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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923130/plant-evo-devo-how-tip-growth-evolved
#1
Stefan A Rensing
Apical elongation of polarized plant cells (tip growth) occurs in root hairs of flowering plants and in rhizoids of bryophytes. A new report shows that the formation of these cells relies on genes already present in the first land plants.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922629/a-collection-of-european-sweet-cherry-phenology-data-for-assessing-climate-change
#2
Bénédicte Wenden, José Antonio Campoy, Julien Lecourt, Gregorio López Ortega, Michael Blanke, Sanja Radičević, Elisabeth Schüller, Andreas Spornberger, Danilo Christen, Hugo Magein, Daniela Giovannini, Carlos Campillo, Svetoslav Malchev, José Miguel Peris, Mekjell Meland, Rolf Stehr, Gérard Charlot, José Quero-García
Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920780/genome-enabled-prediction-models-for-yield-related-traits-in-chickpea
#3
Manish Roorkiwal, Abhishek Rathore, Roma R Das, Muneendra K Singh, Ankit Jain, Samineni Srinivasan, Pooran M Gaur, Bharadwaj Chellapilla, Shailesh Tripathi, Yongle Li, John M Hickey, Aaron Lorenz, Tim Sutton, Jose Crossa, Jean-Luc Jannink, Rajeev K Varshney
Genomic selection (GS) unlike marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) predicts breeding values of lines using genome-wide marker profiling and allows selection of lines prior to field-phenotyping, thereby shortening the breeding cycle. A collection of 320 elite breeding lines was selected and phenotyped extensively for yield and yield related traits at two different locations (Delhi and Patancheru, India) during the crop seasons 2011-12 and 2012-13 under rainfed and irrigated conditions. In parallel, these lines were also genotyped using DArTseq platform to generate genotyping data for 3000 polymorphic markers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920377/phenological-shifts-of-native-and-invasive-species-under-climate-change-insights-from-the-boechera-lythrum-model
#4
REVIEW
Robert I Colautti, Jon Ågren, Jill T Anderson
Warmer and drier climates have shifted phenologies of many species. However, the magnitude and direction of phenological shifts vary widely among taxa, and it is often unclear when shifts are adaptive or how they affect long-term viability. Here, we model evolution of flowering phenology based on our long-term research of two species exhibiting opposite shifts in floral phenology: Lythrum salicaria, which is invasive in North America, and the sparse Rocky Mountain native Boechera stricta Genetic constraints are similar in both species, but differences in the timing of environmental conditions that favour growth lead to opposite phenological shifts under climate change...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920161/competence-to-flower-age-controlled-sensitivity-to-environmental-cues
#5
Youbong Hyun, René Richter, George Coupland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920158/patterning-the-female-gametophyte-of-flowering-plants
#6
Dawit Girma Tekleyohans, Thomas Nakel, Rita Gross-Hardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919924/gradual-vs-abrupt-reduction-of-carpels-in-syncarpous-gynoecia-a-case-study-from-polyscias-subg-arthrophyllum-araliaceae-apiales
#7
Polina V Karpunina, Alexei A Oskolski, Maxim S Nuraliev, Porter P Lowry, Galina V Degtjareva, Tahir H Samigullin, Carmen M Valiejo-Roman, Dmitry D Sokoloff
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Revealing the relative roles of gradual and abrupt transformations of morphological characters is an important topic of evolutionary biology. Gynoecia apparently consisting of one carpel have evolved from pluricarpellate syncarpous gynoecia in several angiosperm clades. The process of reduction can involve intermediate stages, with one fertile and one or more sterile carpels (pseudomonomery). The possible origin of monomery directly via an abrupt change of gynoecium merism has been a matter of dispute...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919573/fire-proneness-as-a-prerequisite-for-the-evolution-of-fire-adapted-traits
#8
REVIEW
Byron B Lamont, Tianhua He
Fire as a major evolutionary force has been disputed because it is considered to lack supporting evidence. If a trait has evolved in response to selection by fire then the environment of the plant must have been fire-prone before the appearance of that trait. Using outcomes of trait assignments applied to molecular phylogenies for fire-stimulated flowering, seed-release, and germination, in this Opinion article we show that fire-proneness precedes, or rarely coincides with, the evolution of these fire-adapted traits...
