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Prenatal nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057134/spiral-fracture-in-young-infant-causing-a-diagnostic-dilemma-nutritional-rickets-versus-child-abuse
#1
Sonia Kaushal, Manish Raisingani, Raphael David, Bina Shah
Fractures are uncommon in young, nonambulatory infants. The differential diagnosis includes nonaccidental injury (NAI) and metabolic bone disease, including rickets. While rickets typically present after six months of age, multiple cases have been reported in younger infants. We report a case of an 11-week-old male infant who presented with a spiral fracture of the humerus and no radiologic evidence of rickets. A detailed psychosocial assessment failed to reveal any risk factors for NAI. The patient had elevated alkaline phosphatase and PTH with low 25 hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043689/-mesenteric-edema-as-a-prenatal-ultrasound-sign-of-poor-prognosis-in-gastroschisis
#2
M Dore Reyes, P Triana Junco, J L Encinas Hernández, E Alvarado Antolín, J L Bartha Rasero, V Núñez Cerezo, M Romo Muñoz, M Gómez Cervantes, A Sánchez Galán, L Martínez Martínez, M López Santamaría
INTRODUCTION/AIM OF THE STUDY: Gastroschisis is a congenital malformation with an easy and early prenatal diagnosis, however, it has a variable post-natal outcome. Our aim was to determine if certain ultrasound markers or early delivery were related with a worse postnatal outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of patients with gastroschisis diagnosed between 2005-2014, with emphasis on prenatal ultrasounds, gestational age at delivery and post-natal outcome...
July 20, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037529/the-relationship-between-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-airflow-obstruction-in-us-children-analysis-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2007-2012
#3
Stacey-Ann Whittaker Brown, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
BACKGROUND: It has been difficult to determine the individual impact of pre and post-natal childhood tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) on childhood lung function, as children are often exposed to both. AIMS: To determine the association between current TSE, as measured by serum cotinine levels, and airflow obstruction (defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second and the forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) less than the lower limit of normal), while adjusting for self-reported prenatal TSE...
October 13, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025438/pre-gestational-excessive-weight-and-duration-of-breast-feeding
#4
Andréa M Sotero, Haroldo da S Ferreira, Monica L Assunção, Pedro Israel C de Lira
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pre-gestational obesity interferes with the duration of breast-feeding. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a population-based probabilistic sample. The dependent variables were exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) and breast-feeding (BF), as defined by the WHO. The classification of pre-gestational nutritional status was based on the pre-gestational BMI category. SUBJECTS: A sample of 418 mother-infant pairs from the state of Alagoas, Brazil...
October 13, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017617/birth-weight-and-postnatal-microbial-exposures-predict-the-distribution-of-peripheral-blood-leukocyte-subsets-in-young-adults-in-the-philippines
#5
T W McDade, M J Jones, G Miller, J Borja, M S Kobor, C W Kuzawa
The immune system not only provides protection against infectious disease but also contributes to the etiology of neoplastic, atopic, and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional and microbial environments have lasting effects on multiple aspects of immunity, indicating that immune processes may play important roles in the developmental origins of disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between birth weight and the distribution of leukocyte (white blood cell) subsets in peripheral blood in young adulthood...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017023/maternal-iron-nutriture-as-a-critical-modulator-of-fasd-risk-in-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies
#6
Kaylee K Helfrich, Nipun Saini, Pamela J Kling, Susan M Smith
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy places the fetus at risk for permanent physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) outcomes vary widely, and growing evidence suggests that maternal nutrition is a modifying factor. Certain nutrients, such as iron, may modulate FASD outcomes. Untreated gestational iron deficiency (ID) causes persistent neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring that affect many of the same domains damaged by PAE...
October 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983923/the-highs-and-lows-of-programmed-cardiovascular-disease-by-developmental-hypoxia-studies-in-the-chicken-embryo
#7
N Itani, C E Salinas, M Villena, K L Skeffington, C Beck, E Villamor, C E Blanco, D A Giussani
It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Sub-optimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978678/pufa-status-and-methylmercury-exposure-are-not-associated-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-mothers-or-their-children-in-the-seychelles-child-development-study
#8
Alison J Yeates, Sally W Thurston, Huiqi Li, Maria S Mulhern, Emeir M McSorley, Gene E Watson, Conrad F Shamlaye, J J Strain, Gary J Myers, Philip W Davidson, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Karin Broberg
Background: Leukocyte telomere length (TL) is associated with age-related diseases and early mortality, but there is a lack of data on the determinants of TL in early life. Evidence suggests that dietary intake of marine n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is protective of telomere attrition, yet the effect of methylmercury exposure, also found in fish, on TL is unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between prenatal PUFA status, methylmercury exposure, and TL in mothers and children in the SCDS (Seychelles Child Development Study), for whom fish consumption is high...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975627/meat-consumption-during-pregnancy-and-substance-misuse-among-adolescent-offspring-stratification-of-tcn2-genetic-variants
#9
Joseph R Hibbeln, John Paul SanGiovanni, Jean Golding, Pauline M Emmett, Kate Northstone, John M Davis, Marc Schuckit, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Reducing meat consumption is often advised; however, inadvertent nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy may result in residual neurodevelopmental harms to offspring. This study assessed possible effects of maternal diets in pregnancy on adverse substance use among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Pregnant women and their 13-year-old offspring taking part in a prospective birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), provided Food Frequency Questionnaire data from which dietary patterns were derived using principal components analysis...
