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disease prevention

Li Cheng, Jun Zhang, Xin-Yi Li, Li Yuan, Yan-Fang Pan, Xiao-Rong Chen, Tian-Ming Gao, Jian-Tian Qiao, Jin-Shun Qi
Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a critical role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies indicated that the sequence 31-35 in Aβ molecule is an effective active center responsible for Aβ neurotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we prepared a novel antibody specifically targeting the sequence 31-35 of amyloid β protein, and investigated the neuroprotection of the anti-Aβ31-35 antibody against Aβ1-42 -induced impairments in neuronal viability, spatial memory, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Jin-Young Jang, Yong Chan Shin, Youngmin Han, Joon Seong Park, Ho-Seong Han, Ho Kyoung Hwang, Dong Sup Yoon, Jae Keun Kim, Yoo Seok Yoon, Dae Wook Hwang, Chang Moo Kang, Woo Jung Lee, Jin Seok Heo, Mee Joo Kang, Ye Rim Chang, Jihoon Chang, Woohyun Jung, Sun-Whe Kim
Importance: The rate of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after distal pancreatectomy ranges from 13% to 64%. To prevent POPF, polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh was introduced, but its effect has been evaluated only in small numbers of patients and retrospective studies. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of PGA mesh in preventing POPF after distal pancreatectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective randomized clinical, single-blind (participant), parallel-group trial at 5 centers between November 2011 and April 2014...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Karla A Mark, Kathleen J Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan J Sorensen, Mark Lucanic, Rachel B Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W Gibson, Gordon J Lithgow
Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Sharon M Moe
Calcium is an important ion in cell signaling, hormone regulation, and bone health. Its regulation is complex and intimately connected to that of phosphate homeostasis. Both ions are maintained at appropriate levels to maintain the extracellular to intracellular gradients, allow for mineralization of bone, and to prevent extra skeletal and urinary calcification. The homeostasis involves the target organs intestine, parathyroid glands, kidney, and bone. Multiple hormones converge to regulate the extracellular calcium level: parathyroid hormone, vitamin D (principally 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D), fibroblast growth factor 23, and α-klotho...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Armando Henrique Norman
This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness) and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Kyonayra Quezia Duarte Brito, Tarciana Nobre de Menezes, Ricardo Alves de Olinda
Objective: to verify the prevalence of functional disability among older adults and how it can affect their health conditions and the regular practice of physical activities. Method: this is a household and cross-sectional study conducted with older adults of both sexes. We verified the variables associated with functional disability by Poisson's regression. Results: around 420 older adults participated in this study (68.1% of them being women)...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Athumani M Ramadhani, Tamsyn Derrick, David Macleod, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ''follicular conjunctivitis" (TF) and/or ''intense papillary inflammation" (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Patrizia Belfiore, Davide Di Palma, Francesca Gallé, Valeria Di Onofrio, Alessandro Scaletti, Giorgio Liguori
Type II diabetes has a high prevalence rate worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. By requiring increasing health expenditures and resources, the disease and its complications generate a considerable economic burden. Since many years several institutions promote awareness and information programs regarding the most effective strategies to prevent and control diabetes. By reducing the severity of the disease and its complications, Adapted Exercise therapy (AE) represents an ideal instrument to remodulate the Therapeutic Healthcare Management Protocol (THMP) of patients with type II diabetes and may be defined as a new health technology...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
JaeJin An
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) potentially increase overall quality of disease management, including preventive care. However, there are mixed findings regarding quality of diabetes care, and little evidence exists with respect to the effect of PCMHs on medication adherence in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between PCMHs and process measures of diabetes care, as well as adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with diabetes in a nationally representative U...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms, and organism-shedding time. However, In India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp is becoming a major issue as these strains are non-typeable by conventional serotyping...
