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F Tollens, N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, C Risterucci, B Künnecke, P Lebhardt, J Reinwald, M Sack, W Weber-Fahr, A Meyer-Lindenberg, A Sartorius
One of the major challenges of cross-species translation in psychiatry is the identification of quantifiable brain phenotypes linked to drug efficacy and/or side effects. A measure that has received increasing interest is the effect of antipsychotic drugs on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in magnetic resonance imaging. However, quantitative comparisons of antipsychotic drug-induced alterations of FC patterns are missing. Consideration of receptor binding affinities provides a means for the effects of antipsychotic drugs on extended brain networks to be related directly to their molecular mechanism of action...
July 10, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Soo-Hyun Paik, Joung-Sook Ahn, Seongho Min, Ki-Chang Park, Min-Hyuk Kim
Delirium is an acute disturbance in attention and awareness in response to one or more physiological stressors that is closely related to poor clinical outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether delirium patients with psychotic symptoms (PS) would have unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed on the patients with delirium due to general medical conditions to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes. All patients were assessed by Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98 and classified as having PS when scored two or more on at least one of the psychotic symptom items (perceptual disturbances, delusions, and thought process abnormalities)...
2018: PloS One
Satoshi Umeda
This article reviews memory functions in the medial parietal areas, which consist of the retrosplenial cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the precuneus. These areas are involved in various cognitive functions including memory processing, spatial cognition, and self-related processing. Fundamental previous studies from the areas of neuropsychology, neuroimaging, psychiatry, and neurology, are covered to describe memory-related functions in the medial parietal areas. The focus is on the default mode network and the encoding/retrieval flip as key issues for understanding memory functions in the medial parietal areas...
July 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Marie-Aude Piot, Agnès Dechartres, Gilles Guerrier, Cédric Lemogne, Carine Layat-Burn, Bruno Falissard, Antoine Tesniere
INTRODUCTION: Although most healthcare professionals must deal with patients with mental illness, many are not prepared for the various situations that can ensue. Simulation may be a powerful pedagogical tool for simultaneously teaching knowledge, skills and attitudes. We aim to assess the effectiveness of simulation for initial and continuous training in psychiatry for healthcare professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive search for randomised and non-randomised controlled studies and single-group pretest/post-test reports will be conducted in electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, PsychINFO, ERIC, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Web of Science (Science and Social Sciences Citation Index), with a detailed query...
July 11, 2018: BMJ Open
Christine Tartaro, Joshua Duntley, Stephanie Medvetz, Nicole Hafner
One hundred sixty-three homicide case files from The Center for Forensic Psychiatry in Ypsilanti, Michigan were examined for evidence of factors associated with the outcomes of Competency to Stand Trial (CST) evaluations. Of the socio-demographic, legal, and clinical factors investigated, only three were significant. Defendants with lower IQs were more likely to be found incompetent to stand trial, and those with more property crime arrests were more likely to be found competent to stand trial. Additionally, defendants who were found incompetent to stand trial were more likely to be accused of killing an intimate or relative...
July 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Nancy Byatt, John Straus, Arielle Stopa, Kathleen Biebel, Leena Mittal, Tiffany A Moore Simas
OBJECTIVE: To describe the utilization and quality assessment of a population-based program to help health care providers address mental health and substance use disorders among pregnant and postpartum women, the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Program for Moms (MCPAP for Moms). METHODS: The Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Program for Moms builds health care providers' capacity to address perinatal mental health and substance use disorders through 1) trainings and toolkits, 2) telephonic access to perinatal psychiatric consultation, and 3) facilitating referral to community resources...
July 10, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
R Steinberg
BACKGROUND: Not only the circumstances of the simultaneous death of King Louis II and his psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden on Pentecost 1886 are still the subject of controversial discussion but also the nature of Louis' mental illness and the expert report that formed the basis for removing Louis from power. RESULTS: When one considers the psychiatric knowledge of the time, however, it becomes clearer how the four experts who assessed Louis reached a diagnosis of paranoia (madness)...
July 11, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Mahboubeh Dadfar, Nahid Momeni Safarabad, Ali Asghar Asgharnejad Farid, Monir Nemati Shirzy, Farzad Ghazie Pour Abarghouie
INTRODUCTION: The association between psychological well-being and physical and mental health has been shown in the literature. Psychological well-being is a multifaceted concept. The World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is a 5-item instrument used to screen for depression. However, the validity of the WHO-5 has not been investigated in Iranian psychiatric or psychological settings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the validation of the Farsi version of the WHO-5 in a sample of Iranian psychiatric outpatients...
