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Prenatal nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679617/retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-review-of-risk-factors-and-their-clinical-significance
#1
REVIEW
Sang Jin Kim, Alexander D Port, Ryan Swan, J Peter Campbell, R V Paul Chan, Michael F Chiang
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors...
April 19, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674343/impacts-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrition-on-glucagon-regulation-and-hepatic-signalling-in-sheep
#2
Bishnu Adhikari, Prabhat Khanal, Mette Olaf Nielsen
To evaluate the long-term impacts of early life nutritional manipulations on glucagon secretion and hepatic signalling, thirty-six twin pregnant ewes during their last trimester were exposed to NORM (fulfilling 100% of daily energy/protein requirements), HIGH (fulfilling 150/110% of daily energy/protein requirements) or LOW (50% of NORM) diets. Twin lambs were assigned after birth to a moderate (CONV) or high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet until six months. Then responses in plasma glucagon concentrations and glucagon ratios relative to previously reported values for insulin, glucose and lactate were determined after intravenous bolus injections of glucose or propionate (fed and 2-days fasting state)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669486/diet-the-keystone-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
S Peretti, M Mariano, C Mazzocchetti, M Mazza, M C Pino, A Verrotti Di Pianella, M Valenti
Children with autism are characterized by an impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Autism is a heterogeneous span of disorders with unknown aetiology. Research has grown significantly and has suggested that environmental risk factors acting during the prenatal period could influence the neurodevelopment of offspring. The literature suggests that the maternal diet during pregnancy has a fundamental role in the etiopathogenesis of autism. Indeed, a maternal diet that is high in some nutrients has been associated with an increase or reduction in the risk of develop Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)...
April 19, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659064/beliefs-and-advice-seeking-behaviours-for-fertility-and-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-of-a-global-sample
#4
R Walker, M Blumfield, H Truby
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy can motivate individuals to adopt lifestyle behaviours that protect the health of their offspring. The aims of the present study were to explore men's and women's beliefs about lifestyle, fertility and pregnancy, as well as where they seek advice. METHODS: Participants (2185 women and 221 men, six unspecified) from 104 countries completed a questionnaire that explored their beliefs about what was important for a healthy pregnancy and their advice-seeking behaviours...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628953/internet-usage-among-pregnant-women-for-seeking-health-information-a-review-article
#5
REVIEW
Marzieh Javanmardi, Mahnaz Noroozi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Hasan Ashrafi-Rizi
Background: In recent years, the Internet has become one of the most popular sources of health information for users, and pregnant women are no exception. This study aimed to investigate Internet usage among pregnant women for achieving health information on the finding of related studies. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching databases such as IranMedex, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Irandoc, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus in December 2016...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628208/complex-gastroschisis-clinical-spectrum-and-neonatal-outcomes-at-a-referral-center
#6
Pablo Laje, Maria V Fraga, William H Peranteau, Holly L Hedrick, Nahla Khalek, Juliana S Gebb, Julie S Moldenhauer, Mark P Johnson, Alan W Flake, N Scott Adzick
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the outcomes of neonates with complex gastroschisis (GC), and correlate outcomes with each type of complication. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with complex GC owing to prenatal and/or postnatal abdominal complications; 2008-2016. Primary outcomes: time to discontinue parenteral nutrition (off-PN), length of stay (LOS) and neonatal survival. MAIN RESULTS: We treated 58 patients with complex gastroschisis owing to abdominal complications, which were: intestinal necrosis at birth (n=9), intestinal atresia (n=16), medical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (n=15), surgical NEC (n=1), in utero volvulus (n=1), vanishing gastroschisis (n=2), severe intestinal dysmotility (n=1), delayed abdominal closure (n=3), abdominal compartment syndrome (n=2) and hiatal hernia/severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; n=11)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621355/participation-of-pregnant-women-in-a-community-based-nutrition-program-in-mumbai-s-informal-settlements-effect-on-exclusive-breastfeeding-practices
#7
Sheila Chanani, Anagha Waingankar, Neena Shah More, Shanti Pantvaidya, Armida Fernandez, Anuja Jayaraman
BACKGROUND: In urban Maharashtra, India, approximately half of mothers exclusively breastfeed. For children residing in informal settlements of Mumbai, this study examines factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, and whether exclusive breastfeeding, in a community-based nutrition program to prevent and treat wasting among children under age three, is associated with enrolment during the mother's pregnancy. METHODS: The nutrition program conducted a cross-sectional endline survey (October-December 2015) of caregivers in intervention areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597096/a-sustainable-solution-for-the-activities-of-the-european-network-for-surveillance-of-congenital-anomalies-eurocat-as-part-of-the-eu-platform-on-rare-diseases-registration
#8
REVIEW
Agnieszka Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Monica Lanzoni, Ester Garne, Maria Loane, Joan Morris, Amanda Neville, Ciarán Nicholl, Judith Rankin, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Simona Martin
The European Commission through its Directorates-General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) and Health and Food Safety (DG SANTE) is developing the European Platform on Rare Diseases Registration (EU RD Platform) with the objective to set European-level standards for data collection and data sharing. In the field of rare diseases the EU RD Platform will be a source of information on available rare disease patient data with large transnational European coverage. One main function of the EU RD Platform is to enable interoperability for the >600 existing RD registries in Europe...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579313/sickle-cell-disease-in-southwestern-nigeria-assessment-of-knowledge-of-primary-health-care-workers-and-available-facilities
#9
Samuel A Adegoke, Morenike A Akinlosotu, Olaronke B Adediji, Oyeku A Oyelami, Oluwagbemiga O Adeodu, Adekunle D Adekile
Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit optimally from comprehensive care. In Nigeria, despite the huge burden, involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in the management of SCD is poor. Methods: This community-based study assessed SCD-related knowledge of 182 CHWs from the 46 primary health care (PHC) centres in Ilesa, southwestern Nigeria. Available facilities and management practices for SCD care at these centres were also evaluated using pretested self-administered questionnaires and observational checklists...