October 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Craig A Marshall, Ivan A Borbon, Robert P Erickson
Nicotinamide delivered in drinking water at about 2 g/kg/day significantly prolonged survival and showed a suggestive improvement on memory in the Npc1 (nih) / Npc1 (nih) mouse model of infantile NPC1 disease. It is likely that this role is due to its function as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor although another HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid, was without effect. Nicotinamide could also work by preventing/reversing oxidative stress.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Genetics
Yang Chen, Lei Wang, Ashley L Pitzer, Xiang Li, Pin-Lan Li, Yang Zhang
: Recent studies indicate that inflammasomes serve as intracellular machinery to initiate classical cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses and play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. However, whether or not the activation of endothelial inflammasomes directly causes cell dysfunction or tissue injury without recruitment of inflammatory cells is unknown. We explored the role of endothelial cell inflammasome activation in mediating tight junction disruption, a hallmark event of endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to endothelial hyperpermeability in diabetes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ma Ángeles Rosillo, Ma Luisa Castejón, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Nowadays, it is clear that an unhealthy diet is one of the prime factors that contributes to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in the populations of both developed and developing countries. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced incidence of certain pathologies related to chronic inflammation and the immune system. Olive oil, the principal source of dietary lipids of the Mediterranean diet, possesses a high nutritional quality and a particular composition, which is especially relevant in the case of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO)...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
Oscar Marín
There is a growing understanding that pathological genetic variation and environmental insults during sensitive periods in brain development have long-term consequences on brain function, which range from learning disabilities to complex psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Furthermore, recent experiments in animal models suggest that therapeutic interventions during sensitive periods, typically before the onset of clear neurological and behavioral symptoms, might prevent or ameliorate the development of specific pathologies...
October 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
Ana Coto-Montes, Jose A Boga, Dun X Tan, Russel J Reiter
Considering the increased speed at which the world population is aging, sarcopenia could become an epidemic in this century. This condition currently has no means of prevention or treatment. Melatonin is a highly effective and ubiquitously acting antioxidant and free radical scavenger that is normally produced in all organisms. This molecule has been implicated in a huge number of biological processes, from anticonvulsant properties in children to protective effects on the lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Joseph A Ricci, Kayva Crawford, Olivia A Ho, Bernard T Lee, Ketan M Patel, Matthew L Iorio
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism encompasses a spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis to fatal pulmonary embolism. As microsurgical techniques increase in complexity, the overriding benefit from a microsurgical versus a venous thromboembolism prophylactic regimen remains unclear. This study evaluated the current recommendations and procedure-specific strategies for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with a focus on the utility of prophylaxis in microsurgical procedures...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Meredith Scannell
Individuals who have been sexually assaulted are at risk for contracting human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection. One of the best methods in protecting against contracting the HPV is to receive the HPV vaccine. To date, national sexual assault protocols and guidelines do not include information on HPV vaccination. The current 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has updated their recommendations for sexually assaulted patients to now receive the HPV vaccine. This article reviews information on HPV, HPV vaccines, and specific considerations for patients who have been sexually assaulted...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
L Guariguata, C Guell, T A Samuels, E A J A Rouwette, J Woodcock, I R Hambleton, N Unwin
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is highly prevalent in the Caribbean, associated with a high morbidity and mortality and is a recognised threat to economic and social development. Heads of Government in the Caribbean Community came together in 2007 and declared their commitment to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes, by calling for a multi-sectoral, systemic response. To facilitate the development of effective policies, policymakers are being engaged in the development and use of a system dynamics (SD) model of diabetes for Caribbean countries...
October 26, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
Recognition and removal of apoptotic and necrotic cells must be efficient and highly controlled to avoid excessive inflammation and autoimmune responses to self. The complement system, a crucial part of innate immunity, plays an important role in this process. Thus, apoptotic and necrotic cells are recognized by complement initiators such as C1q, mannose binding lectin, ficolins, and properdin. This triggers complement activation and opsonization of cells with fragments of C3b, which enhances phagocytosis and thus ensures silent removal...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
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