December 2, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918538/variation-in-the-flowering-gene-self-pruning-5g-promotes-day-neutrality-and-early-yield-in-tomato
#9
Sebastian Soyk, Niels A Müller, Soon Ju Park, Inga Schmalenbach, Ke Jiang, Ryosuke Hayama, Lei Zhang, Joyce Van Eck, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Zachary B Lippman
Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917500/an-alloantibody-in-a-homozygous-gyp-mur-individual-defines-jenu-mns49-a-new-high-frequency-antigen-on-glycophorin-b
#10
Genghis H Lopez, Brett Wilson, Yew-Wah Liew, Pawinee Kupatawintu, Morakot Emthip, Catherine A Hyland, Robert L Flower
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917318/disentangling-urban-habitat-and-matrix-effects-on-wild-bee-species
#11
Leonie K Fischer, Julia Eichfeld, Ingo Kowarik, Sascha Buchholz
In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a) if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b) how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917290/functional-analysis-of-alternative-splicing-of-the-flowering-locus-t-orthologous-gene-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium
#12
Yachao Mao, Jing Sun, Peipei Cao, Rong Zhang, Qike Fu, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Jiafu Jiang
As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called 'florigen' plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar 'Jimba'. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower...
2016: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916846/dehydropyrrolizidine-alkaloid-toxicity-cytotoxicity-and-carcinogenicity
#13
REVIEW
Bryan L Stegelmeier, Steven M Colegate, Ammon W Brown
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA)-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically...
November 29, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916528/repeated-inactivation-of-the-first-committed-enzyme-underlies-the-loss-of-benzaldehyde-emission-after-the-selfing-transition-in-capsella
#14
Claudia Sas, Frank Müller, Christian Kappel, Tyler V Kent, Stephen I Wright, Monika Hilker, Michael Lenhard
The enormous species richness of flowering plants is at least partly due to floral diversification driven by interactions between plants and their animal pollinators [1, 2]. Specific pollinator attraction relies on visual and olfactory floral cues [3-5]; floral scent can not only attract pollinators but also attract or repel herbivorous insects [6-8]. However, despite its central role for plant-animal interactions, the genetic control of floral scent production and its evolutionary modification remain incompletely understood [9-13]...
November 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915467/the-physics-of-pollinator-attraction
#15
REVIEW
Edwige Moyroud, Beverley J Glover
Contents 1 I. 1 II. 1 III. 3 IV. 4 V. 4 4 References 5 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects...
December 4, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914543/extract-of-syringa-oblata-a-new-biocontrol-agent-against-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-caused-by-ralstonia-solanacearum
#16
Wanming Bai, Fanyu Kong, Yong Lin, Chengsheng Zhang
Ralstonia solanacearum causes serious wilt disease in tobacco. To effectively control this disease, the antibacterial activity of 95% ethanol extracts from the flower buds of Syringa oblata was examined. Based on GC-MS analysis and an inhibition experiment against R. solanacearum, the main antibacterial component is eugenol. We further determined the effect of eugenol on the physiology, biochemistry, and cellular morphology of R. solanacearum. The results showed that eugenol can destroy wilt bacteria, leading to the disappearance of flagella, the leakage of contents, and the appearance of a cavity...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#17
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914340/nickelocene-as-precursor-of-microporous-organometallic-derived-carbon-and-nickel-oxide-carbon-nanocomposite
#18
P González-García, D Arenas-Esteban, D Ávila-Brande, E Urones-Garrote, L C Otero-Díaz
Microporous flower-like and spherical carbon particles, made of graphene-like layers, have been obtained via chlorination of nickelocene (Ni(C5H5)2). Their mechanism of formation, in terms of morphology and micro-nanostructure, has been followed from 200 to 900°C. Conventional transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution-TEM observations allow determining that their structure is made of highly disordered graphene-like layers. The Raman spectrum of the high temperature sample exhibits the characteristics D and G bands...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913905/proteins-immunologically-related-to-map65-1-accumulate-and-localize-differentially-during-bud-development-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#19
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti, Giampiero Cai
Various arrays of microtubules are present throughout the plant cell cycle and are involved in distinct functions. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule dynamics by acting as stabilizers, destabilizers, and promoters of microtubule dynamics. The MAP65 family is a specific group of cross-linkers required for structural maintenance of microtubules. In plants, different isoforms of MAP65 are differentially expressed according to their developmental program. In this work, we analyzed the differential distribution of proteins immunologically related to MAP65-1 during bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L...
December 2, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913788/safety-assessment-of-achillea-millefolium-as-used-in-cosmetics
#20
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
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