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Exercise and cognition

Inbal Maidan, Freek Nieuwhof, Hagar Bernad-Elazari, Bastiaan R Bloem, Nir Giladi, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Anat Mirelman
BACKGROUND: In a randomized control trial conducted in patients with Parkinson's disease, a treadmill training program combined with virtual reality that targeted motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation led to fewer falls, compared with treadmill training alone. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the 2 types of training differentially affected prefrontal activation and if this might explain differences in fall rates after the intervention. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with Parkinson's disease were randomized into the treadmill training arm (n = 34, mean age 73...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Hwan-Hee Kim, Nam-Hae Jung
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effects of combining exercise with a cognitive-enhancement group program on cognition and depression in a group of community-dwelling elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study's subjects consisted of 30 community-dwelling elderly people of both genders, whose average age was 78 years. They participated in a program of physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program. This consisted of sessions lasting 60 minutes that took place once a week over 3 months...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Ryutaro Matsugaki, Toru Akebi, Hideo Shitama, Futoshi Wada, Satoru Saeki
[Purpose] To verify the immediate effects of exercise therapy on cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in cancer patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen cancer patients who performed exercise therapy targeting a rating of 4 (somewhat strong) on the Borg category-ratio scale (CR-10) were enrolled. CRF was evaluated using the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS). CFS was evaluated in clinical practice immediately before and after exercise therapy on the 1st or 2nd day of physiotherapy for CRF management. CFS scores before and after exercise were compared to determine how CRF changed due to exercise therapy...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Sophie Bischoff, Gesine Wieder, Franziska Einsle, Moritz B Petzold, Christiane Janßen, Jennifer L M Mumm, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Thomas Fydrich, Jens Plag, Andreas Ströhle
Exposure-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (eb-CBT) represents the most evidence-based psychotherapeutic approach in anxiety disorders. However, its efficacy may be limited by a delay in onset of action and a substantial number of patients does not respond sufficiently to treatment. In this context, aerobic exercise was found to be effective in reducing clinical anxiety as well as to improve (elements of) disorder-specific CBT in some mental disorders. We therefore investigated the effect of aerobic exercise supplementary to an eb-CBT in panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Maria Luíza de Medeiros Rêgo, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
Heart Failure is a clinical syndrome prevalent throughout the world and a major contribution to mortality of cardiac patients in Brazil. In addition, this pathology is strongly related to cerebral dysfunction, with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Many mechanisms may be related to cognitive loss, such as cerebral hypoperfusion, atrophy and loss of gray matter of the brain, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The literature is clear regarding the benefits of aerobic physical activity in healthy populations in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and in brain functions...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Rachael S Allen, Adam M Hanif, Marissa A Gogniat, Brian C Prall, Raza Haider, Moe H Aung, Megan C Prunty, Lukas M Mees, Monica M Coulter, Cara T Motz, Jeffrey H Boatright, Machelle T Pardue
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. Treatment options for early retinopathy are sparse. Exercise protects dying photoreceptors in models of retinal degeneration, thereby preserving vision. We tested the protective effects of exercise on retinal and cognitive deficits in a Type 1 diabetes model and determined whether the TrkB pathway mediates this effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mark W Werneke, Susan Edmond, Michelle Young, David Grigsby, Brian McClenahan, Troy McGill
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiotherapy has an important role in managing patients with non-specific low back pain who experience elevated psychosocial distress or risk for chronic disability. In terms of evidence-based physiotherapy practice, cognitive-behavioural approaches for patients at high psychosocial risk are the recommended management to improve patient treatment outcomes. Evidence also suggests that directional preference (DP) is an important treatment effect modifier for prescribing specific exercises for patients to improve outcomes...
March 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
INTRODUCTION: A three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour emphasised the integration of distinct sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative dimensions that underpin perceived fatigability. This study aimed to capture the complex interdependencies and temporal dynamics in these processes, their interrelations with observed pacing behaviour, performance and biochemical variables as well as their performance level- and competition outcome-dependent variances...
March 12, 2018: Sports Medicine
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Arietta Spinou
Cough can be viewed as a continuum where extremes represent disease phenotypes. Under this unified concept, non-pharmacological treatment for the extremes of the cough spectrum includes both cough augmentation and cough control techniques. Supporting the cough motor output and exercising the cognitive control on coughing are the main directions of these techniques. Cough augmentation can be provided to patients who present low ability to generate adequate peak cough flows, with the aim to develop the sheering forces that are essential for effective airway clearance...
March 9, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Chia-Liang Tsai, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová, Ming-Chyi Pai
Although exercise is an effective way to decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, the biological basis for such benefits from the different exercise modes remains elusive. The present study thus aimed (i) to investigate the effects of acute aerobic or resistance exercise on neurocognitive performances and molecular markers when performing a cognitive task involving executive functioning in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and (ii) to explore relationships of acute exercise-induced neurocognitive changes with changes in circulating levels of neuroprotective growth factors (e...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lisa Engel, Adora Chui, Dorcas E Beaton, Robin E Green, Deirdre R Dawson
OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise the measurement property evidence (i.e., psychometric) for eight observation-based financial management assessment instruments. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched in May 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers used an independent decision-agreement process to select studies of measurement property evidence relevant to populations with adulthood acquired cognitive impairment, appraise the quality of the evidence, and extract data...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Luise Woost, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Marco Taubert, Robert Trampel, Christine L Tardif, Alexander Garthe, Gerd Kempermann, Ulrich Renner, Günter Stalla, Derek V M Ott, Viola Rjosk, Hellmuth Obrig, Arno Villringer, Elisabeth Roggenhofer, Tilmann A Klein
Physical exercise has been suggested to improve cognitive performance through various neurobiological mechanisms, mediated by growth factors such as BDNF, IGF-I, and VEGF. Moreover, animal research has demonstrated that combined physical and cognitive stimulation leads to increased adult neurogenesis as compared to either experimental condition alone. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether a sequential combination of physical and spatial training in young, healthy adults elicits an additive effect on training and transfer gains...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Franziska Nickel, Janina Barth, Peter L Kolominsky-Rabas
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to review the literature on trial-based economic evaluations of non-pharmacological interventions directly targeted at persons with dementia as well as persons with mild cognitive impairment and their respective caregivers. METHODS: A systematic literature research was conducted for the timeframe from 2010 to 2016 in the following databases: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EconLit, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and PubMed...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Jesús Cespón, Carlo Miniussi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari
A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease)...
March 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
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