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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817864/tobacco-cessation-strategies-it-takes-a-village
#1
Debbie Anne Chiu Qua
Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and chronic diseases in the U.S. Identifying smokers and providing appropriate intervention is therefore an integral part of each clinic visit. A combination of pharmacotherapy as well as behavioral counseling provides the best results. Pharmacotherapy includes nicotine replacement (patch, gum, lozenges), bupropion and varenicline. More recently, electronic nicotinic delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes, vaporizers/vape pens, and hookah pens) have become popular...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817856/back-to-basics-the-effect-of-healthy-diet-and-exercise-on-chronic-disease-management
#2
Robert L Allison
INTRODUCTION: The increase in obesity rates in the U.S. and other less developed industrial countries have led to a worldwide epidemic of chronic disease states. Increased obesity rates are implicated in the treatment failures for illnesses such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, heart failure, hypertension and cancer. Effective prevention of obesity through diet and exercise contributes to the successful medical management of multiple chronic disease states. OBJECTIVE: Review the last 10 years of literature (2006-2016) on the effects of diet and exercise as they relate to the prevention of chronic disease...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817808/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-stimulated-angiogenesis-by-improving-endothelial-precursor-cell-function-via-a-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway
#3
Yaping Deng, Xue Han, Zheng Yao, Yuannan Sun, Jiawen Yu, Jian Cai, Guofei Ren, Guojun Jiang, Feng Han
BACKGROUND: Impaired wound healing is a common complication of diabetes and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation. Treatment with fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, was associated with a lower risk of amputations, particularly minor amputations without known large-vessel diseases, probably through non-lipid mechanisms. The current study aimed to test our hypothesis that fenofibrate stimulates angiogenesis and restores endothelial precursor cell (EPC) function via inhibiting Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817690/resveratrol-and-caloric-restriction-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-by-regulating-sirt1-autophagy-pathway-and-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Guofu Zhang, Yongjun Bu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiangmei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817659/resveratrol-improves-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-downregulating-hif-1%C3%AE-expression-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#5
Zhenhua Ma, Yangmin Zhang, Qingchun Li, Meng Xu, Jigang Bai, Shengli Wu
Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the etiology of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). Previous studies had demonstrated that resveratrol (RES) could reduce oxidative stress by different mechanisms. However, the effect of RES on alcohol-induced fatty liver remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 48 male SD rats were divided into three groups: Control, AFLD, and RES groups. Rats were administered with either nothing or 65% vol/vol alcohol (5 ml/kg/day in the first three days, and then 10 ml/kg/day in the following days) with or without RES supplementation (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#6
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817502/stroke-related-disease-comorbidity-and-secondary-stroke-prevention-practices-among-young-stroke-survivors
#7
Gayenell S Magwood, Brandi M White, Charles Ellis
BACKGROUND: Although ischemic stroke incidence has been in decline over the past 60 years, the same has not been observed among individuals younger than 55 years. Recent reports have shown a substantial increase in young stroke incidence, yet little is known about young stroke survivors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the disease comorbidity profile and secondary prevention practices in stroke survivors younger than 50 years. METHODS: This study used a retrospective data analysis of secondary stroke prevention practices among young stroke survivors using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817375/effect-of-maternal-antibody-transfer-on-antibody-dynamics-and-control-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-in-offspring
#8
Cheryl M T Dvorak, Brian J Payne, Jessica L Seate, Michael P Murtaugh
Sow immunity plays an important role in preventing viral infection and disease in newborn piglets. Vertical transmission of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) may perpetuate porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in newborn and growing pigs. Hence, the immunological effects of maternal immunoglobulin transfer of PCV2-specific antibodies on PCV2 viremia and immune response in piglets in commercial swine herds were evaluated. Sow vaccination has been shown to reduce viral shedding and viremia, and increases the neutralizing antibody (NA) titers...
August 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817311/beta-secretase-inhibitors-in-phase-i-and-phase-ii-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Charbel E-H Moussa
BACE 1 is a protease that cleaves the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein and generates amyloid-β peptides that accumulate in AD brains. No known mutations are identified in the gene encoding BACE1 in AD. However, enzyme levels are elevated in AD and a single residue mutation in amyloid precursor protein protects against protein cleavage by BACE1, suggesting BACE involvement in disease pathogenesis. Drugs that can inhibit BACE1 would theoretically prevent Aβ accumulation and halt AD onset and progression...
August 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817308/a-2017-update-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-s-contributions-and-investments-in-breastfeeding
#10
Ruth Petersen
Given that breastfeeding is important to the health of infants and their mothers, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) goal is to ensure that new mothers understand the benefits of breastfeeding and, when they choose to breastfeed, have the supports they need to successfully initiate and continue breastfeeding until they reach their goals. This report summarizes CDC's current contributions and investments in breastfeeding.
