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Exercise and cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926676/randomized-controlled-trial-of-increasing-physical-activity-on-objectively-measured-and-self-reported-cognitive-functioning-among-breast-cancer-survivors-the-memory-motion-study
#1
Sheri J Hartman, Sandahl H Nelson, Emily Myers, Loki Natarajan, Dorothy D Sears, Barton W Palmer, Lauren S Weiner, Barbara A Parker, Ruth E Patterson
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). At baseline and at 12 weeks, objective cognition was measured with the National Institutes of Health Cognitive Toolbox, and self-reported cognition using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scales...
September 19, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925334/comparative-patient-satisfaction-and-feasibility-of-a-pilot-parkinson-s-disease-enrichment-program
#2
Tabina K Choudhury, Celeste Harris, Kathleen Crist, Terry K Satterwhite, Michele K York
BACKGROUND: Available treatment options for Parkinson's disease (PD) are primarily aimed at pharmacological and/or neurosurgical management of motor symptoms. However, many patients also experience chronic non-motor symptoms (NMS), including significant cognitive and mood changes. Currently, there is a gap in the neuropsychological literature regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatment options for cognitive and mood changes in PD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the efficacy and patient satisfaction of a pilot nonpharmacological intervention for alleviating NMS in patients with PD...
September 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922936/the-effects-of-worry-and-relaxation-on-flexibility-during-cognitive-restructuring
#3
Elizabeth S Stevens, Alexander A Jendrusina, Alison C Legrand, Erica R Nahin, Michelle Goldwin Kaufman, Thomas D Borkovec, Evelyn Behar
Worry is associated with inflexibility in cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. In addition, worry's negative valence and abstract level of construal are rigid characteristics that contribute to its nonadaptive consequences. Relaxation and cognitive therapy aim to increase flexibility in chronic worriers, and may have greater efficacy when administered in combination. We examined the extent to which relaxation enhances and/or worry inhibits cognitive flexibility during a cognitive restructuring exercise in which participants generated alternative predictions for their worries...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919495/physical-exercise-and-cognitive-function-across-the-life-span-results-of-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#4
Beate Gaertner, Amanda K Buttery, Jonas D Finger, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Michael Wagner, Markus A Busch
OBJECTIVES: To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical exercise and cognitive function across different age groups in a nationwide population-based sample of adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. DESIGN: Cross-sectional/prospective. METHODS: Cognitive function was assessed in the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH, 2009-2012, n=3535), using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919388/altered-brain-functional-connectivity-induced-by-physical-exercise-may-improve-neuropsychological-functions-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy
#5
Gyan Raj Koirala, Dongpyo Lee, Soyong Eom, Nam-Young Kim, Heung Dong Kim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to elucidate alteration in functional connectivity (FC) in patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) as induced by physical exercise therapy and their correlation to the neuropsychological (NP) functions. METHODS: We analyzed 115 artifact- and spike-free 2-second epochs extracted from resting state EEG recordings before and after 5weeks of physical exercise in eight patients with BECTS. The exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (eLORETA) was used for source reconstruction...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#6
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918007/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-ability-on-the-learning-of-robot-assisted-surgical-skills
#7
Takashige Abe, Nicholas Raison, Nobuo Shinohara, M Shamim Khan, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. METHODS: A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917364/managing-childhood-and-adolescent-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-with-exercise-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Collin Yih Xian Ho, Hwei Wuen Chan, Bob Zheng Jie Yong, Wee-Song Yeo
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting some 8-10% of children worldwide. Increasing research has shed light on the life course of the disorder, suggesting that majority of children with ADHD will continue to have persistent symptoms into adulthood. The mainstay of ADHD management has been pharmacologic and behavioural/psychological interventions, with little attention paid to exercise as a potential management strategy...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915856/exercise-prescription-for-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-potential-benefits-and-practical-recommendations
#9
Farzin Halabchi, Zahra Alizadeh, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Maryam Abolhasani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse...