October 4, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968527/prenatal-exposure-to-mercury-and-longitudinally-assessed-fetal-growth-relation-and-effect-modifiers
#10
Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, Mario Murcia, Mònica Guxens, Mikel Basterretxea, Marisa Rebagliato, Jesús Vioque, Aitana Lertxundi, Ana Fernandez-Somoano, Adonina Tardon, Jordi Sunyer, Sabrina Llop
BACKGROUND: Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth. METHODS: Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951014/the-significance-of-organ-prolapse-in-gastroschisis
#11
Shannon M Koehler, Aniko Szabo, Matt Loichinger, Erika Peterson, Melissa Christensen, Amy J Wagner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and importance of organ prolapse (stomach, bladder, reproductive organs) in gastroschisis. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of gastroschisis patients from 2000 to 2014 at a single tertiary institution. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test, Student's t test, log-rank test, or Cox regression analysis models. All tests were conducted as two-tailed tests, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940428/maternal-alcohol-use-and-nutrition-during-pregnancy-diet-and-anthropometry
#12
R Colin Carter, Marjanne Senekal, Neil C Dodge, Lori Bechard, Ernesta M Meintjes, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Despite known risks of prenatal nutritional deficiencies and studies documenting increased prevalence of poor dietary intake among non-pregnant alcohol abusers, the nutritional status of heavy drinking pregnant women remains largely unstudied. Animal models have found interactions between prenatal ethanol exposure and micronutrients, such as choline, folate, B12, and iron, and human studies have reported that lower maternal weight and body mass confer increased fetal alcohol-related risk...
September 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925411/birthweight-and-cardiometabolic-risk-patterns-in-multiracial-children
#13
D Sun, T Wang, Y Heianza, T Huang, X Shang, J Lv, S Li, E Harville, W Chen, V Fonseca, L Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prenatal growth, which is widely marked by birthweight, may have a pivotal role in affecting the lifelong risk of cardiometabolic disorders; however, comprehensive evaluation of its relations with childhood cardiometabolic risk patterns and the ethnic and gender disparities in national representative populations is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and comprehensive patterns of cardiometabolic risk in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919976/impacts-of-prenatal-nutrition-on-animal-production-and-performance-a-focus-on-growth-and-metabolic-and-endocrine-function-in-sheep
#14
REVIEW
Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the foetal origins of health and disease in humans. In FP research, the sheep has been quite extensively used as a model for humans. In this paper we will review findings mainly from our Copenhagen sheep model, on the implications of late gestation malnutrition for growth, development, and metabolic and endocrine functions later in life, and discuss how these implications may depend on the diet fed to the animal in early postnatal life...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918595/successful-pregnancy-in-a-ckd-patient-on-a-low-protein-supplemented-diet-an-opportunity-to-reflect-on-ckd-and-pregnancy-in-mexico-an-emerging-country
#15
Julia Nava, Silvia Moran, Veronica Figueroa, Adriana Salinas, Margy Lopez, Rocio Urbina, Abril Gutierrez, Jose Luis Lujan, Alejandra Orozco, Rafael Montufar, Giorgina B Piccoli
Pregnancy is probably the most important challenge in young women with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The challenge is greater in developing countries, in which access to dialysis is uneven, and prenatal care for CKD patients is not uniformly available. This case report summarizes some of the challenges faced by pregnant CKD women in a developing country. A 35-year-old woman, affected by an undiagnosed kidney disease, experienced preeclampsia at 24 years of age, and started dialysis in emergency at age 31 in the context of severe preeclampsia in her second pregnancy...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#16
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910963/placental-transfer-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-feasibility-using-the-placenta-as-a-non-invasive-biomonitoring-matrix
#17
Yunsun Jeong, Sunggyu Lee, Sunmi Kim, Jeongim Park, Hai-Joong Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kyungho Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
The placenta is a crucial organ for the supply of oxygen and nutritional elements from mother to fetus. Several studies have reported evidence of the placental transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Despite the importance of prenatal exposure to POPs, the transport process of POPs via the human placenta is not well understood. To investigate the transport processes of these contaminants and to assess the feasibility of the placenta as a non-invasive biological matrix, we measured 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in placenta tissues...
September 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902925/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-kv1-5-is-upregulated-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rats-with-exaggerated-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
L C Fu, Y Lv, Y Zhong, Q He, X Liu, L Z Du
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats...
September 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890264/breastfeeding-is-associated-with-higher-retention-in-wic-after-age-1
#19
Shannon E Whaley, Mike Whaley, Lauren E Au, Klara Gurzo, Lorrene D Ritchie
OBJECTIVE: Examine factors associated with retention on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) after 1 year of age. SETTING: A large California WIC program. PARTICIPANTS: WIC participants 14 months old (9,632) between July and September, 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recertification in WIC by 14 months of age. ANALYSIS: Multivariate logistic regression was performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to examine factors associated with child retention in WIC at age 14 months...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#20
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets, and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE, but effects on heart development are unknown...
September 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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