2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Eilis Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Helen Ramsbottom, Lisa Collier Farmer
PROBLEM: Less than 30-day readmission has become a national problem. This pediatric medical center discovered that the primary diagnosis of Mood Disorder, not otherwise specified, was the third most common readmission diagnosis hospital-wide. Administration actively sought a resolution to less-than-30-day readmissions because All-Patient-Refined-Diagnostic-Related Groups would soon include pediatric hospitals with reimbursement impact. METHODS: The Iowa Model for evidence-based practice framed the work of case management to identify readmission risk, reduce readmissions, and improve patient quality...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
Mariska E Kret, Elio E Sjak-Shie
Pupillometry has been one of the most widely used response systems in psychophysiology. Changes in pupil size can reflect diverse cognitive and emotional states, ranging from arousal, interest and effort to social decisions, but they are also widely used in clinical practice to assess patients' brain functioning. As a result, research involving pupil size measurements has been reported in practically all psychology, psychiatry, and psychophysiological research journals, and now it has found its way into the primatology literature as well as into more practical applications, such as using pupil size as a measure of fatigue or a safety index during driving...
July 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Zhen A Lu, Weiyi Mu, Lauren M Osborne, Zachary A Cordner
The SHANK2 gene codes for a protein involved in organising the postsynaptic density and disruptions have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). ASDs are frequently comorbid with intellectual disability and anxiety disorders and emerging evidence suggests potentially common aetiologies. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old man with ASD who presented with severe anorexia due to fear of food contamination, food avoidance and stereotypies attributable to underlying obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)...
July 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Carlijn Wiersema, Willeke Van Zelst, Richard Oude Voshaar
A 67-year-old man was referred to an outpatient clinic of geriatric psychiatry because of persistent symptoms of depression and anxiety, accompanied by sleepiness. The latter had been evaluated multiple times in the general practice over several years; each time it was considered to be a symptom of depression. After referral, the patient was diagnosed with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), comorbid to a depressive and anxiety disorder. Retrospectively, we conclude that affective symptoms accompanying OSA and sleepiness were wrongfully interpreted as depression, but after having led to problems at work, they have triggered psychiatric comorbidity...
July 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
V M Frías, F Colom, A Bulbena, R Aceña, A Pratdesava, X Y Zendjidjian, V Perez-Sola
The Satispsy-22 scale is an instrument created for the specific evaluation of psychiatric inpatient satisfaction. Therefore, the study aims to carry out the Satispsy-22 scientific translation to Spanish and to learn its psychometric properties. The Satipsy-22-E was administered to discharged patients from four units of acute psychiatric admission, a unit of dual pathology and two units of subacute psychiatric admission (N = 268). Cronbach's alpha was 0.886, which can be interpreted as good internal reliability...
June 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Christos S Karapetis, Brian Stein, Bogda Koczwara, Rosemary Harrup, Linda Milleshkin, Phil Parente, Michael Millward, Ian Haines, Prunella Blinman, Ian Olver
The controversial topic of voluntary assisted dying (VAD) is receiving significant attention at state government levels and in the community. Acknowledging potential legalisation of VAD, the Medical Oncology Group of Australia (MOGA) undertook a survey of members to inform the development of a position statement on the subject. All MOGA members were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. The survey comprised 12 closed-response categorical questions. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the survey data...
July 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Travis E Baker, Yashar Zeighami, Alain Dagher, Clay B Holroyd
Introduction: Alterations in dopamine signaling play a key role in reinforcement learning and nicotine addiction, but the relationship between these two processes have not been well characterized. We investigated this relationship in young adult smokers using a combination of behavioral and computational measures of reinforcement learning. Methods: We asked moderately dependent smokers to engage in a reinforcement learning task three times: smoking as usual, smoking abstinence, and cigarette consumption...
June 30, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Lill Susann Ynnesdal Haugen, Vegard Haugland, Andreas Envy, Marit Borg, Tor-Johan Ekeland, Norman Anderssen
Research on the topic of not talking about psychosocial hardships describes the presence of 'house rules' against illness-talk in common areas in 'meeting places' ('day centres') in community mental health care. The aim of this article was to explore the complexity of not talking about psychosocial hardships ('silence') in meeting places in Norwegian community mental health care. The research team consisted of first-hand and academic knowers of community mental health care (participatory research team). We performed two series of focus group discussions with service users and staff of meeting places...
July 1, 2018: Health (London)
Reiji Yoshimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
James R Agapoff, Celeste Tonai, Diane M Eckert, Gretchen Gavero, Deborah A Goebert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Kyle D Webster, Susan Michalowski, Thomas E Hranilovich
The legitimacy and etiology of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) remains a controversial topic within Psychiatry. The two schools of thought are the Post-Traumatic Model (PTM) and the Socio-Cognitive Model (SCM). This case highlights the validity of PTM in an individual who suffered severe and prolonged physical, psychological, and sexual abuse from 2 years old through adulthood. The reported abuse was corroborated and proven on two separate occasions via medical professionals/rape kit and the police. This resulted in the incarceration of one of her abusers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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