highly polymorphic receptors and ligands that mediate the recognition and inhibition of self-pollen in self-incompatibility have been characterized and the 3D structure of the receptor-ligand complex has been solved...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#17
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913804/doubled-haploid-laboratory-protocol-for-wheat-using-wheat-maize-wide-hybridization
#18
Meenakshi Santra, Hong Wang, Scott Seifert, Scott Haley
In traditional wheat breeding, the uniformity of lines derived from a breeding population is obtained by repeated selfing from the F1 which takes several generations to reach homozygosity in loci controlling traits of interest. Using doubled haploid technology, however, it is possible to attain 100% homozygosity at all loci in a single generation and completely homogeneous breeding lines can be obtained in 1-2 years. Thus, doubled haploid technology may significantly reduce cultivar development time. Two major methods for producing wheat doubled haploids are androgenesis (anther culture and microspore culture) and embryo culture using wheat-maize wide hybridization, the latter being the most effective and widely used method...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913668/floral-features-of-two-species-of-bulbophyllum-section-lepidorhiza-schltr-b-levanae-ames-and-b-nymphopolitanum-kraenzl-bulbophyllinae-schltr-orchidaceae
#19
Natalia Wiśniewska, Agnieszka K Kowalkowska, Małgorzata Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Agnieszka T Krawczyńska, Jerzy Bohdanowicz
Two representatives of section Lepidorhiza, previously sometimes considered conspecific, Bulbophyllum levanae and Bulbophyllum nymphopolitanum, demonstrated both similarities and differences in floral features. There were significant differences in the length of sepals and micromorphological features of the labellum. In both species, osmophores are located on the extended apices of sepals and possibly on petals. An abundance of proteins in tepals is probably associated with the unpleasant scent of the flowers, whereas the thin wax layers on the epidermis are probably involved in the maintenance of the brilliance of floral tepals, which strongly attracts flies...
September 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912763/the-microbial-community-dynamics-during-the-vitex-honey-ripening-process-in-the-honeycomb
#20
Yaqin Wen, Lin Wang, Yue Jin, Jinzhen Zhang, Lei Su, Xiaoling Zhang, Jinhui Zhou, Yi Li
The bacterial and fungal communities of vitex honey were surveyed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Vitex honey samples were analyzed at different stage of ripening; the vitex flower was also analyzed, and the effect of the chemical composition in the experimental setup was assessed. The results confirmed the presence of dominant Bacillus spp. as the dominant bacterial in honey, and yeast related genera was the main fungal in the honey, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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