March 22, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574535/epigenetics-of-skeletal-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Alvaro Del Real, Leyre Riancho-Zarrabeitia, Laura López-Delgado, José A Riancho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic mechanisms modify gene activity in a stable manner without altering DNA sequence. They participate in the adaptation to the environment, as well as in the pathogenesis of common complex disorders. We provide an overview of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in bone biology and pathology. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive evidence supports the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histone tails, and non-coding RNAs) in the differentiation of bone cells and mechanotransduction...
March 24, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#11
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571821/care-of-the-growth-restricted-newborn
#12
REVIEW
Bianca Carducci, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
With the first 1,000 days of life proving to be a critical window of opportunity for physical and cognitive growth and development, an optimal intrauterine environment is vital. If fetus needs are compromised prenatally, there is an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and infants being born premature, low birth weight (LBW), or small-for-gestational age (SGA). Specialized care of these high-risk infants is necessary in terms of preconception interventions, resuscitation, thermoregulation, nutritional support and kangaroo mother care...
February 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569357/postpartum-depressive-symptoms-gestational-weight-gain-as-a-risk-factor-for-adolescents-who-are-overweight-or-obese
#13
Shayna D Cunningham, Shilpa Mokshagundam, Hannah Chai, Jessica B Lewis, Jessica Levine, Jonathan N Tobin, Jeannette R Ickovics
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a risk factor for adverse physical health outcomes during pregnancy. Much less is known about the association between obesity and maternal mental health. Evidence suggests that prenatal depression is associated with excessive weight gain during pregnancy and that this relationship may vary according to pregravid body mass index (BMI). Young women may be particularly vulnerable to postpartum depression. The objective of this study is to examine the association between prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and postpartum depressive symptoms among adolescents...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551096/review-ontology-and-endocrinology-of-the-reproductive-system-of-bulls-from-fetus-to-maturity
#14
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545398/hormonal-and-nutritional-regulation-of-postnatal-hypothalamic-development
#15
REVIEW
Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah R Twigg, Sarah J Spencer
The hypothalamus is a key centre for regulation of vital physiological functions, such as appetite, stress responsiveness and reproduction. Development of the different hypothalamic nuclei and its major neuronal populations begins prenatally in both altricial and precocial species, with the fine tuning of neuronal connectivity and attainment of adult function established postnatally and maintained throughout adult life. The perinatal period is highly susceptible to environmental insults that, by disrupting critical developmental processes, can set the tone for the establishment of adult functionality...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542837/testicular-development-in-male-lambs-prenatally-exposed-to-a-high-starch-diet
#16
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529321/supplementing-goat-kids-with-coconut-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-early-life-influences-growth-and-rumen-papillae-development-until-4-months-after-supplementation-but-effects-on-in-vitro-methane-emissions-and-the-rumen-microbiota-are-transient
#17
S Debruyne, A Ruiz-González, E Artiles-Ortega, B Ampe, W Van Den Broeck, E De Keyser, L Vandaele, K Goossens, V Fievez
The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of pre- and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into 2 experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514118/long-term-effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-malnutrition-on-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-adulthood-evidence-from-the-chinese-famine-of-1959-1961
#18
Ping He, Gong Chen, Chao Guo, Xu Wen, Xinming Song, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959-1961 as a natural experiment. METHODS: We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511239/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-the-effect-of-maternal-habitual-dietary-patterns-on-human-amniotic-fluid-profile
#19
Maria Fotiou, Charalambos Fotakis, Foteini Tsakoumaki, Elpiniki Athanasiadou, Charikleia Kyrkou, Aristea Dimitropoulou, Thalia Tsiaka, Anastasia Chrysovalantou Chatziioannou, Kosmas Sarafidis, George Menexes, Georgios Theodoridis, Costas G Biliaderis, Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis, Apostolos P Athanasiadis, Alexandra-Maria Michaelidou
Maternal diet may influence offspring's health, even within well-nourished populations. Amniotic fluid (AF) provides a rational compartment for studies on fetal metabolism. Evidence in animal models indicates that maternal diet affects AF metabolic profile; however, data from human studies are scarce. Therefore, we have explored whether AF content may be influenced by maternal diet, using a validated food-frequency questionnaire and implementing NMR-based metabolomics. Sixty-five AF specimens, from women undergoing second-trimester amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis, were analysed...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491864/preterm-life-in-sterile-conditions-a-study-on-preterm-germ-free-piglets
#20
Alla Splichalova, Vera Slavikova, Zdislava Splichalova, Igor Splichal
Preterm infants born with immature organ systems, which can impede normal development, can also be highly sensitive to different biological and/or environmental factors. Animal models could aid in investigating and understanding the effects of different conditions on the health of these immunocompromised infants. The epitheliochorial placentation of the pig prevents the prenatal transfer of protective colostral immunoglobulins. Surgical colostrum-deprived piglets are free of maternal immunoglobulins, and the cells that are normally provided via colostrum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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