September 16, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914134/blunted-cerebrovascular-response-is-associated-with-elevated-beta-amyloid
#10
Jason-Flor V Sisante, Eric D Vidoni, Kiersten Kirkendoll, Jaimie Ward, Yumei Liu, Sarah Kwapiszeski, Rebecca Maletsky, Jeffrey M Burns, Sandra A Billinger
The goal of this study was to explore the association of beta-amyloid accumulation and cerebrovascular response (CVR) in cognitively normal older adults. Beta-amyloid accumulation was characterized with [18F] Florbetapir positron emission tomography scans. CVR was calculated as middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity change from rest to moderate intensity exercise. We found that individuals with elevated beta-amyloid aggregation had a blunted CVR ( n = 25, age 70.1 ± 4.8; 3.3 ± 3.7 cm/s) compared to non-elevated individuals ( n = 45, age 72...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912742/perception-action-and-cognition-of-football-referees-in-extreme-temperatures-impact-on-decision-performance
#11
Nadia Gaoua, Rita F de Oliveira, Steve Hunter
Different professional domains require high levels of physical performance alongside fast and accurate decision-making. Construction workers, police officers, firefighters, elite sports men and women, the military and emergency medical professionals are often exposed to hostile environments with limited options for behavioral coping strategies. In this (mini) review we use football refereeing as an example to discuss the combined effect of intense physical activity and extreme temperatures on decision-making and suggest an explicative model...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912091/is-hippocampal-neurogenesis-modulated-by-the-sensation-of-self-motion-encoded-by-the-vestibular-system
#12
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also...
September 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912076/positive-effects-of-combined-cognitive-and-physical-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
E G A Esther Karssemeijer, J A Justine Aaronson, W J Willem Bossers, T Tara Smits, M G M Marcel Olde Rikkert, R P C Roy Kessels
Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI or dementia. Ten randomized controlled trials that applied a combined cognitive-physical intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure were included. For each study effect sizes were computed (i.e., post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores) and pooled, using a random-effects meta-analysis...
September 11, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912012/the-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-depression-like-anxiety-like-and-cognition-like-behaviours-over-the-healthy-adult-lifespan-of-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy aging C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups...
September 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911867/population-dynamics-of-neural-progenitor-cells-during-aging-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Yuka Okada, Koji Ohira
Recent studies indicate that adult neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of rodents. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have been found in the adult cerebral cortex. These cells are expected to be regulated by various stimuli, including environmental enrichment, exercise, learning, and stress. However, it is unclear what stimuli can regulate cortical NPCs. In this study, we examined whether aging has an impact on population dynamics of NPCs in the murine cerebral cortex, using immunohistological staining for NPCs...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910193/lifestyle-markers-predict-cognitive-function
#16
Steven C Masley, Richard Roetzheim, Gwendolyn Clayton, Angela Presby, Kelley Sundberg, Lucas V Masley
OBJECTIVE: Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905640/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-exercise-and-psychotherapy-in-depression-the-speed-study-rationale-design-and-methodological-issues
#17
Stephan Heinzel, Michael A Rapp, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle, Christina Terán, Gunnar Kallies, Melanie Schwefel, Andreas Heissel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904793/relationship-between-engagement-and-level-of-functional-status-in-older-adults
#18
Thomas A Dombrowsky
Functional status is an important component of quality of life for older adults and for their caregivers. Factors associated with level of functional status include age, comorbidity, cognitive status, depression, social support, and activity. Of the types of activity linked with functional status, the strongest evidence is for physical exercise, with weaker evidence for social and productive activity. Engagement is a construct including motivation, commitment, and participation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether or not engagement is associated with level of functional status after controlling for age, comorbidity, and depression among older adults...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903738/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-physical-activity-with-individual-goal-setting-and-volunteer-mentors-to-overcome-sedentary-lifestyle-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-cognitive-decline-the-indigo-trial-protocol
#19
Kay L Cox, Elizabeth V Cyarto, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Kathryn A Ellis, Helman Alfonso, Linda Clare, Danny Liew, David Ames, Leon Flicker, Osvaldo P Almeida, Dina LoGiudice, Nicola T Lautenschlager
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity (PA) effectively in those who are inactive is challenging. For those who have subjective memory complaints (SMC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) this is a greater challenge necessitating the need for more engaging and innovative approaches. The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether a home-based 6-month PA intervention with individual goal-setting and peer mentors (GM-PA) can significantly increase PA levels in insufficiently active older adults at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901554/perspectives-of-a-tailored-lifestyle-program-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-receiving-housing-support
#20
Ylva Rönngren, Annette Björk, David Haage, Åsa Audulv, Lisbeth Kristiansen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the acceptability of the lifestyle program PHYS/CAT and to get information about the tools used for assessment of functional exercise capacity, cognitive performance, and self-health-related quality of life. DESIGN AND METHODS: The findings are based on focus groups and the researchers' experiences of conducting the program as well as using the assessment tools. FINDINGS: The acceptability of the program and the assessment tools was mainly satisfactory...
September 13, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
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