August 17, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817209/huntington-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#11
Peter McColgan, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4. In Western populations HD has a prevalence of 10.6-13.7 individuals per 100,000. It is characterised by cognitive, motor and psychiatric disturbance. At the cellular level mutant huntingtin results in neuronal dysfunction and death through a number of mechanisms, including disruption of proteostasis, transcription and mitochondrial function and direct toxicity of the mutant protein...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817123/evaluation-of-telomere-length-in-human-cardiac-tissues-using-cardiac-quantitative-fish
#12
Maryam Sharifi-Sanjani, Alan K Meeker, Foteini Mourkioti
Telomere length has been correlated with various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The use of currently available telomere-length measurement techniques is often restricted by the requirement of a large amount of cells (Southern-based techniques) or the lack of information on individual cells or telomeres (PCR-based methods). Although several methods have been used to measure telomere length in tissues as a whole, the assessment of cell-type-specific telomere length provides valuable information on individual cell types...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817117/increased-tumor-infiltrating-cd45ra-ccr7-regulatory-t-cell-subset-with-immunosuppressive-properties-foster-gastric-cancer-progress
#13
Fang-Yuan Mao, Hui Kong, Yong-Liang Zhao, Liu-Sheng Peng, Weisan Chen, Jin-Yu Zhang, Ping Cheng, Ting-Ting Wang, Yi-Pin Lv, Yong-Sheng Teng, Xiao-Long Fu, Yu-Gang Liu, Xiao-Long Wu, Chuan-Jie Hao, Nan You, Ping Luo, Pei-Wu Yu, Quan-Ming Zou, Gang Guo, Yuan Zhuang
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are major components of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with potent immunosuppressive properties in gastric cancer (GC) microenvironment. However, different subsets of the Tregs and their relevance to GC are unknown. Here, we found that patients with GC showed a significantly higher Tregs infiltration in tumors, and CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset constituted most tumor-infiltrating Tregs. Tumor-infiltrating CD45RA(-)CCR7(-) Treg subset with an effector/memory phenotype accumulated in tumors and expressed low level of HLA-DR...
August 17, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817105/bioactive-compounds-from-mexican-varieties-of-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-implications-for-health
#14
REVIEW
Celia Chávez-Mendoza, Esteban Sánchez
As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817095/human-milk-and-allergic-diseases-an-unsolved-puzzle
#15
REVIEW
Daniel Munblit, Diego G Peroni, Alba Boix-Amorós, Peter S Hsu, Belinda Van't Land, Melvin C L Gay, Anastasia Kolotilina, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Robert J Boyle, Maria Carmen Collado, Johan Garssen, Donna T Geddes, Ralph Nanan, Carolyn Slupsky, Ganesa Wegienka, Anita L Kozyrskyj, John O Warner
There is conflicting evidence on the protective role of breastfeeding in relation to the development of allergic sensitisation and allergic disease. Studies vary in methodology and definition of outcomes, which lead to considerable heterogeneity. Human milk composition varies both within and between individuals, which may partially explain conflicting data. It is known that human milk composition is very complex and contains variable levels of immune active molecules, oligosaccharides, metabolites, vitamins and other nutrients and microbial content...
August 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817080/feasibility-study-of-an-optical-caustic-plasmonic-light-scattering-sensor-for-human-serum-anti-dengue-protein-e-antibody-detection
#16
Antonio A García, Lina S Franco, Miguel A Pirez-Gomez, José L Pech-Pacheco, Jorge F Mendez-Galvan, Carlos Machain-Williams, Lourdes Talavera-Aguilar, José H Espinosa-Carrillo, Miriam M Duarte-Villaseñor, Christian Be-Ortiz, Luz E Espinosa-de Los Monteros, Ariel Castillo-Pacheco, Julian E Garcina-Rejon
Antibody detection and accurate diagnosis of tropical diseases is essential to help prevent the spread of disease. However, most detection methods lack cost-effectiveness and field portability, which are essential features for achieving diagnosis in a timely manner. To address this, 3D-printed oblate spheroid sample chambers were fabricated to measure green light scattering of gold nanoparticles using an optical caustic focus to detect antibodies. Scattering signals of 20-200 nm gold nanoparticles using a green laser were compared to green light emitting diode (LED) light source signals and to Mie theory...
August 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816960/successful-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-for-displaced-femoral-fracture-in-a-patient-with-osteopetrosis-case-report-and-lessons-learned
#17
Jiangfa Huang, Jianke Pan, Mingtao Xu, Shuchai Xu
RATIONALE: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816946/prognostic-factors-of-clinical-endpoints-in-elderly-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-during-a-2-year-follow-up-in-china-an-observational-cohort-study
#18
Hao Wang, Hai-Jun Wang, Ya-Dong Chen, Tao Tao, Yu-Tao Guo, Xiao-Ning Zhao, Hong-Bin Liu, Yu-Tang Wang
This study aimed to reveal the incidence of clinical endpoints in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) during a 2-year follow-up and evaluate the related prognostic factors of these endpoints.In total, 200 elderly patients with AF and 400 age- and sex-matched patients without AF were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study. The incidence of clinical endpoints, including thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and all-cause death, during the 2-year follow-up was analyzed. Other follow-up data, including disease history, laboratory examinations, medication status, and other clinical endpoints, were collected...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816807/a-whooping-cough-education-module-for-wic-clients-in-utah
#19
Karlen E Luthy, Alicia Anderson, Janelle Macintosh, Renea L Beckstrand, Lacey M Eden, Ryan Amy, Christopher I Macintosh
BACKGROUND: Clients in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are required to complete education modules quarterly to maintain eligibility. The purposes of this project were to: (1) create a whooping cough vaccination education module for WIC clients; (2) evaluate baseline perceptions of WIC clients on the whooping cough vaccine and disease; and (3) evaluate whooping cough knowledge following completion of the module. PROBLEM: A decline in vaccination rates among infants and children using WIC services was reported by a local WIC program director who requested whooping cough vaccination education materials...
September 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816757/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-during-induction-of-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-defining-a-therapeutic-drug-window
#20
Konstantinos Papamichael, Niels Vande Casteele, Marc Ferrante, Ann Gils, Adam S Cheifetz
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, up to 30% of patients with IBD show no clinical benefit and are defined as having a primary nonresponse. Primary nonresponse to a biologic can be attributed to either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic issues, such as those involved in secondary loss of response. Pharmacokinetic issues are linked to undetectable or subtherapeutic drug concentrations because of either an accelerated non-immune-mediated clearance or immunogenicity and the development of antidrug antibodies, whereas pharmacodynamic issues are likely related to "non-TNF driven" disease...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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